Browsing by Subject "young people"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 20
  • Katainen, Anu; Lehto, Anna-Sofia; Maunu, Antti (2015)
    The article explores how young people understand the risks of alcohol use and how these understandings are associated with differing drinking situations and social settings. By taking account of situational factors, the aim is to demonstrate how young people have highly nuanced notions of drinking styles that suit different drinking situations and of associated risks. The data for the research were gathered in 18 group interviews with Finnish ninth graders aged 14-15 years. Short film clips portraying young people in different drinking situations were used as stimulus material for the interviews. Data analysis focussed on the risk factors related to the social situations illustrated in the film clips. The results show that young people's risk assessments are not based on alcohol itself, but the magnitude of risk is estimated in relation to the social setting of the drinking situation. What is relevant for young people is whether the social situation allows them to make choices with which they feel comfortable. At the opposite pole of problem drinking was social drinking for the purpose of having fun together with other people in such a way that one remains in control of the drinking situation. From a prevention point of view, a key implication is that awareness of the risks is closely associated with situational and social factors. However, the awareness of those risks does not necessarily prevent young people from drinking because they may be accepted as part of the drinking experience.
  • Kauppinen, Timo M. (2004)
    Tutkimuksia - Helsingin kaupungin tietokeskus ; 2004:6
    Neighbourhood and family background effects on the secondary education of young people in Helsinki The objective of this study was to find out, how neighbourhood and family characteristics affected young people's completion of secondary education in Helsinki in the 1990's. In addition, effects of school grades and of a number of school characteristics were analysed. Individual-level register-based data compiled by Statistics Finland and neighbourhood-level statistics were used as data. The main individual-level data set represented the young people in Helsinki being in the age of finishing the comprehensive school in the years 1991 - 95, and it had 10,906 cases. The completion of secondary education and the type of completed education were under explanation, the types being upper secondary school and vocational school. Statistical modelling was used as the method of the study, multi-level logistic regression being the type of model applied. Family background had strong effects on the completion of secondary education and especially on the type of completed education. Parental education was a particularly strong background factor. A large share of the family-background effect was mediated by the grades of the final report of the comprehensive school, which had strong effects. Both the family background and the grades also had independent effects on completion of secondary education and on the type of completed education. There were clear differences between neighbourhoods in the proportion of young people who completed secondary education and in the proportions of different types of education. When explaining the completion of secondary education, these differences were explained by differing family backgrounds of young people. Neighbourhoods were not found to have effects on the completion of secondary education. However, when explaining the type of completed education, the between-neighbourhood variation was not explained completely when the differing family backgrounds were taken into account. Of the neighbourhood characteristics under analysis, the educational structure of the neighbourhood population had the strongest effects. In neighbourhoods with a high educational level, the finishing of upper secondary school was more common than in average neighbourhoods also after taking the neighbourhood differences in family backgrounds into account. In contrast, neighbourhoods with a low educational level did not deviate from the average neighbourhoods in their effects. Therefore, the effect of the educational structure was nonlinear. On school grades neighbourhoods did not have effects. The explanatory power of the neighbourhood's educational structure was much weaker than that of the family background in regard to the individual-level variation, but it explained well the between-neighbourhood variation remaining after taking the family backgrounds into account. Effects of school characteristics were analysed with data representing those young people in Helsinki who finished the comprehensive school in the years 1995 - 98. It was found that the socioeconomic composition of the comprehensive school affected the type of educational career that was started. This school effect mediated the observed effect of the educational structure of the neighbourhood population. Also the explanatory power of the school effect was much weaker than that of the family background. The results show, in accordance with earlier studies, that schooling outcomes are associated with family background. This study showed also, that the neighbourhood and the pupil composition of the school have some significance regarding the post-comprehensive school career. The most disadvantaged neighbourhoods were not found to have effects, however. This may be partly because of the housing policy practiced in Helsinki, which has aimed to prevent spatial segregation and has therefore contributed in preventing extreme spatial concentration of disadvantage.
  • Poikolainen, Janne (2022)
    Young people have rarely been studied in the field of second-home research as active subjects, although they play an influential part in contemporary second-home tourism. Based on semi-structured interviews, this study seeks to address the scholarly gap in the existing literature by analysing the experiences of, and attitudes towards, second-home living among 12- to 17-year-old second-home dwellers vacationing in Mantyharju, Finland. The study focuses on the second-home environment as a hybrid space enabling young cottagers to combine elements of a traditionalist lifestyle, outdoor recreation, and late modern technoscape in pursuit of pleasurable and restorative leisure. The findings suggest that young second-home dwellers see outdoor activities and rich natural surroundings, as well as intense familial communality and selected aspects of simple living, as the basis of an enjoyable second-home experience. At the same time, they complement these elements with the active use of mobile and entertainment technology, seeking a satisfying balance between the exotic and the ordinary. The results show that studying young second-home dwellers offers fresh new perspectives not only on second-home tourism and its ongoing changes but also on the leisure preferences of late modern youth in general.
  • Granholm, Camilla (2016)
    This article presents a qualitative study of ICT use among Finnish young people attending training programmes for youth outside employment and education. The data come from six focus group interviews and three individual interviews, as well as a single focus group interview with involved supervisors. The data was analyzed using McQuail's (1983) theory regarding the motives for individual media use. The results show that the young people use ICT primarily for entertainment, but their use is diverse. Young people choose the tools and dimensions for interaction that best fulfill their needs, blending together ingredients from both online and offline sources. Unlike previous research, young people in this study stated that they prefer talking to someone face-to-face about severe (health-related or emotional) problems. If social and youth services want to meet young people on their own terms, both online and offline services are needed.
  • Törrönen, Lea Maritta; Munn-Giddings, Carol; Gavriel, Chrissie; Morris, Demi (2018)
    How to ensure young adults are active partners in society is an issue across Europe. This issue has a particular relevance for young adults leaving the care system who may have been disadvantaged by their care experiences. Drawing on selected findings from the EU-funded study ‘Reciprocal Encounters – Young adults leaving care’ funded by European Union (2016–2018) we ask what supports and hinders meaningful participation in their communities? The study design was participatory action research involving young adults with leaving care experiences in question-setting, research design, ethical review, data generation, analysis or dissemination from both Finland and the UK. The data consists of 50 Finnish and 24 English peer interviews which were thematically analysed. The central message from the young adults was the importance they attributed to the meaning and continuity of social connections which support what we define as their ‘emotional participation’. To understand this concept and practice we draw on a theoretical discussion of reciprocity. A core similarity in both countries is that young adults long for stability in their relationships. Findings are presented along a spectrum describing experiences where young adults feel themselves emotionally connected to other persons and when there is more emotional distance. Different welfare practices shape these experiences, for example: the English services stressing child protection and the Finnish services stressing individualised-liberty practice. Both can strengthen or weaken emotional participation. We conclude by suggesting a move from individualistic practice towards community practice which has at its core the importance of supporting reciprocal relationships. KEYWORDS: Reciprocity, emotional participation, well-being, leaving care, participatory action research
  • Kekkonen, Mikael (2000)
    The purpose of this Master's Thesis is to examine foyers, a form of supported housing for disadvantaged young people. I concentrate on the English foyer-system, which emerged in Britain in the early 1990s. The study is above all a case study, which means that a significant part of the dissertation is devoted to description of the subject. This approach was selected mainly because foyers are a relatively new and unknown phenomenon and, thus, a throughout examination of the subject is valuable in itself. In order to present the subject in all of its variety, I chose not to use a single overarching theory that would aim to explain the variety between foyers. However, several theoretical propositions inter-related to the subject are discussed and used as a general framework. The principal methods used are semi-structured interviews and a small-scale survey. It should, however, be stressed that since the subject is fairly unknown and there are virtually no major scientific works on it, all literature and reports published by the British foyer movement have an important role in my examination. The study begins by introducing the concept of foyers and the methods used in this study. The next part concentrates on the British society of 1980's and early 1990's and especially the changes in housing, unemployment and homelessness. The examination shows that due to these changes there was a growing a need for a foyer-type project. The following section examines hypotheses, which discuss homelessness, individualism and communities. The purpose is to show that the foyer-movement is connected to certain more abstract societal changes and that it - and especially its ethos - can be partially understood through them. The final section is devoted to description of the subject and tracking down the main principles, which guide all foyers regardless of their apparent differences. I conclude the study by claiming that regardless of difficulties connected in particular with the ethos of foyers, the foyer-movement has been relatively successful in helping their residents in their transition from dependence to independence.
  • Oksanen, Atte; Sirola, Anu; Savolainen, Iina; Kaakinen, Markus (2019)
    Background and aims: In recent years online gambling has become a potential risk for young people. The purpose of this study was to analyse patterns of gambling activities and their association with behavioural risk factors and protective factors. Data and Method: A demographically balanced sample of Finnish respondents aged 15-25 years (N = 1200) filled out an online survey in March-April 2017. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the variables on gambling activities to smaller sets of components, and regression analysis was used to analyse whether behavioural risk factors and protective factors were associated with the gambling patterns found. Results: Two main components were found: online- and skill-based competent gambling and chance-based entertainment gambling. Competent gambling had statistically significant associations with a variety of behavioural problems and risks, including psychological distress, lower social support, lower delay of gratification, hazardous drinking, regular drug use, compulsive Internet use, and problem gambling. Entertainment gambling was associated with lower delay gratification, hazardous drinking, and problem gambling. Entertainment gambling had a negative association with compulsive Internet use and a positive association with social support. Conclusions: Online-based competent gambling is a potentially hazardous form of gambling. New forms of online gambling are potential risks for younger generations. Health professionals working with young people should be aware of the role of online gambling and associated activities.
  • Pyyry, Noora; Tani, Sirpa (2019)
    This paper is a conceptual argument for more-than-human playful politics in young people’s practices of spending their free time in the city. Reworking of urban space happens in a mode of playful experimentation and emerges from human-material encounters in the city: it arises from ‘dwelling with’. This understanding grants agency to the material world and has consequences to how we conceptualize everyday politics. Spatial reworking in ‘dwelling with’ is a more-than-human endeavor in which the city plays an active part: it is joint-participation. When young people are playfully engaged with the city, they are open to being differently with ordinary things and spaces. Openness to difference cultivates meaningful being-in- the-world and makes it possible to rework the city through new associations. Events of reworking become political in certain landscapes. Everyday spatial politics, then, is not always ‘serious business’ of political coordination – it can also arise from spontaneous intra-active play with the city.
  • Maskulin, Viivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Tavoitteet. Ilmaston lämpeneminen on yksi suurimpia tulevaisuuden haasteita, jonka ehkäise-miseksi muutokset kulutuskäyttäytymisessä, yhteiskuntarakenteissa sekä yritystoiminnassa ovat tutkimustiedon mukaan välttämättömiä. Ruoka sekä ruoantuotanto ovat yksi merkittävim-mistä maapallon kantokykyä kuormittavista tekijöistä. Muutokset päästöjen vähentämisessä tai vaihtoehtoisesti seuraukset, joita ilmaston lämpeneminen aiheuttaa, tulevat koskettamaan erityi-sesti nuorten sukupolvia. Tässä tutkielmassa tavoitteena on pyrkiä ymmärtämään nuorten nä-kemyksiä ruoan valintaan vaikuttavista tekijöistä etenkin kestävyyden näkökulmasta. Samalla tavoitteena on tutkia, miten nuoret kokevat erilaiset keinot ja niiden vaikuttavuuden osana il-mastonmuutosta ehkäiseviä toimia. Tämän tutkimuksen tutkimuskysymykset ovat: millä tavoin ruoanvalintaan ja -käyttöön liittyvät tekijät jäsentyvät nuorten mielipiteissä sekä mitkä ovat ne tekijät, jotka nuoret kokevat edistävän tai estävän kestävyyttä ruoan tai syömisen näkökulmas-ta? Ruokavalintoja käsitellään yksilön valintojen, kuten poliittisen kulutuksen teorisointien sekä yhteiskunnallisten ohjauskeinojen ja -rakenteiden näkökulmasta. Menetelmät. Tutkimusasetelmassa hyödynnetään sekä laadullisia että määrällisiä menetelmiä. Kyselyllä kerättyä aineistoa analysoidaan pääosin laadullisin menetelmin, eli aineistolähtöisellä sisällönanalyysilla ja teemoittelulla. Analyysia täydennetään aineiston mahdollistaman määrälli-sen tarkastelun keinoin. Kyselyaineisto koostuu 44 nuoren aikuisen (15–29-vuotiaan) vastauk-sista. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Tämän tutkimuksen tuloksina ruoan valintaan vaikuttavina yksittäi-sinä tekijöinä määritti erityisesti elämäntilanne, ruoan hinta sekä kotimaisen ruoan suosiminen mahdollisuuksien mukaan. Ruokaan liittyvät ympäristöä kuormittavat tekijät nähtiin erityisesti rakenteellisena ongelmana, mutta omilla kulutusvalinnoilla koettiin olevan yhtä lailla merkitystä tulevaisuuden haasteita ratkottaessa. Ilmastonmuutoksen sekä ruokavalintojen yhteys koettiin olemassa olevana ongelmana, johon nuorten mielestä tulisi löytää ratkaisu. Nuoret kokevat ruo-kaan ja kulutukseen liittyvät tekijät moniulotteisena kokonaisuutena ja miettivät tulevaisuutta. Nuoret tiedostavat ruoan yhteyden ilmastokriisiin ja tahtoisivat oppia lisää ruokaan liittyvistä tekijöistä, jotta kestävämpien kulutusvalintojen tekeminen olisi helpompaa. Nuoret ovat valmiita muuttamaan omaa kulutustaan, mutta odottavat aktiivisia toimia myös vallanpitäjiltä.
  • Haikkola, Lotta (2019)
    Activation policies form the core of employment policies in most OECD countries. They are part of 'active' welfare states and associated neoliberal forms of governance that seek to govern through freedom by producing self-governing and responsible subjectivities. Ethnographies of governmentalities have been used in the research reported in this article to examine if and how such subjectivities are put in practice in street-level encounters in local welfare delivery. Based on an ethnographic research of youth services in the Public Employment Services (PES) in Helsinki, Finland, it is shown that despite the policy focus on active citizenship the street-level practice entails not only liberal ideas of self-governing individuals but also authoritarian measures. What is governed in the meetings is not the young people's selves but their time and behaviour. In the process, the notion of active citizenship is emptied and transformed to mean participation in supervised activities offered by the PES. Such practice also reworks the temporal structures and creates insecure and eventful experience of time for PES clients. In contrast to governing through freedom, the localized interpretation of activation policies represents the authoritarian and paternalistic side of neoliberal governance.
  • Salokannel, Marjut; Ollila, Eeva (2021)
    Background: Use of snus and snus-like nicotine products is increasing, in particular among young people, in several Nordic countries and Estonia, while snus is legally on the market only in Sweden and Norway. Snus is available in a great variety of tastes and packaging particularly catering for young users. Recently, strong snus-resembling nicotine pouches have emerged on the market. This research investigates the regulatory means to counteract this development. Methods: European Union (EU) and national tobacco control legislation, case law of the European Court of Justice (CJEU) and relevant public health studies are analysed. Results: The research finds that the judgement of the CJEU relating to the sale of snus on Finnish ferries has not been enforced. Permitted large traveller imports for personal use have contributed to wide availability of snus in Finland. Even if the legislation in Sweden is in conformity with the exemption it obtained in the Accession Treaty, the public health impact of snus use for young people in its neighbouring countries has become considerable. Nicotine pouches, -which are not regarded as medical products in terms of medicine legislation, lack harmonised EU-wide regulation. Controlling smuggling across open borders is challenging. Conclusions: The legislation at the EU and national levels should be able to protect young people from new tobacco and nicotine products. It is urgent to harmonise regulation relating to new tobacco and nicotine products taking as a base a high level of protection of health as required in the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU.
  • Keipi, Teo; Kaakinen, Markus; Oksanen, Atte; Räsänen, Pekka (2017)
    Online interaction through the use of social networking sites (SNS) continues to be a significant component of the socialization of young people today, yet little research exists toward linking various relational forms to prevalent and much-studied online risks cross-nationally. This article provides a link between relational dynamics and online risks identified in previous research toward a new perspective on how social tie strength is related to experiences of hate victimization and harassment online. The analysis is based on survey data of Finnish (n = 555), American (n = 1033), German (n = 978), and British (n = 999) young people aged 15-30 years. Variables, including age, gender, main activity, SNS use, quantity, and extent of online and offline social networks including social tie strength and online community identification, were analyzed toward finding their associations with online hate victimization and harassment. Results showed that experiences of hate victimization and harassment were similar cross-nationally and that those who were personally harassed online also reported high SNS activity. Furthermore, no association was found between social network size and negative experiences. Notable cross-national differences were also detected in the results. Findings emphasize the importance of understanding variables fostering online risks for young people while providing a new perspective on what aspects of social life may help negate negative effects online.
  • Keskinen, Suvi (Routledge, 2018)
    Routledge Critical Studies in Gender and Sexuality in Education
    This chapter focuses on how minority young people search for ways to build their lives, gain respectability and perform agency in a societal context characterized by the previously mentioned processes. It also focuses on the gendered and sexualized aspects of racism, as they are lived out by young people in a multi-ethnic suburb in Finland, and the different strategies they develop to question, ignore and disturb practices. The chapter examines the interviews with young people who have one or two parents born outside Finland. It also examines how gendered racism shapes the conditions in which racialized minority youth live their everyday lives and how the young people challenge, ignore and disturb such discourses and practices. The concept "territorial stigmatization" also rightly points to the importance of media coverage in the establishment of othering narratives of the residence areas where ethnic/racial and class-bound inequalities merge.
  • Vornanen, Riitta; Törrönen, Maritta; Niemelä, Pauli; Miettinen, Janissa (INTECHopen, 2012)
    Riitta Vornanen, Maritta Törrönen, Janissa Miettinen & Pauli Niemelä University of Eastern Finland/University of Helsinki, Finland Security is one of the basic needs; it can also be seen as a basic value in Western societies (Niemelä, 2000), where more and more systems are developed to guarantee security. Security is a highly valued goal, which may be difficult to reach because of different threats and risks in personal lives and in near and global environments. One indicator of the collective quest for security is evident in the literature and studies on different risks. Over a decade ago, Furedi (1997) wrote about the increase in the use of the word “risk” in literature and scientific research. This article participates in the discussion of insecurity and risks by focusing on the experiences of young people. In order to understand young people’s perspectives, we need to focus on their experiences; we need to ask how they relate to society and how distant and global issues influence their world. This article argues that young people are key persons in reflecting the world and the changes in societies. Instead of reacting to the extreme examples of social problems or crimes involving young people, we try to understand how young people experience their personal and social lives, and the more societal and global issues. There is a need to develop social sciences empirical research among young people. It is important to know the role of security in young people’s lives and the sources and dimensions of their insecurity. Empirical research on insecurity needs a theoretical and conceptual understanding of different approaches to security and insecurity. This article makes an explorative contribution to the concepts of insecurity and security from the perspectives of young people. Insecurity is a multidisciplinary concept; understanding of the concept demands different approaches. In addition, the article gives two empirical examples of research on insecurity among young people. By using both theory and empirical findings from quantitative and qualitative research, it is possible to explore the dimensions of the concept and its relevance in research.
  • Filatova, Svetlana; Upadhyaya, Subina; Kronstrom, Kim; Suominen, Auli; Chudal, Roshan; Luntamo, Terhi; Sourander, Andre; Gyllenberg, David (2019)
    Background: Knowledge of time trends for depression is important for disease prevention and healthcare planning. Only a few studies have addressed these questions regarding the incidence and cumulative incidence of diagnosed depression from childhood to early adulthood and findings have been inconclusive. Aim: The aim of this national register-based Finnish study was to report the time trends of the age-specific and gender-specific incidence and cumulative incidence of diagnosed depression. Methods: The study sample included all 1,245,502 singletons born in Finland between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 2007 and still living in Finland at the end of 2012. The participants were divided into three cohorts by birth year: 1987-1993, 1994-2000 and 2001-2007. Depression diagnoses (ICD-9: 2961; ICD-10: F32, F33) given in 1995-2012 were available and identified from the Care Register for Health Care. Results: Ten percent of the females and five percent of the males were diagnosed with depression in specialized services by age 25 years. The cumulative incidence of depression by age 15 years rose from 1.8% (95% CI 1.8-1.9) to 2.9% (95% CI 2.8-3.0) in females and from 1.0% (95% CI 1.1-1.2) to 1.6% (95% CI 1.6-1.7) in males when the cohorts born 1987-1993 and 1994-2000 were compared. Conclusions: A larger proportion of young people in Finland are diagnosed with depression in specialized services than before. This can be due to better identification, more positive attitudes to mental health problems and increased availability of the services.
  • Metsäranta, Kiki; Anttila, Minna; Pajamäki, Tatjana; Holappa, Heidi; Välimäki, Maritta (2022)
    Objective To describe web messaging patterns and the content of web messages among young people in a Finnish national online service. Methods A descriptive mixed-method was used. The data consisted of text-based web messaging communication between young people and a counsellor in a nationwide online service between 1 January and 31 December 2018. Web messaging patterns were analysed using descriptive statistics. The content of the messages was analysed with thematic analysis and qualitative results were presented. In addition, the factors associated with messaging patterns and content were analysed. Results A total of 1941 messages were sent by 1354 young people. Most of them were between 12 and 17 years old and females. Less than one-fifth of young people had multiple two-way discussions with counsellor. The total period of two-way discussions and the number of words in each message varied widely. The number of words was lower in messages sent by males. The content of the messages was divided into three main themes: interpersonal relationships and environment (Social relationships), oneself (Construction of self), and health-related problems and support received from professionals (Health and wellbeing). The young people's messages mostly contained topics related to the main theme of 'Social environment'. Conclusion Most young people sent one message only. Messages ranged from simple, single messages to complex texts describing the daily life of young people. Girls were more active in messaging, and they wrote longer texts.
  • Kaakinen, Markus; Sirola, Anu; Savolainen, Iina; Oksanen, Atte (2020)
    Introduction and Aims Online gambling advertising and user-generated gambling content have increased. This study used a social psychological online experiment to analyse young people's reactions towards and self-reported interests in social media gambling messages. Design and Methods A vignette experiment with a two-level between-subjects factor (group condition or control condition) and three two-level within-subjects factors (expressed stance on gambling, narrative perspective and majority opinion) was conducted with two samples of young Finnish people aged 15 to 25 years (N = 1200, 50% female, mean age 21.29 years) and 15 to 30 years (N = 230, 53% female, mean age 24.35 years). Participants were asked to indicate how they would react to presented gambling messages (i.e. like or dislike the content) and how interesting would the content appear to them. In addition to experimental factors, the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale and a global self-esteem measure were used as the independent variables. A statistical analysis included multilevel linear and logistic regressions. Results Young people preferred anti-gambling messages instead of pro-gambling messages. This effect was moderated by personal gambling attitudes as participants with highly positive gambling attitudes preferred pro-gambling content. Fact-driven messages were favoured over experience-driven messages. Positive majority opinions predicted more favourable reactions and positive interest. Discussion and Conclusions Young people prefer anti-gambling content and factual argumentation but their online behaviour is also influenced by perceived group norms. The potential risks of online gambling promotion mainly concern young people already interested in gambling.
  • Vivitsou, Marianna (Hellenic Open University, Network for ODL, 2015)
    This study discusses the experiences of young storytellers who make and share digital stories on a social network for pedagogical purposes. In order to produce their work, these students from primary schools in Greece put effort, practice and apply techniques, and convey their messages through series of pedagogical actions. In this way they reveal the dimension of digital story as collage, not only in terms of the media used but also in terms of the sets of shared purposes and decisions needed in the act of storytelling. Also, the fact that digital stories open up the space for collaboration and require multiple implementation stages deepens the level of involvement and increases the degree of ‘authorship’ attributed to the young people. In this way, through purposeful and youth-initiated action the space opens up for creative and innovative pedagogies. Innovative pedagogies aim for discourses that, rather than the improvement of technologies, target the deepening of human reasoning toward critical over descriptive understandings of reality.
  • Brunila, Kristiina; Lundahl, Lisbeth (Helsinki University Press, 2020)
    The book addresses one of the most urgent social problems in many countries, the uncertain school-to-work transitions of young people. As a result, a ‘transition machinery’ has been created, consisting of various education and training measures realised by e.g. teachers and youth workers. The volume demonstrates that discourses related to youth transitions do not simply describe young adults but create them. For example, young people are expected to be active citizens who make themselves attractive to employers, and those who fail in doing so may be labelled having psychological deficiencies. When failing transitions, resulting in lack of higher education or unemployment, are treated as individual’s problems rather than rising from structural factors, the solutions are likewise individualized. The book thus underlines the importance of analysing power relations reflected by gender, health, social class, and ethnicity. The articles of the book combine perspectives from young people, policymakers, teachers, and youth workers in Iceland, Finland, Sweden, and England. The editors of the book are Kristiina Brunila, professor of social justice and equality in education at University of Helsinki, and Lisbeth Lundahl, professor of educational work at Umeå University.
  • Johansson, Juhani (2011)
    This study investigates what and how Keski-Uusimaa newspaper wrote about young people's risk of exclusion, in particular criminality. The data for the study comprised articles of children and young people's risk of exclusion published in Keski-Uusimaa newspaper in 2006. The constructionist theory was used and the data were analysed using the analytical discursive method. The data were divided into three different discourses making it possible to observe the discussion of social exclusion from three different viewpoints: the discourse of being involved in a criminal incident, the discourse of threat to safety and the discourse of being relieved from responsibility. In the discourse of being involved in a criminal incident, neither the young people nor adults commented on the crime itself. Even reported incidents in the media were tolerable as long as they did not disturb the day-to-day work at school. Ignoring crimes may partly be explained by the general decrease of commentary on moral issues. Public humiliation or mocking in the media is not a random phenomenon. Researchers are worried that the lack of comments may turn into admiration. In particular, hard crimes can cultivate myths of eternity and admiration, expanding to different hate communities on the Internet. In the discourse of threat to safety, children and young people were described by rhetorical means, to be dangerous for themselves or others. On the one hand, the context of serious crimes described children and young people as murderers and killers. On the other hand, they were presented as threats to those using public facilities. By presenting single cases, children and young people were described as general dominant threats to society and also the inclusion of information on the nationwide crime defence programme suggested that children and young people should always be under the surveillance of some public authority. The aim of this surveillance seems not to be inclusion but exclusion, thus increasing the risk of crimes. The child held in the custody of child welfare after committing a serious crime, such as manslaughter, was reflected in the discourse of being relieved from responsibility. Despite this turmoil continued. The media missed the information about the crisis and speakers' categories. It seems to be difficult to protect the criminal. Furthermore, the social media passed on the material not published in the media. This type of situation made it possible for school mass murderers to publish and rehearse their self-made videos among other media material. The incomprehension of children and young people was exploited financially in the discourse of being relieved from responsibility. They were expected to know how to take a quick loan by phone, illicitly without their parents knowing, but not to count the real interest rate for twelve months. In this discourse, children were lured to have cash easily. The discourse of being relieved from responsibility also included discarding a sense of shame regarding crimes. Moreover, taboos surrounding the role of victims of sexual abuse require open discussion. ne of the main principles of social work is normality. According to it, society takes a risk of stigma when reacting to children and young people's minor offences. Stigmatisation may be attached to assuming a deviant identity. There should be nationwide norms for children and young people's minor offences because of the significant decrease of social tolerance in local projects concerning them. Social workers should be more involved in discussions concerning children and young people both in the real world and virtually. Instead of making children and young people harmless, we could bring into focus the voice and position of the socially excluded so that they could be seen as subjects of their lives and responsible citizens.