Browsing by Subject "yliopisto-opiskelu"

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  • Aalto, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives and method The aim of this qualitative study was to describe, analyze and interpret the experienced academic emotions of students during the university studies, as well as to describe how emotions are related to studying and study progress. The data was analysed through qualitative content analysis. The research was carried out as two separate interviews of five individual students from the Faculty of Humanities at the Helsinki University, the total number of interviews being ten. Two of the students had progressed faster than average in studies during their first year and the rest three were progressing slower than average during their first year. Based on previous studies (eg. Pekrun, 2006 Hailikari et al., 2015) it was to be expected that the academic achievement emotions play a central role in university studying. Results and conclusions The results showed that the emotional aspect of learning is important for successful learning. Students' descriptions revealed a wide range of emotional expressions in descriptions of emotions, moods and feelings. There was variation in how students described situation specific emotions (emotional states) and individual ways to approach emotions (emotional traits). In addition, elements which triggered emotions were identified, such as teaching or studying as an activity. From this data, it was not possible to distinguish a clear similarities or differences between the students who progressed fast in their studies and those who progressed slowly, although some differences between these different type of students could be detected. Students progressing slowly advanced students described that, for example, uncertainty and conflicting emotional experiences caused delay in their studies, though, the data is limited. Of the two fast progressing students only one clearly emphasized positive emotions. The result corresponded to the assumption that most of the negative and hinder study progression. In turn positive emotions are mainly connected to faster study pace and better study success (eg. Pekrun et al., 2002). Weak or neutral emotions also appeared in the data. Most clearly the emotions focused on studying, planning of studying and its contents, as well as to the results and achievement of studying and its guidance. The most positive emotions were expressed in relation to teaching, while uncertainty was mostly related to future career possibilities. Based on results, it is important to be aware of differences individual students' ways of experiencing and describing emotions.
  • Kauhanen, Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study examines university students experiences about the drama pedagogy in foreign language teaching. The study observes students experiences and thoughts about drama pedagogy in foreign language teaching at the university level. How student’s foreign language learning self-concept and student’s goal setting affects to the student’s choise to participate to the drama group at the university?
  • Koivunen, Tiia (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. The objective of this study was to find out from Helsinki university's master graduates about their experiences on generic skills, approaches to learning and the similarities of those two. The study sought to answer three questions: 1. What kinds of generic skills students feel they learned during their university studies? 2. What kinds of approaches to learning can be found from the graduates' studying descriptions? 3. What kinds of similarities are there in generic skills and approaches to learning? Similarities have only been studied in quantitative researches so there is a need for qualitative analysis. Methods. The data is a part of a dissertation research of Tarja Tuononen (University of Helsinki) and it was collected in the spring of 2013. The data consist of 10 interviews from students who have already graduated. All the interviewees worked while studying and most of them studied in generalistic fields. First two research questions were conducted with theory-bound content analyses. Top categories were created based on theory because full detachment from previous knowledge would have been difficult. The third research question was conducted on the basis of the results from two previous research questions. Results and conclusions. From the students' descriptions of generic skills, six top categories were separated. Some of those skills were divided into subcategories. Top category skills were knowledge processing, reflection, organization skills, thinking skills, argumentation and social skills. Some of the students felt like they had not learnt any generic skills when asked directly but as the interview progressed, some generic skills appeared. In the second face of the research, students' descriptions of approaches to learning were studied. Three top categories were created based on previous theory: deep approach, surface approach and organized studying. Especially deep approach and organized studying were visible in the interviews and descriptions of surface approach appeared in a few interviews. When examining the similarities between generic skills and approaches to learning especially deep approach and organized studying included similarities. Surface approach had little similarities with generic skills. It can be said based on this research that for example organization skill is nearly identical with organized studying, when examining students' descriptions on both dimensions. Additionally, the descriptions of thinking skills and the descriptions of deep approach included many similarities. Social skills and argumentation from the generic skills did not contain similarities with approaches to learning in this study. It can be said on the basis of the analyses that generic skills and approaches to learning have some similarities but this topic needs to be further researched qualitatively underlining individual profiles.
  • Vattuaho, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this study is to show how university students in humanities talk about their interest in disciplinary choices and studies at their first academic year. The research questions examine which narratives university students in humanities use in talking about their choices. Also, the role of the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in three identified narratives of 1) interestingness 2) self-regulation and 3) profession is investigated. This study shows how students used these narratives in terms of time perspective: past, presence and future when talking about their interest in their discipline. By recognizing the power of interest of humanities students it is possible to see what we can learn from academically motivated students. As a result of these three identified narratives and their temporal aspect, we can note that the interest development of humanities students often seems to have a long history in the past before they entered their academic studies. Humanities students seem to own strong interpersonal skills and they use their strong intrinsic motivation and interest as a resource to proceed in their studies despite the uncertain future employment goals. The results also show that these students operate in the middle of the academic freedom with multiple choices and often lack a clear view about the future employment of their field after graduation. Also extrinsic motivation in disciplinary choices was used to ensure a safer path into the labour market. A strong personal strong trust to future and personal interest experience was found to be a key resource in the students with well -developed interes. These narratives of student interests give tools to the student guidance to understand humanities students who often seem to have well developed individual interest about their disciplinary choice already in the beginning of their academic studies. This study also agrees with the previous result about the importance of student guidance and student support throughout the university studies. Qualitative content analysis was applied in the study. Instead of using narrative analysis in the traditional way, the “mini-narratives” were identified and explored to capture qualitative understanding about the role of interest in the first year. Temporality in relation to identified narratives of interest offers wider understanding about the interest development during the university studies The data collection was executed by Dr. Johanna Mikkonen in 2006 as she interviewed university students in humanities as part of her doctoral dissertation “Interest in university studies. Its role and relation to motivational variables”. In the future it would be interesting to examine whether these identified narratives change or develop within the university studies and how after intervention to improve student support services.
  • Nurttila, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    In today's society it is desirable to be successful and continuously progressive. At the same time it is seen important to focus on one's well-being and seeking optimal experiences. In studying, the interaction between motivation and well-being as well as the importance of positive learning experiences is an actual entirety. Taking students conceptions of learning and knowledge into account brings in a richer perspective that has been less frequently studied. Conceptions of learning and knowledge, otherwise epistemologies, are crucial in governing student's ways of interpreting and evaluating information, as well as their view on the learning process. An important recent insight on the field of educational research is the growing idea that motivational, emotional and cognitive dimensions are not only intrinsically significant, but also in intense interaction with each other and with the learning environment. The aim of this study was to investigate what kinds of motivational factors and problems in well-being do novice students experience in their studies, and also what their epistemologies are like. The approach was person-oriented. Motivational factors were: experienced challenge and competence, thinking strategies and attributions, and study engagement. Problems in well-being were measured through emotional dimension (stress, exhaustion) on the one hand, and through motivational dimension (lack of interest, task avoidance) on the other. Epistemologies measured in this study were: collaborative knowledge building, reflective learning, metacognition, certainty of knowledge and practical value. The data (n=785) were collected in spring and autumn 2012 by using a questionnaire developed by RYM Indoor Environment project. The participants were first and second year students from Aalto university of Technology and four departments in University of Helsinki: Department of Teacher education, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Theology, and Faculty of Law. K-means cluster analysis was used for clustering students into homogenous groups that presented their experienced motivational factors. To see whether the groups differed in terms of problems in well-being or epistemologies, Oneway analysis of variance was conducted. Also potential differences in certain background variables were investigated by using crosstabs (gender, study discipline) and Kruskal-Wallis test (age). Three studying profiles were identified: 1) pessimistic, 2) bored, 3) engaged. Pessimistic students reported the lowest study engagement, optimism and competence and the highest task avoidance and problems in well-being. They valued certain knowledge the most. Bored students experienced the lowest challenge, quite low study engagement and moderate optimism, competence and lack of interest. They reported the lowest practical value of knowledge. Engaged students had the highest study engagement, optimism and competence, lowest task avoidance and the least problems in well-being. They valued collaborative knowledge building, reflective learning and metacognition the most. There were not found gender differences between the studying profiles. Instead, it turned out that pessimistic students were the youngest. When comparing different study disciplines, the results indicated that in the Department of Teacher education, as well as in the Faculties of Law and Theology, the largest section of participants was identified as engaged students. Among participants from Aalto university and the Department of Chemistry, the largest section was identified as pessimistic students. This study demonstrates the idea of the dynamic interplay between motivational, emotional and cognitive dimensions in studying. In conclusion, students personal motivational factors, well-being and epistemologies form unique entireties. It can be deduced on the basis of earlier research, that these entireties are of utmost importance regarding studying and can be either worthwhile or detrimental to it. In the future, more proof is needed about the concrete relations and potential effects on study success, for example, as supporting successful studying and graduating on schedule are topical politico-educational subjects in Finland. Also little is known about the relations between well-being and epistemologies. The results of this study could be utilized in developing and designing higher education.
  • Ketonen, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Previous studies indicate that positive learning experiences are related to academic achievement as well as to well-being. On the other hand, emotional and motivational problems in studying may pose a risk for both academic achievement and well-being. Thus, emotions and motivation have an increasing role in explaining university students learning and studying. The relations between emotions, motivation, study success and well-being have been less frequently studied. The aim of this study was to investigate what kind of academic emotions, motivational factors and problems in studying students experienced five days before an exam of an activating lecture course, and the relations among these factors as well as their relation to self-study time and study success. Furthermore, the effect of all these factors on well-being, flow experience and academic achievement was examined. The term academic emotion was defined as emotion experienced in academic settings and related to studying. In the present study the theoretical background to motivational factors was based on thinking strategies and attributions, flow experience and task value. Problems in studying were measured in terms of exhaustion, anxiety, stress, lack of interest, lack of self-regulation and procrastination. The data were collected in December 2009 in an activating educational psychology lecture course by using a questionnaire. The participants (n=107) were class and kindergarten teacher students from the University of Helsinki. Most of them were first year students. The course grades were also gathered. Correlations and stepwise regression analysis were carried out to find out the factors that were related to or explained study success. The clusters that presented students' problems in studying as well as thinking strategies and attributions, were found through hierarchical cluster analysis. K-means cluster analysis was used to form the final groups. One-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test and crosstabs were conducted to see whether the students in different clusters varied in terms of study success, academic emotions, task value, flow, and background variables. The results indicated that academic emotions measured five days before the exam explained about 30 % of the variance of the course grade; exhaustion and interest positively, and anxiety negatively. In addition, interest as well as the self-study time best explained study success on the course. The participants were classified into three clusters according to their problems in studying as well as their thinking strategies and attributions: 1) ill-being, 2) carefree, and 3) committed and optimistic students. Ill-being students reported most negative emotions, achieved the worst grades, experienced anxiety rather than flow and were also the youngest. Carefree students, on the other hand, expressed the least negative emotions and spent the least time on self-studying, and like committed students, experienced flow. In addition, committed students reported positive emotions the most often and achieved the best grades on the course. In the future, more in-depth understanding how and why especially young first year students experience their studying hard is needed, because early state of the studies is shown to predict later study success.
  • Keso, Kaj (2002)
    The subject of the study is to examine knowing in social contexts. Knowing is contextualized in social situations in which knowledge is considered to have an significant role. College students' (N = 123) conceptions of knowledge and knowing are studied from two theoretical perspectives: 1) subjects' implicit epistemologies are analyzed in the cognitive-developmental framework, according to the Reflective Judgment Model of Kitchener and King, 2) analysis of subjects' descriptions of disagreement situations with academic experts (lecturer, professor etc.), with other professional experts or specialists (physician, lawyer etc.), and with friends, is based on a qualitative data-generated classification, and on a broad theoretical interpretation of conversation as a system of social interaction (Myllyniemi). College students were selected subjects of the study on the basis that in higher education one important goal is to help students understand the nature, limits, and the certainty of knowledge. In addition, previous studies have shown that the implicit epistemologies of students can develop substantially during the college years. The empirical material of the study was collected with a semi-structured questionnaire with open-ended questions. One of the starting points of the study was the idea that the situations, in which knowing takes place, are relational. Moreover, it was presumed that the nature of social relations (formal vs. informal, task-oriented vs. socio-emotional) would direct one's orientation in an interaction situation. In this study knowing is contextualized in disagreement situations, in which people are assumed to pay particular attention to the validity and truthfulness of one's claims and opinions. The concept of 'knowing' is approached from two perspectives. First, when contextualized in an interaction situation, the question is addressed, is knowledge a product of a single epistemic perspective or a product of the fullest range of epistemic perspectives in an interaction situation. This perspective is called the epistemic dimension of knowledge. Secondly, it will be explored, how do the participants of an interaction situation express their views and opinions. This perspective is called the intersubjective dimension of knowledge. According to the results, a conversational process, which is open to divergent viewpoints, and developing towards a mutually accepted shared perspective, seemed to be a mode of interaction, which served best the achievement of knowledge and truth, at least in ill-structured problems. Compromising and agreeing to disagree were also considered as solutions, in which the participants respected each other's opposing views, and where the participants tried to cooperate to resolve the problem. Accepting the other participant's view was also conceived as a solution based on argumentative judgments, but, on the other hand, as an inactive solution, which was based in relying on received knowledge. Complying and un-compromising were solutions, in which other circumstances - mainly personal, attitudinal, and behavioural standpoints - seemed to be more decisive than the participants' epistemological stances. When the relational contexts were compared, the results indicated that a feeling of ignorance and avoiding argumentative situations were typical in academic context. Silence and showing respect to epistemic authorities were typical in expert situations. With friends, on the contrary, managing conflict situations seemed to be easier and less distressed. Friends seemed to be more ready to engage in verbal debate on controversial issues than in formal relations. On the other hand, a controversy with friends calls also sensitivity and alertness because of the expectable negative emotional climate. The differences between the subjects' implicit epistemologies and the resolutions of conflict situations were not significant. The most important sources are Pirttilä-Backman (1990, 1991a, 1991b, 1993, 1994), King & Kitchener (1994), Myllyniemi (1986, 1990), and also the literature of epistemology, expertise, and higher education.
  • Pirkkamaa, Ilmari (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Tämä tutkimus selvittää, miten yliopisto-opiskelu vaikutti nuorten miesten aikuistumisprosessiin Yhdysvaltain Etelässä vuosina 1820-1860. Lähdeaineistona toimivat kaksi lähdekokoelmaa, jotka sisältävät Pohjois-Carolinan yliopiston opiskelijoiden kirjeitä, päiväkirjamerkintöjä, akateemisia tekstejä, heidän vanhempiensa kirjeitä, yliopiston henkilökunnan tekstejä sekä dokumentteja yliopiston toimintaan littyen tutkimusperiodin ajalta. Käyttämäni tutkimuskirjallisuus koostuu Yhdysvaltain intellektuellien historiaa, korkeakouluhistoriaa, klassismia, Etelän kulttuurihistoriaa ja Etelän opiskelijoiden historiaa tutkivista teoksista. Yhdysvaltain eteläiset osavaltiot (Etelä), joissa orjuus oli laillista, muodostivat tutkimusperiodin aikana pohjoisiin osavaltiohin (Pohjoinen) verrattaessa kulttuurisesti ja yhteiskunnallisesti omaleimaisen alueen. Etelän yläluokan arvomaailman pohjana toimivat miesten välinen kunniakoodi ja klassinen tasavaltalaisuus. Yläluokka halusi muodostaa työnteosta ja henkilökohtaisista intresseistä vapaan yhteiskunnallisen johtajaluokan, jonka jäsenet olivat sidottuina toisiinsa kunniakoodin kautta. Kunniakoodissa korostuivat itsenäisyys, kyky hallita, klassinen sivistys, sosiaalisuus, luotettavuus ja kyky suojella lähipiiriä. Vuosina 1820-1860 Yhdysvaltain korkeakoulujärjestelmä oli muutospaineiden alla. Erityisesti Pohjoisen demokraatit halusivat yliopistojen keskittyvän utlititarismin hengessä luonnontieteisiin ja kouluttavan enemmän ihmisiä eri tuloluokista. Etelässä klassikkoteosten lukemiseen perustuva opetussuunnitelma oli yläluokan ja intellektuellien piirissä arvostettu, koska sen katsottiin parhaiten valmistavan klassista tasavaltaa yhteiskunnan johtotehtäviin. Etelän yliopistojen opetussuunnitelma ei muuttunut radikaalisti. Aikuistumisprosessilla takoitetaan sitä kehitystä, jonka aikana lapsista kasvaa yhteiskunnan silmissä aikuisia. Opiskeluaikanaan nuoret miehet sisäistivät yhteiskuntansa arvomaailman perustan ja loivat uusia sosiaalisia suhteita kanssaopiskelijoihinsa. Opiskelijat jakoivat henkilökunnan kanssa tavoitteen klassisesta sivistyksestä, mutta kyseenalaistivat toistuvasti henkilökunnan auktoriteetin. Konfliktin taustalla oli kunniakoodi, joka perustui vertaisarviointiin. Nuoret miehet hakivat jatkuvasti paikkaansa sisäisessä hierarkiassaan ja kokivat ulkopuoliset auktoriteetit uhakana. Yliopiston henkilökunnan auktoriteetti nähtiin usein perusteettomana. Nuoret miehet omaksuivat arvostetun klassisen sivistyksen ja tutustuivat oman luokkansa jäseniin, joiden kanssa heidän olisi tulevaisuudessa määrä osallistua yhteiskunnan hallitsemiseen. He oppivat akateemisten taitojen lisäksi sosiaalisia taitoja, joita olisi ollut vaikea muuten hankkia harvaan asutussa ja sosiaaliselta liikkuvuudeltaan staattisessa Etelässä. Yliopisto-opiskelun myötä opiskelijat arvottivat sivistyksen korkealle kunniallisen miehen ominaisuuksissa, minkä ansiosta myös keskiluokkaisilla alumneilla oli tulevaisuudessa paremmat mahdollisuudet kuulua yläluokan miesten vertaisverkostoon.
  • Pulkkinen, Ulla (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. The aim of the current study was to explore whether there are temperament traits characteristic to those applying and those selected to study in classroom teacher education. Temperament refers to the biological, relatively stable core of personality, which emerges early in life and manifests as differences in styles of functioning and reacting to emotional stimuli. Temperament has been found to be associated with physical as well as psychological well-being and to affect educational and occupational career. Temperament has also been found to be associated with adjustment in school as well as academic achievement in all educational levels. Although associations between teachers' core traits and various outcomes have been found, so far, the study on temperament traits characteristic to teachers has been scarce. Methods. The study was conducted by assessing the EAS -temperament traits of individuals applying to classroom teacher education program at the University of Helsinki (N = 1035) and considering the traits as predictors of applying and being selected to the program. Roughly representative Finnish population estimates were used as a reference. The effects of age, gender, parental SES and previous academic achievement were controlled for, as these have been found to have associations with educational career. Results and conclusions. Applicants to teacher education scored higher on sociability and lower on emotionality than the reference group. Also teacher candidates were higher on sociability and lower on emotionality than the reference group. These differences remained relatively unchanged after controlling for potential confounders, after which teacher applicants also scored lower on activity than the reference group. No differences in temperament were observed between teacher candidates and those applicants not selected to teacher education. Based on the results of this study, it can be suggested, that as a group applicants to teacher education and teacher candidates have distinctive temperament profile. This might have concrete, positive as well as negative outcomes, that should be taken into account in teacher education and when discussing teacher well-being. The differences were caused by characteristics of individuals choosing to apply to classroom teacher education in the first place. More research is needed to clarify the role of temperament in well-being and achievement in teacher education as well as in teachers' occupation.
  • Alavilo, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Previous studies have shown that both self-regulated learning and cognitive-attributional strategies are related to academic success and proceeding in studies. It seems that student's skills in self-regulation could be weaker in the beginning of studies in higher education rather than in the master degree studies. However there is still too little information regarding different phases of studies. In this study my intention was to investigate the self-regulation skills and cognitive-attributional strategies of students in the faculty of humanities. My focus was in two type of study phase that is bachelor students whose studies are delayed compared to how they should have proceeded. And another group was students in master degree. I also used cluster analysis in order to form student profiles based on their values on self-regulation and cognitive-attributional strategies. My interest was also to find out how masters and bachelors were situated in these profiles. Each profiles study success was evaluated according to GPA. The questionnaire and given data was produced by The Helsinki University Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education along with the Faculty of Humanities in the University of Helsinki. The questionnaire included statements regarding self-regulated learning and cognitive-attributional strategies. There is no statistically significant difference in self-regulated learning between masters and bachelors. However masters seem to use more optimistic strategy and less self-handicapping strategy compared to bachelors. Following profiles were based on self-regulated learning and cognitive-attributional strategies: A) Task avoidant and skillful students in self-regulation B) Optimistic and skillful students in self-regulation C) Optimistic and students who have weak skills in self-regulation and D) Task avoidant and students who have weak skills in self-regulation. The majority of masters situated in profile B and majority of bachelors situated in profile A. According to results in this study students in profile B were most successful in their studies and less successful were students in profile D. Using optimistic strategy does not compensate the lack of skills in self-regulation and on the other hand those who have good skills in self-regulation don't seem to have best benefit from them if they use self-handicapping strategy and not optimistic strategy. Support should be focused not only in improving skills in self-regulation but also in helping those students who seem to use self-handicapping strategy even though they would have good skills in self-regulation.
  • Teräväinen, Milja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. The purpose of the study was to examine approaches to learning, study burnout and the relationship between these two in first-year university students. There has been found three types of approaches to learning: deep, surface and organized. Study burnout usually develops through three stages: exhaustion, cynicism and inadequacy. Methods. The data were collected with the HowULearn tool for learning by the Center for University Teaching and Learning. The participants (n=203) were first-year students of social sciences at the University of Helsinki. Cluster analysis was used for clustering students into learning profiles by their approaches to learning. Independent-Samples T Test was used to examine the differences in approaches to learning between female and male students. Study burnout was analyzed by means and the differences between female and male students by using the Mann-Whitney U Test. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze the relationship between approaches to learning and study burnout. Results and Conclusions. Four student profiles with different approaches to learning were identified: deep, surface, dissonant and non-organized deep approach. Students identified with dissonant profile scored high in all of the approaches to learning. Study burnout among students was low. Female students tended to experience more burnout than male. Students identified with surface approach profile experienced more burnout than all the other students and students identified with deep approach profile experienced less burnout. The importance of organized learning was clear examining the deep approach profiles. Students identified with non-organized deep approach profile experienced more burnout. Results concerning surface approach profile were in line with this result. Organized profile was missing among these profiles. That might be due to the fact that studying in this field is quite uncontrolled. The group of dissonant profile was the biggest group of all which might be because the participants were first-year students and they might not be familiar with their own studying methods yet. Female students are prone to experience more stress and fear of failure and that might cause them to experience more burnout as well. Surface approach has been known to cause more stress and lead to weaker academic achievements and that might cause the students identified with surface approach profile to experience more burnout.
  • Kantola, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out the approaches to learning of students graduating with a bachelor's degree in military sciences (SK) and the factors burdening their studies at the National Defense University (MPKK). This subject has not been previously studied in the context of officer training. Previous researches in other disciplines have shown that approaches are linked to different areas of learning and learning can be used to identify groups that need research data to support them. The research problems were: 1. What kind of learning approaches SK students used, whether they were connected to each other and what kind of profiles emerged from the material, 2. How learning approaches differed according to different background variables and 3. What environmental variables cause workload in their studies. The study aims to make visible groups in different situations with different approaches to learning and workload in environmental variables. Methods. All three classes participated in the study. The questionnaire was collected using a quantitative questionnaire and was analyzed by quantitative methods. A total of 413 students responded to the survey. Factor analysis and k-cluster analysis were used as analysis methods to group respondents into profiles based on approaches. The relationship between the approaches was examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the differences between the profiles and the environmental variables were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results and conclusions. SK students emphasized the most to the deep approach, then the organised and least unreflective approach. There was also a negative statistically significant association between the unreflective and deep approaches. Based on the approaches, four different profiles emerged from the data: unorganised deep, dissonant, deep organised and unreflective. According to the background variables and the environmental variables, the differences in approaches were reflected in the profile representation. Statistically significant differences in workload by profile were found in the schedules for completing assignments, written assignments, exam preparation, and group work. The results can be utilized in MPKK's curriculum work, teaching development and student support.
  • Määttä, Saku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Given the rise in prevalence of stress, lack of time management skills and prolonged graduations among university students, promoting student’s well-being and study practices has become very important. While psychological flexibility a.k.a. dealing with all kinds of emotions and being present in the moment has proven to increase sense of well-being and lower stress among working adults, it has not been widely explored in the university context. Along with psychological flexibility, organised studying has been found to be an important factor in relation to academic achievement, study progress and well-being among university students. The purpose of this study is to explore development of psychological flexibility and organised studying in relation to stress, well-being and studying. Total of 106 university students took part in a web-based course aimed at promoting university students’ well-being, stress management skills, psychological flexibility and organised studying. Development of the items were measured by self-report questionnaires in the beginning and in the end of the course. Additionally, a learning report (n=86) was conducted by the students at the end of the course where the students reflected on their development regarding general well-being, studying and learning during the course. Student’s scores improved quantitatively across all the measured dimensions during the course. Mean scores on psychological flexibility, organised studying and sense of well-being increased and the scores regarding stress reduced. The results are in line with the qualitative analysis, in which students report that they learned to organise their studying and use skills related to psychological flexibility in various ways in studying context. The results imply that a web-based course which is aimed to improve student’s psychological flexibility and organised studying would also improve the student’s sense of well-being and reduce stress in their studies.
  • Keso, Kaj (2001)
    Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan vuorovaikutustilanteita, joissa tiedolla on tärkeä asema. Ihmisten suhdetta tietoon ja tietämiseen lähestytään tutkimuksessa kahdelta suunnalta: a) tutkittavien implisiittisiä tietokäsityksiä arvioidaan kognitiivis-kehityksellisestä näkökulmasta Kingin ja Kitchenerin reflektiivisen ajattelun mallin avulla. b) selvitetään, miten tietoon liittyvää erimielisyyttä on käsitelty vastaajien kuvaamissa arkielämän tilanteissa yliopistolla työskentelevän asiantuntijan (esim. opettajan), yliopiston ulkopuolella työskentelevän asiantuntijan (esim. lääkäri) ja ystävän kanssa. Tutkimuksen lähtökohtana oli ajatus, että tilanteet, joissa 'tietäminen tapahtuu', liittyvät sosiaalisiin suhteisiin ja että sosiaalisen suhteen luonne (virallinen/epävirallinen, tehtäväkeskeinen/sosio-emotionaalinen) voi säädellä vuorovaikutusta. Tietämistä tarkastellaan erimielisyystilanteissa eli tilanteissa, joissa ihmisten oletetaan kiinnittävän erityistä huomiota toistensa näkemysten pätevyyteen tai totuudellisuuteen. Tutkimuksen kohteeksi valittiin opiskelijoita, koska yliopistossa tai korkeakoulussa opiskelevien voidaan ajatella joutuvan pohtimaan tiedon luonnetta koskevia kysymyksiä. Tietämisellä tarkoitetaan tutkimuksessa sitä, 1) kuinka yksipuolisesti tai monipuolisesti näkemyksiä tuodaan vuorovaikutustilanteessa esiin (episteeminen ulottuvuus) ja sitä, 2) miten osapuolet tuovat erimielisyystilanteessa esiin omia näkemyksiään ja miten he suhtautuvat toistensa esittämiin näkemyksiin (intersubjektiivinen ulottuvuus). Kvalitatiivisen analyysin tuloksena jäsentyneet erimielisyystilanteiden ratkaisutavat voidaan tiivistäen kuvata seuraavasti: Erilaisia näkökantoja salliva ja yhteiseen näkemykseen pyrkivä keskustelu näyttää parhaiten edistävän tiedon ja totuuden tavoittelua. Myös kompromissi ja sovittu erimielisyys voidaan nähdä ratkaisutapoina, joita luonnehtii osapuolten aktiivinen pyrkimys yhteistyöhön asian ratkaisemiseksi. Näkemyksen hyväksymistä voi myös pitää argumenttikeskeisenä, mutta toisaalta passiivisena ja vastaanottavana tietämisenä. Myöntymiselle ja peräänantamattomalle erimielisyydelle oli tyypillistä, että muut seikat, lähinnä osapuolten suhtautumiseen ja tilanteeseen liittyvät tekijät nousivat tietämistä määräävämpään asemaan. Kun tarkasteltiin eri vuorovaikutuskonteksteja, tunne omasta tietämättömyydestä ja argumentoivien keskustelujen välttäminen kuvasivat leimallisella tavalla opiskelijan ja yliopisto-opettajan välistä vuorovaikutussuhdetta. Suhtautuminen asiantuntijoiden tiedolliseen auktoriteettiin näytti olevan aineiston perusteella pikemminkin vaikenevaa ja kunnioittavaa kuin kriittistä ja kyseenalaistavaa. Ystävien kanssa toisaalta uskalletaan olla avoimesti eri mieltä, toisaalta ystävyyssuhde vaatii jatkuvaa valppautta ja mukautuvuutta ystävyyssuhteen säilyttämiseksi. Tärkeimmät lähteet: Pirttilä-Backman (1990, 1991a, 1991b, 1993, 1994), King & Kitchener (1994) ja Myllyniemi (1986, 1990) sekä epistemologiaa, asiantuntijuutta ja yliopisto-opiskelua käsittelevä lähdekirjallisuus.
  • Välimäki, Vesa; Ranta, Mette Aino Maria; Grönlund, Henrietta; Junttila, Niina; Pessi, Anne Birgitta (2018)
  • Toivonen, Mirva (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives. The study focused on exploring the different work life orientations adopted by the master students upon their graduation. Also the change in the students' orientations within the first few years in the working life was analyzed. While earlier research has focused more on labour markets' and higher education institutes' perspectives, this study is highlighting the perspective of an individual and the changes that occur within the orientations adapted by the participants after making the transition into the work life. This study utilizes Tomlinson's (2007) and Penttilä's (2009) model of students' work life orientations. The following research questions were addressed: 1) what kinds of work life orientations do the graduate students have towards the end of their studies? 2) How has the work life orientations changed within the first few years spent in the working life? 3) How is the different work life orientations connected to occupational health in the current position? Methods. The study was carried out by using longitudinal multimethod approach. The data were collected with questionnaires and interviews. The questionaire data was collected by Pyhältö & Löfström during the 2012 – 2013 academic year. The follow up data was collected by phone interviews in the fall of 2014. The study subjects had participated in the Helsinki University's group mentoring program in the academic year 2012 – 2013. The participants had different majors, and they were from different faculty's. Directed content analysis was utilized in the data analyzing process. Results. The results showed that the majority of university students' had adopted positive orientation towards work life transitions, and perceived themselves as active academic agents. Also association between negative orientation towards work life transitions, and reduced levels of academic agency was detected. Within the first few years after work life transitions, students' work life orientations had changed typically towards more positive orientation. The different work life orientations were not connected to the experienced occupational health in terms of work stress. Instead, the levels of work related stress were connected to how satisfied a person was for their career progress. The results imply that the higher education institutes should put more emphasis on ways to facilitate students' identity as academic experts already during their university studies.