Browsing by Subject "yhteisvaikutus"

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  • Suomela, Essi (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Negative child-rearing environment has been associated with substance use in previous studies. Although, temperament has been shown to moderate the effects of parenting, only few studies have taken this into account when examining the relationship between family environment and substance use. Participants (n=1878; 56,8 % women) were selected from the longitudinal Young Finns study that began in 1980. The association between temperament trait emotionality and three child rearing attitudes dimensions (i.e., tolerance, significance and discipline) with alcohol consumption and smoking were examined using multinomial and logistic regression analysis. Higher emotionality and negative child rearing attitudes were associated with increased risk of smoking. Interaction between emotionality and tolerance was found: negative tolerance was associated with increased risk of drinking among boys who were high in emotionality. The results indicate that parenting has far-reaching consequences for substance use. The effect is partly moderated by emotionality, which helps to understand why people in the same kind of growth environment drift into different pathways.
  • Havia, Mari (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channel receptors which are widely distributed in human brain. nAChRs are often expressed pre-synaptically and they modulate the release of other neurotransmitters. nAChRs consist of five subunits: nine different subunits have been identified so far, forming multiple different nAChR subtypes with different pharmacological properties. nAChRs participate extensively in physiological functions and pathophysiological conditions. nAChRs mediate the effects of endogenous agonist, acetylcholine, as well as commonly used substance of abuse, nicotine. Addictive drugs such as nicotine and opioids cause adaptive changes in central nervous system. In addition to binding site of acetylcholine, various allosteric binding sites have been identified in nAChRs. Allosteric ligands are able to modulate the effect of agonist by binding to allosteric binding site. The aim of the experimental part of the pro gradu was to study in vitro interactions of nicotine and three different opioids, codeine, oxycodone and tramadol in SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells express endogenously α3* and α7-nAChRs. Binding assays were performed with radioactive ligand [3H]-epibatidine. Functional interactions of nicotine and the opioids were studied with 86Rb+- efflux assay. Codeine, oxycodone and tramadol exhibited receptor level interactions with nicotine in SH-SY5Y cells. Observed interactions were mediated by nAChRs. The opioids inhibited nAChR activation caused by nicotine without binding to the [3H]-epibatide binding site. Codeine, oxycodone and tramadol appear to affect as weak non-competitive antagonists of nAChRs. These results give further information of nicotine-opioid interactions at receptor level. There are indications that nicotine and opioids also have interactions in vivo, which may be partly explained with these receptor level interactions.