Browsing by Subject "youth"

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  • Saarinen, Minna; Mattila, Satu (2018)
    The article examines issues related to peer interactions and group joining in upper secondary schools in Finland. The study elaborates on how young people describe students who are left out/excluded or who remain outside the social networks. The study also elucidates on how a student can join the group. The research is motivated by the current educational ethos, which emphasizes inclusion and tolerance. The data were collected from an upper secondary school and vocational and technical institute. The students were asked to recall the prior high school year and write an essay on the topic. A total of 49 students wrote about their memories. The data were analyzed using inductive content analysis, and the study found that students are either excluded or included due to the social skills they possess. Those who do not exhibit the same approach to being in a group will stay on the sidelines. The essays also described factors that connect students, such as hobbies and leisure activities. Similarity in many external factors (e.g., the family’s economic situation) unites students. Contrary to expectations, young people described themselves, and not just others, as outsiders.
  • Mietola, Reetta; Vehmas, Simo (2019)
    This paper discusses youth and the significance of age in the lives of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. The analysis is based on an ethnographic research project that explores what makes a good life for this group of people. The findings indicate that whilst the meaning and significance of youth and age were discussed often by care workers and family members, age had very little significance in the lives of our research participants. Youth as a phase of life gets lost in the transition from children's services to adult services: age in the lives of persons with profound intellectual disabilities means merely a move from one service system to another. For the care workers, age provides a way to evaluate and criticize the service system and whether it caters for the individual needs of persons with profound intellectual disabilities.
  • Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Swank, Jacqueline M. (2021)
    A national study of clinical directors examined professional development (PD) focused on mental health provided to professionals in juvenile justice facilities for adjudicated youth. A total of 85 clinical directors responded to a mail survey (45% return rate). The survey questions related to (a) topics of staff training and the basis for choosing topics, (b) which professionals participated in each PD topic, (c) training format and frequency of PD, (d) recommended attributes of PD, (e) methods of evaluating PD, and (f) adequacy of PD and how can it be improved. For each topic, PD was typically provided once per year and face to face, rather than online. PD participation rates were commonly in the 30% and 40% ranges for professionals other than clinical directors and counselors, with teachers, correctional officers, administrators, and teaching assistants receiving PD the least. Rarely did PD include recommended attributes of PD, and it was commonly viewed as ineffective. Implications for research and practice related to PD and its relationship to youth reentry from juvenile justice facilities are discussed.
  • Toivanen, Reetta; Fabritius, Nora (2020)
    This article presents research on contradictory representations of the Arctic and its inhabitants from the point of view of sustainable development. Indigenous peoples are repeatedly presented as connected to nature but outside politics, while business and state stakeholders portray the Arctic as uninhabited and utilizable for extractivism. These depictions diminish the agency of indigenous Sámi in political decision-making, agency that is integral to achieving a sustainable future both for Arctic lands and cultures. Contrary to what older generations fear, research from this decade shows that youth — who are increasingly moving to urban centers — are not necessarily leaving Sámi culture and lands. They are finding new modes of agency by transcending the discursive boundaries of periphery and center, nature and culture.
  • Laine, Sofia; Myllylä, Martta (2018)
    This chapter examines the youth cultural circuits and the institutional channels of political participation in five Arab Mediterranean countries: Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria and Lebanon. Through the triangulation of the data from the SAHWA Youth Survey 2016 (2017) and the SAHWA Ethnographic Fieldwork 2015 (2016), the experiences of political participation of the Arab Mediterranean youth in the "post-Arab Spring era" are analysed. The data - analysed with the application of the theory of chronotopes developed by the linguist Mikhail Bakhtin - show that generation gaps exist in participation and political dialogue. The "time-spaces" in which the capacities for youth agency can prosper are the physical and virtual streets, as well as the coffee shops, which can also allow them to build an identity outside tradition, authority and the family (i.e. the older generations).
  • Edgren, Robert (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives: This thesis examined the relationship between disordered gambling (DG) with mental health, loneliness, perceived general health, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking and computer gaming frequency by age and gender among adolescents and emerging adults. Gambling types were also examined for their association to DG, mental health, loneliness, perceived health, risky alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking. DG is conceptualized as a behavioural addiction, and its development is influenced by the availability of gambling opportunities, prevalence of other addictive behaviours, and psychological well-being. Previous studies have indicated that specific types of gambling are more strongly associated to DG that others. The purpose of the present study was to identify the strength of the various risk factors of disordered gambling, examine whether specific risk factors are associated to certain gambling types and if there are age and gender related differences in regards to the associations between disordered gambling and its risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional population based random sample (n = 822, 49.3 % female) of individuals aged 15 to 28 from the self-reported Finnish Gambling Survey 2011 was utilized. DG was assessed with the Problem Gambling Severity Index, such that a score of 2 or more indicated DG. Mental health was measured with the five item Mental Health Inventory and risky alcohol consumption was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test -Consumption. The remainder of examined variables were assessed with single Likert-scaled items. The correlates of DG and gambling types were examined with logistic regression models. Results and conclusions: Male gender, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, and frequently feeling lonely were significantly associated to DG. Slot machine gambling, online gambling other than poker, private betting, and casino betting were strongly associated to DG. The aforementioned gambling types were strongly associated to risky alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking along with sports betting. Feeling lonely was associated to online poker, casino betting and private betting. There were indications of gender differences in regards to the gambling types associated to feeling lonely. Risky alcohol consumption seemed to be a stronger risk factor for DG among males, and tobacco smoking stronger among females. Current findings warrant further investigation of DG in regards to loneliness, and reconsideration of national gambling policies.
  • Mäkelä, Sara; Aaltonen, Sari; Korhonen, Tellervo; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Because sustained physical activity is important for a healthy life, this paper examined whether a greater diversity of sport activities during adolescence predicts higher levels of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in adulthood. From sport activity participation reported by 17-year-old twins, we formed five groups: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5+ different sport activities. At follow-up in their mid-thirties, twins were divided into four activity classes based on LTPA, including active commuting. Multinomial regression analyses, adjusted for several confounders, were conducted separately for male (N=1288) and female (N=1770) participants. Further, conditional logistic regression analysis included 23 twin pairs discordant for both diversity of sport activities in adolescence and LTPA in adulthood. The diversity of leisure-time sport activities in adolescence had a significant positive association with adulthood LTPA among females. Membership in the most active adult quartile, compared to the least active quartile, was predicted by participation in 2, 3, 4, and 5+ sport activities in adolescence with odds ratios: 1.52 (p=0.11), 1.86 (p=0.02), 1.29 (p=0.39), and 3.12 (p=5.4e-05), respectively. Within-pair analyses, limited by the small sample of twins discordant for both adolescent activities and adult outcomes (N=23), did not replicate the association. A greater diversity of leisure-time sport activities in adolescence predicts higher levels of LTPA in adulthood in females, but the causal nature of this association remains unresolved.
  • Laivo, Soila Pauliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This thesis answers to a question “Why adolescent girls drop out of school in Northern Uganda?” In Uganda, approximately 70% of the children drop out of public school before 7th grade, the final year of primary school. In northern Uganda, girls drop out of school in more significant numbers than boys, and it happens around the age when girls reach puberty. Northern Uganda is also a particular location because it is recovering from long conflict, affecting strongly the whole population living in the area. The thesis is based on two-month ethnographic fieldwork in northern Uganda during the spring of 2015. To answer the main research question this study seeks to analyse it through taking a look how the school, the community and the girls themselves experience and talk about dropping out, education and growing up in the current post-conflict state of the social life. The thesis argues that the dropout rate is linked to the adolescence as life-stage of becoming an adult that is making the girls to make decisions about the future. The analysis is done through three different perspectives – the educational, societal and personal narratives of the youth. The first perspective is the education and schooling in northern Uganda. It explores the concept of ’educated person’ by Levinson and Holland through sexual education and gender in education. The study shows that Ugandan public primary and secondary education is deriving its ideas and understanding of educated person from the national curriculum, which often conflict with the local concepts of the educated person in the Acholi community, influencing the blamed and real reasons for dropping out. The second perspective looks into the community and the societal pressures the girls are facing when growing up. It will describe family, kinship, marriage and gender in post-conflict context and show how in these areas of life, the past conflict, “loss of culture”, generational conflicts and subsequent disobedience are presented as reasons behind the challenges to stay in school. The third perspective tells the stories of the girls met and talked to during the ethnographic fieldwork in Northern Uganda. It answers the question “What is happening in the life of a girl when she drops out of school?”. It is argued that the girls take actions of a gendered agency to further their lives and become adults. Thus, dropping out of school cannot just be explained as a simple event just suddenly happening without their own will. It will further answer the question “What makes some girls stay in school?” to show how those girls still in school manage the crosscurrents of growing up in Acholiland. The thesis argues that the girls in northern Uganda are active appropriators and social agents who through their own actions contest, struggle and penetrate the structures in their society while also at the same time reproduce them. In Northern Uganda, both the community and the state together with different international agencies will have plans and expectations for the girls’ future. The study shows how the girls navigate the school, community and peer expectations and sociocultural and economic structures to stay or finally drop out of school. These structures are state organised and aid-infused formal schooling and society in amidst of post-conflict recovery which creates a framework where the girls are acting. The school presents the modern and globally orientated educated person, and in contrast to it, the community is looking for to restore ‘traditional’ way of life. It is argued that these two sides are often in conflict and in the middle of this conflict the girls act and solve their way out of it, looking for adulthood and gaining respectable status in the society. The schools, the community and even sometimes the development actors see the girls as passively following the things they will encounter. The thesis will show that they are not. The girls either stay in school or drop out of it, but more often as a consequence of their own decisions and actions than passively because the school or the community could not support them. It is demonstrated that dropping out of school looks more of line a tactic for the future as a respectable grown-up than mere problem to be solved.
  • Syrjäkari, Essi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    This study assesses the relationship between education and HIV-status, and the contribution of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior to this association among 15-24 year old population in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe bears a generalized, sexually transmitting epidemic with a declining HIV prevalence currently estimated at 15 percent. In earlier studies in sub-Saharan Africa, the relationship between education and HIV has been found to change during the epidemic. In mature epidemics, when the knowledge on the transmission mechanisms of the virus increases, education is suggested to become protective of the infection. In addition to increased HIV-related knowledge, more accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV and cognitive skills facilitated by education are argued to influence the behavior protecting from the infection. The aims of this study were two-fold: 1) to describe the trends in the level of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behavior by the level of education, and 2) to assess the relationship between education and HIV-status based on the most recent data. This study focused on 15-24 years old only, among whom the acquired infections were assumed to be recent. The trend analyses were based on four cross-sectional, nationally representative Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey data sets collected between 1994 and 2010-11. In addition, the association between education and HIV-status was examined by calculating logistic regression models using the 2010-11 data, in which HIV-test results linked with the survey data were available. When trends between 1994 and 2011 were observed, both among women and men the level of education, HIV-related knowledge, and being tested for HIV had become more common, except among men with lower levels of education, who had worse HIV-related knowledge in the end of the periods studied. In 2010 more women in all educational groups, and men with lower levels of education, were married and had started their sex life, when men with higher levels of education, had postponed the onset of their sexual activity compared to 1994. Regardless of the level of education, both men and women had fewer lifetime partners and had less high-risk sex in 2010, though this was considerably more rare among women compared to men. In all other groups condom use in high-risk sex became more frequent during the periods studied, except among women with lower levels of education, who during the final study period were using condoms less often in high-risk sex than during the first study period. When the association between education and HIV status and the contribution of the intervening factors was assessed using the 2010 data, a statistically significant relationship between education and HIV status was found in women but not in men. Among women who had ever had sex having incomprehensive knowledge on HIV also increased the risk of the infection. Both in men and women having risky sexual behavior increased the risk of the infection. In line with earlier studies, the findings of this paper suggest that among young people in Zimbabwe, positive changes in HIV-related knowledge, and changes in high-risk behavior have occurred, though these changes vary according to the level of education and gender. More educated women seem to postpone the onset of their sexual activity, but those who have started their sex life have more often casual partnerships. Women with lower educational level marry and start their sex life early, but have very rarely casual partnerships, though condom use in these partnerships is lower and has even decreases, contrary to all other groups. Men with lower levels of education had most often incomprehensive knowledge on HIV, and had changed their behavior less compared to more educated men. More educated men had been able to alter their behavior more, but having many lifetime partners was still most common in this group. The findings of this study suggest that specific prevention measures are required to address these trends and the needs of different educational groups in both women and men.
  • Alin, Ella (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This study discusses the importance of artistic practices and community arts centres for development understood as a process of social and individual emancipation. Specifically, the study looks at emancipation from the point of view of overcoming social and psychological hindrances to the autonomy of an individual. The empirical case under scrutiny is a community centre in Johannesburg, South Africa, its arts and crafts project (ACP) and one of its drama projects. The study asks, what is the role of the projects in project participants’ lives, and what kinds of spaces the projects are. Initially, I assumed that the role of the creative action taking place in the projects, as critical theory suggests, would be substantial for the participants, because of the “learning by doing” taking place in the projects, and because of bigger “ownership” of one’s own doing, when compared to, for example, school environments. The research material is derived from 18 interviews, observations, written products of the projects, and my field and research diaries, which compose the text for hermeneutic analysis. The research questions were developed and further answered through a hermeneutic process of dialogue with this text. The analysis results in new ‘facts’ that answer the research questions, as is the nature of results in hermeneutic studies. These facts, or, the findings, support the assumption about the importance of the method of learning by doing, and ownership of one’s doing, but turn the emphasis towards the social context of the projects. The projects had a great impact in the project participants’ lives in two intertwined spheres. These are: 1) sphere of learning, and 2) sphere of “feeling at home”. The projects enhanced the participants’ feeling of freedom. One of the main reasons for this was the non-discriminatory social environment of the projects, especially regarding non-discrimination based on socio-economic class. In the study, I argue that both projects contributed to the emancipation of their participants. The theoretical framework of development as emancipation, which is discussed with the empirical part of the study, is founded on the Freirean concept of humanisation, the capabilities approach as developed by Martha Nussbaum, and the idea of orienting towards objects formulated by Sara Ahmed. The study is an addition to the recent body of research on community arts centres in South Africa, conducted by South African researchers such as Gerard Hagg, Eben Lochner, Thamsanqa Mzaku, and Zanele Madiba.
  • Turunen, Tuija; Haravuori, Henna; Pihlajamaki, Jaakko J.; Marttunen, Mauri; Punamaki, Raija-Leena (2014)
  • Krivonos, Daria; Näre, Lena (2019)
    The article argues that the post-Soviet youth construct their migratory projects as an effort towards social distinction vis-a-vis post-socialist imaginary. We argue that their migration can be understood as a search for distinctiveness and for what is perceived as a ‘better’, that is, more western, lifestyle. Analysing their narratives through the prism of imagination, we demonstrate how young Russian-speakers vision the position of the post-socialist condition within the global coloniality of power and claim their belonging to the western project as educated young people with global cultural capitals. The article brings the case of Russian-speakers’ migration within debates on global coloniality and offers a contribution to the theorising of post-socialist imaginaries in the context of global coloniality and sociological imagination. The analysis is based on a multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in 2014–2016 in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Sneck, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. Attachment theory is a theory of social development and personality, known around the world. According to the theory, children have an innate tendency to develop a biologically based and central nervous system-regulated attachment bond to their primary caregivers in order to ensure safety, care, and survival. Early attachment experiences contribute to the way one sees oneself and others and lead to secure, insecure, or disorganized attachment styles, which affect rest of one’s life. Previous research has confirmed the universal nature of attachment, different attachment categories and styles, and early attachment’s links with future relationships and various internal and external problems. Attachment research has traditionally concentrated on early childhood and early childhood environments, whereas middle childhood, adolescence, and school context have been studied less. The objectives of the present study were to find out what kinds of links there are between attachment and the lives of school-aged children and youngsters, what kinds of attachment-related challenges teachers encounter at school, and how teachers could support their students with those attachment-related challenges. The aim is to explore attachment in the lives of school-aged children and youngsters, including at school, to gain a better understanding and to create a valuable foundation for future research. Methodology. The present study was conducted as a systematic literature review, which allowed the gathering of diverse and comprehensive, yet relevant research material, while also supporting objectivity and reproducibility aspects of the study. The material, available through electronic databases, was comprised of research articles from around the world, published in peer-reviewed international research journals. The material was analyzed thematically by research questions and topics, which were then used as a framework in the Results section. Results and conclusions. Early attachment and attachment styles were directly and indirectly linked to the lives of school-aged children and youngsters, including teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, family relationships, and academic achievement, as well as internal and external problems. Various attachment-related challenges and problems were visible at school, but teachers had many ways to buffer them. Current attachment research has not affected or changed school environments enough. Much more attention should be given to attachment within schools, teacher education, and in-service training programs in order to give students better support for their attachment-related problems and challenges.
  • Lehtinen, Vilma (2007)
    The photo galleries of the internet have raised quite a lot of public discussion, but academic research is just beginning to pay attention to the issue. This research grabs the subject by finding out the meanings given to IRC-galleria concerning its members' social networks. The theoretical framework consists of theories of social networks and communities applied to the context of the internet. Moreover, in analysing the construction of social networks, the research material is analyzed through the concepts of ritual and performance. The research material was generated with 13 semi-structured interviews and participant observation. The interviewees were registered members of IRC-galleria, aged 12–25. Participant observation was conducted by acting as a registered member of IRC-galleria during the course of the research. The interview material was analyzed with theory-bound qualitative content analysis. Meanings given to IRC-galleria were understood as interpretations the interviewees give to their subjective experiences, and therefore also bounded to cultural meaning structures. The rituals of maintaining social networks were approached from a social constructionistic perspective: the interest was on how the social networks are reconstructed in social interaction. The central finding of the research was that already established, 'offline' networks play a significant role in being a member of IRC-galleria. IRC-galleria can be interpreted as a way to maintain both local and dispersed networks in a society where group identities are not self-evident. New friendships can be established in IRC-galleria, but personal interests are significant in this, not the possibility to act anonymously, which instead was the claim of previous research. Different interaction rituals are performed for reconstructing the established social networks. IRC-galleria should not therefore be seen solely as a stage for self-promotion, but also as a medium for promoting social networks. The most central references: for social networks: - Wellman, B.(Ed.): Networks in the Global Village (1999). - Granovetter, M.: 'The Strength of Weak Ties' (1973) and 'The Strength of Weak Ties: Network Theory Revisited' (1983) and for ritual view on communication: - Rothenbuhler, E. W.: Ritual Communication. From Everyday Conversation to Mediated Ceremony (1998). - Carey, J. W.: Communication as Culture (1989). - Goffman, E.: 'Interaction Ritual' (1967), 'Behavior in Public Places' (1963) and 'The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life' (1959).
  • Saarnio, Tuula (2003)
    This study describes youth delinquency and researches related to the subject. Criminality is generally seen as a biological, psychological or social phenomenon. The essential theories or points of view attempting to explain and/or understand the criminal acts of young people are in sociological research stigmatisation theory, subculture theory, social learning theories, anomy theory and control theory. In psychological research the most common reflection angles are behaviour of human being and different individual traits such as self-control, aggressiveness or extroversion. The aim of my study is to research experiences and conceptions of young people, who has committed crime and participated in other forbidden activities. Special attention has heen paid to their experiences and thoughts about crime, living in the gang, human relationships, values and plans for the future. The target group for the study are twelve young criminals, who were 16 to 19 years old when they were interviewed. The research method was theme interview. the rest of the research material consists among others of preliminary police hearing reports, documents including basic data of young people, observations of the researcher, documents of social office and sentences of the young people. The method of analysis has been content analysis. Most of the crines were related to cars, alcohol, drugs and cigarettes. Some of the young criminals had also committed crime such as fraud and assault. The boys had more free time than young people usually have, because they did not like the school. School was considered as a boring place. The most important persons in the youth's life were their pals. The relation to the parents were quite chilly. The boys did not condemn criminality, only severe crimes (murder) were not accepted. The future prospects were quite optimistic, although only a few of the boys had any plans for the future. The most significant matters in this research have been experience of success, no regret and no realistic future prospects.
  • Rommel, Carl Anders Truls (2018)
    This article explores men at a state-owned youth center in Cairo, struggling to cope with uncertainties and change in the aftermath of Egypt's January 2011 Revolution. Conceptually, the article critically engages anthropologist Laura Bear's suggestion that an ethics of productivity saturate neoliberal masculinity. As my ethnographic stories about football coaches and state bureaucrats illustrate, being a good man recurrently surfaced as a problem of how to work productively in and on time: as ambiguities between discordant futures that left material needs, familiar care, and development of football talents difficult to reconcile. Often, my interlocutors linked this conundrum to a wide-ranging opacity, conjured as corruption (fisad). My analysis of this male predicament allows me to spotlight one of the Egyptian revolution's most luring promises: a transparent and meritocratic system, where a man's work would finally be allowed to work on all futures deemed morally and materially significant.
  • Pynnöniemi, Katri (Helsinki University Press, 2021)
    This edited volume explores patriotism and the growing role of militarism in today’s Russia. During the last 20-year period, there has been a consistent effort in Russia to consolidate the nation and to foster a sense of unity and common purpose. To this end, Russian authorities have activated various channels, from educational programmes and youth organizations to media and popular culture. With the conflict in Ukraine, the manipulation of public sentiments – feeling of pride and perception of threat – has become more systemic. The traditional view of Russia being Other for Europe has been replaced with a narrative of enmity. The West is portrayed as a threat to Russia’s historical-cultural originality while Russia represents itself as a country encircled by enemies. On the other hand, these state-led projects mixing patriotism and militarism are perceived sceptically by the Russian society, especially the younger generations. This volume provides new insights into the evolution of enemy images in Russia and the ways in which societal actors perceive official projections of patriotism and militarism in the Russian society. The contributors of the volume include several experts on Russian studies, contemporary history, political science, sociology, and media studies. Katri Pynnöniemi holds a joint professorship of Russian security studies at the University of Helsinki and at the Finnish National Defense University. She has published widely on the system change in Russia as well as on Russian foreign and security policy. The contributors of the volume include several experts on Russian studies, contemporary history, political science, sociology, and media studies.
  • Karjalainen, Pekka (1999)
    The aim of this evaluation study is to produce a comprehensive view of a recently started workshop project of young people. It is based on local partnership and new practices. The workshop started its operation in August 1997 in Korso, in the city of Vantaa. Moreover, in a workshop of citizens, there have been concerted efforts to generate potential for development by local organisations, inhabitants and authorities. There is a common conception that the formation of social networks and co-operation also further possibilities of a single young working in the workshop. The most essential aims for young people working in the workshop are: 1) to support the planning of their own lives and, 2) to train them to work on a project basis. Different clubs for children, the managing of an adventure track and the editing of a regional newspaper are the major forms of workshop activity. The workshop organises in co-operation with other agents also several local events and projects. In evaluating the workshop of citizens, the related processes of progress and innovative traits have been located. Furthermore, monitoring and follow-up methods have been created. The workshop is evaluated in the following dimensions: implementation, outcomes and effectiveness. User-based orientation is involved in the managing of the project and in the development of learning processes. The point of view of utility comprises both the field of workshops as a whole and local project-oriented activities. It is assumed that this evaluation benefits the work of leaders operating in workshops. In the same way, positive effects might be seen in the directedness of young people, in the plans made by those in charge of workshops and, in the local partnership network. There must also be the assumption that a study increases theoretical knowledge of its object. The evaluation is realised as a qualitative evaluation research. Methodically this study can be characterised as an amalgamation of program evaluation, case-study tradition and action research. By developing ethnographic evaluation, it is striven for producing thick description of the domain under study. As to the outcomes of the workshop project, it can be said that the ideas concerning of a workshop of citizens have been obtained quite well. During its first year of operation the workshop has been able to create a well-functioning network. This network has increased possibilities for action of the workshop and the young people of Korso. The workshop has assumed the role of a resource center, an organiser of different plans and a general meeting place. It has been possible to meet youngsters in the workshop all-inclusively and to tailor them convenient possibilities for future. In this sense, action has followed the so-called path-wise thinking. In relation to effectiveness, there is evidence that during the workshop period, the youngsters were more capable of controlling and planning their lives. In addition. they were more goal oriented as well. When considering the future of a workshop of citizens as one form of organising work, it can be recommended to be applied everywhere in Finland.