Browsing by Subject "youth culture"

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  • Salasuo, Mikko (2004)
    The long development trends in drug use in Finland are often described by means of a 'wave' metaphor. Usually two drug waves are mentioned, the first wave being the more general experimentation with and use of drugs, especially cannabis, in the 1960s. The second wave was an increasingly more common experimentation and use that can be traced to the beginning of the 1990s. The result of the latest increase was a higher use of drugs than ever before. Typical of both of these drug waves was a tie up to international youth culture trends (the hippie movement and the techno and rave culture respectively), whilst both drug waves are also characterised by occasional drugs use and the central position of the user culture. In the study, the cultural appearance of the two drug waves in Finland is viewed from different standpoints within qualitative research, as found in a summary article and in seven other articles. Thematically, the study starts with the cannabis pattern of the 1960s and 1970s, when youth culture was linked to drug use for the first time. The first article to be reviewed analyses these patterns, and will serve as a historical background and thematic standard of comparison for the other articles to be reviewed, which will analyse drug use as linked to the new party culture of the 1990s. The analysis starts with the history of ecstasy—the symbol of the drug phenomena of the 1990s—and how it intersected with the international youth culture. In relation to the spread of ecstasy, the parallel development of the drug markets is surveyed, as well as the difficulties faced when combating these markets. Following this, the "slower" history of the drug phenomenon is analysed through sociological analyses, with the focus on what forms the drug culture has taken in Finland, how users stood out from the rest of the youth culture and what kind of health issues were connected with drug use. Finally, current forms of drug education are studied. The Study Material Several different kinds of study material were used, and were seen to function at different levels, and it was possible to create interesting perspectives on the drug culture by linking these materials together. Among the most important materials to be used were the user interviews, interviews with the authorities, official control data, materials collected from the Internet, and a targeted Internet questionnaire. In particular, the interview material gives information that can be of use when analysing the cultural context of drug use. The remaining materials also contain cultural elements that support the interview material and raise new viewpoints that differ from it. The Study Results Drug waves are connected to certain periods and generations that attach special importance to the use of drugs and the meanings given to it. Both drug use and the users are mobilized as part of a historical and cultural experience that certain generations share. A common world of experience gives rise to different kinds of social and cultural movements, within which people organize themselves in order to pursue and promote a way of life and goals that they find fulfilling. The common world of experience shapes tastes, preferences and behaviour, and thus influences the prevalence of experimentation with drugs and drug use and the meanings attached to them. In practice, this has resulted in new ways of using drugs and new drugs, the emergence of new markets and a new kind of criminality, the development of new drug concepts, and thus the development of new drug patterns. The informal social control of the new cultures of drug use—as well as their rituals and norms—contribute to determining and regulating drug use.
  • Tolonen, Tarja (2019)
    This article draws on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews to explore young minority men's relation to school and city space in Helsinki from the perspective of their everyday experiences of racialisation in public spaces. The article uses the concept of 'power geometrical' relations of space by drawing on several research traditions, including youth and masculinity studies, studies on social space, racialisation and ethnicity, and human geography. The evidence shows the school to be an important site of local and national power geometry (Massey, D. [1994]. Space, Place and Gender. Cambridge: Polity Press), in which 'informal' and 'physical' spheres are dominated by peers and connect to streets and public spheres (Gordon, T., J. Holland, and E. Lahelma. [2000]. Making Spaces: Citizenship and Difference in Schools. Houndsmills et al. London: MacMillan Press Ltd). The article shows how young minority men knew their place both in narrow local power geometries, and within the wider city and school spaces, exploring how they formed their own lived spaces (Lefebvre, H. [1991]. The Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell), claimed their spaces and marked their spaces with diverse tactics. Some tactics were socially open, such as making friends; some were very mobile, such as claiming their own urban spaces by mobility, or marking and 'hanging around'; and some involved big groups of friends, crowds, defence and embodied accounts.
  • Jussila, Jonna (2000)
    The licentiate thesis studies young people's opinions on religion and God in the world, which is said to underline the meaning of relativism. The corpus is collected from the Helsingin Sanomat 'youngsters' opinion' column from 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Writings concerning religion are studied in the light of contemporary sociology and the sociology of religion. What has happened to religion in the process of modernization? Can theories of modernization interpret young people successfully? The corpus is mainly based on tough argumentation between religious and non-religious writers. Additionally, the writings of the 'open minded', and youngsters who 'have their own religion' have contributed important features to the corpus. The research questions focus on the substance of the argumentation: what are the arguments which youngsters use to support and refute religion like? I am also interested in the nature of privatised religion: does it exist in the writings and how can it be described from the point of view of selected sociologists? The approach to the study can be called 'society-analytical'. Anthony Giddens, Zygmunt Bauman, Gianni Vattimo, Thomas Luckmann and Harvie Ferguson are examples of theorists who function as 'research lences' in the study. Writings have been classified and components arising out of them are discovered and understood through the spectrum of the chosen theories. Writings are considered as youngsters' cultural speak about religion. On the other hand, colourful and powerful stories are expected to tell something new about the subject 'modern world and religion'. Wide modernization theory meets the most intimate views of youngsters concerning the changes in the world around us. The study shows how conflicting are the signals that contemporary culture can offer in matters religious. 'Movement' stems from many directions. Young writers opposing religion accuse religious writers of irrationality, lack of autonomy and intolerance. They think that in the contemporary context, autonomy can lead to a world of justice and tolerance. Religion has become incapable of sustaining the ends of good values. Religion is also experienced as something opposed to youth culture. It means abandoning the teenagers' way of life. The metaphors connected with religious people reflect this: weakness, oldness, and immaturity are seen to describe them well. On the other hand, seen through the eyes of other youngsters, the contemporary relative culture is experienced as anxious and meaningless. Many young writers have found the solution in traditional religion. Their writings work as descriptions of returning to the 'metaphysical ground'. When the world of choice appeared to be unbearable, the 'digging' of old religion has started. Christianity still has the function of bringing a sense of meaning to existence. Religion also plays a new role in the life of the young. Instead of dogmatism, the idea of rebuilt private religion lies in its ability to bring a sense of dimension, richness and exoticness to young people's life.