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  • Kunwar, Jagat Bahadur (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-10-18)
    Some individuals face social discrimination due to their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Despite legal successes, social inequalities for sexual and gender minorities (SGM) persists. The aim of the study was to understand: (1) Which social inequalities do SGM face and how are these inequalities reproduced? and (2) How, and to what effect, has collective action subverted these individuals’ experience of oppression? The ongoing SGM movement in Nepal, which started around the year 2001, is used as a case study. The study empirically adopts a multi-level field analysis. Correspondence analysis performed on an existing census of SGM population in Nepal revealed various SGM clusters with their corresponding sociodemographic characteristics and social discrimination experienced. Narratives of SGM revealed how they construct their own identities and interpret the social inequalities faced. In-depth interviews with influential actors explained how gender taxonomies are established and contested in various social fields. Text-mining operations on a media corpus revealed significant ‘discourse clusters’ and helped to understand discursive evolution of the SGM movement in Nepal. A systematic bibliometric survey of sexuality and gender studies helped to contextualize some unique SGM issues in the ‘Global South’. Social construction, self-construction, embodiment, and intersectionality of social categories are important to understand sexuality and gender. Narratives of the lived experiences produce a coherent sense of gender identity. Sexuality and gender can additionally be understood as ‘habitus’/dispositions–inculcated through socialization–and transformed through everyday practices. The bases of social inequalities faced by SGM are social stigma, ‘identity ambiguities’, and an ‘internalized’ form of oppression. Intersecting social identities can further lead to a unique experience of oppression. This study identifies discriminatory gender taxonomies as the root cause producing and perpetuating social inequalities. However, inequalities faced by SGM are not uniform but hierarchical and nested. The severity of the heteronormative domination is mediated by the masculine domination already existing in a society. SGM activism can be viewed as delegitimizing the discriminatory gender taxonomies across various social fields. ‘Gender reflexivity’ arising due to the dialectic of subjective identification towards socially constructed categories is the main force for social activism. Gender reflexivity articulated as personally empowering narratives– when combined with commensurable experiences of oppression faced by various intersectional categories–can develop a collective identity which can be further mobilized through collective organization and symbolic representation. Effective leadership focused on building a common agenda and group consciousness can leverage individual reflexivity into collective action for social justice.
  • Storsjö, Isabell (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-10-18)
    The public sector is under pressure to do more and better with less. The government and its agencies cannot solve today’s complex problems and challenges (including climate change, pandemics, disasters) alone but need to collaborate with other actors to achieve desired value outcomes for society. Supply chains have been argued to exist everywhere, whether they are managed or not. In recent years, mainstream journals in operations management (OM) and supply chain management (SCM) have shown an increased interest in publishing research on supply chains and the public and non-profit sectors and spheres. Such topics include research in which organisations such as government agencies, NGOs, and social enterprises, with main motivations other than profit maximisation, are viewed as managers of their own supply networks. However, relatively little research has addressed the intersection of supply chains and government through policies, regulation and public agencies and SCM strategy, structure and performance. This thesis explores what a supply chain perspective entails in settings of (more or less) strictly regulated public service settings and processes. The thesis includes publications focusing on legal processes in the justice system and public procurement processes and preparedness in the health care, energy, and water services sectors in Finland. The thesis author applies the pragmatist paradigm and an abductive reasoning process. The empirical studies and the publications were explorative and used qualitative research methods. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews and documents, analysed with qualitative analysis methods such as coding template and general inductive analysis. This thesis uses the “public value framework” originally popularised by Mark Moore to further the discussion of how to integrate SCM with public value and societal outcomes. The framework is intended to focus managerial attention on the elements (and alignment) of public value, the authorising environment, and operational capabilities. For SCM research that intersects with policy and regulation, the public value framework provides building blocks that are necessary for the consideration of societal outcomes such as justice (for maintaining a social equilibrium in society), civil preparedness (for resilience at a societal level), and innovation (for future growth).
  • Antikainen, Mikko (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-10-18)
    A wave of disruptive technologies, in the form of technologies such as 3D printing technologies, 3D modeling and scanning technologies, and AI technology, are changing the playing field for the creative industries, creators, and right holders. Underlying these technologies, there are two fundamental transformations, whose effects are important for the creative industry and the legal community– namely, the digitalization of physical objects and designs, and the digitalization of human creativity. These two technological shifts are increasingly blurring the line between the physical and digital world. For the proper function of IP law, the law should be able to regulate both worlds. The problem is: How we can fit digital designs and digital creativity into our current regulative framework, which is still in some cases built on the assumption that creation is done by a human being using physical tools and that protected objects exist only in the physical world. This raises the question whether current intellectual property law in the EU, especially copyright and design law, can adequately regulate digital designs as well as properly incentivize and protect digital creativity. To answer this question, the dissertation provides an in-depth analysis of some of the major challenges that the digitalization of design and design process creates, mainly within the European copyright and design law system. It does so by taking a legal dogmatic approach and analyzing the problem against the background of theories regarding law and technology and traditional justifications of IP law. The examination focuses on three specific technologies: 3D printing, AI technologies, and video games. The dissertation argues that, in most cases, EU copyright and design law are able to regulate digital designs and seem to be ready to deal with the challenges caused by the digitalization of design and creativity. This dissertation makes several recommendations towards a more coherent and technologically neutral approach regarding digital designs and digital creativity in the context of EU copyright and design law. In many cases, digital designs depicting purely functional objects and AI generated works should not receive copyright protection due to the lack of originality. However, despite the normative arguments against giving protection, there is a possibility that the technological change in the form of digital designs and creativity will broaden the normal scope of copyright protection, making it overinclusive. The dissertation suggests that if protection is seen as necessary, it should be sought through other means than copyright protection, such as design protection. This avoids fundamentally changing and distorting the concept of originality and the purpose of copyright law to protect human creations.
  • Huhtamäki, Fredrik (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-09-27)
    A fundamental question in financial research is how individuals make decisions under uncertainty, and how the structure of corporations and cultural aspects affect these choices. Correspondingly, in this thesis, I present three studies related to managerial utility maximization, investigated through the lens of agency theory to shed light on aspects related to managerial behavior. Whereas the theory of expected utility maximization typically focuses on the utility maximization of wealth, this dissertation gives evidence of managerial behavior consistent with the notion that utility is also derived from non-pecuniary factors. The first essay investigates whether powerful CEOs are detrimental to workplace safety and health or whether they are “ethical guardians of the workforce”. The empirical evidence provided in the study shows that corporations led by powerful CEOs have fewer workplace related injuries and illnesses. Powerful CEOs have more influence over corporate decisions related to workplace safety and health and from an agency theory point of view, the CEO will take actions that maximize her utility. Therefore, this study shows that CEOs can derive utility from good workplace safety and health. The second essay investigates the relationship between shared leadership and risk-taking through leverage. The amount of shared leadership within the corporation is difficult to measure directly. However, the second essay overcomes this empirical challenge by using corporations that are led by co-CEOs as a proxy for shared leadership. The study argues that CEOs maximize their utility at lower levels of risk than preferable from a shareholder point of view. The empirical evidence shows that shared leadership is negatively related to leverage, which could indicate that monitoring of more than one CEO is difficult, which enables co-CEOs to derive a private benefit in the form of low risk-taking. Moreover, the study finds a positive relationship between shared leadership and excess cash holdings and that shared leadership is related to higher agency costs. The third essay investigates whether the perception of time and more specifically longterm orientation is related to the choice of earnings management strategy. The study uses a comprehensive global sample and finds that corporations in long-term oriented cultures rely on relatively more accrual-based earnings management while corporations in short-term oriented cultures rely on relatively more real earnings management. Both earnings management strategies are associated with costs. This study shows that the manager chooses such a strategy that minimizes the perceived costs of earnings management, and that the perception of time thus plays a role in managerial utility maximization.
  • Galkina, Tamara; Atkova, Irina; Yang, Man (2021-09-23)
    Research Summary This article examines previously neglected tensions between causation and effectuation in the process of new venture creation. We studied 41 episodes of new venture creation by entrepreneurs in Finland and Denmark, who we followed applying the diary method. We reveal tense relations between the respective causation and effectuation principles at multiple levels, and identify the corresponding mechanisms for their resolution, which, in turn, lead to the synergy. This study enriches the effectuation research by offering a dynamic perspective on causation-effectuation interplay and categorizing three modes of their interaction, that is, separation, hybrid synergy, and tensions. Managerial Summary Venture creation is a complex process that involves different decision-making logics. While combining the goal-driven logic of causation and non-goal driven logic of effectuation is essential for the success of a start-up, the road to their synergy can be paved with different tensions. Our study of 41 episodes of new venture creation by entrepreneurs in Finland and Denmark shows that these tensions can occur at the individual, organizational and inter-organizational levels. We also show four different mechanisms of how entrepreneurs can overcome these tensions within their ventures and in relations with other stakeholders.
  • Tuomala, Virva (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-09-15)
    This thesis examines urban food security at the intersection of retail supply chain management and development studies. Food security in a multifaceted issue and has previously been framed through agricultural production and the fundamental availability of food. As more than half of the global population currently resides in cities and other urban areas, urban issues are becoming more pressing in the field of development, as well as supply chain management. Urban food security pertains to the availability and accessibility of food, making the food supply chain and grocery retail a central factor in potential solutions. Urban dwellers are almost exclusively reliant on the market for their nourishment. Particularly in a Global South context, economic and spatial constraints play a large role in food security. This thesis focuses on poor urban neighbourhoods and the underlying societal structures that lead to these constraints.Special attention is paid to the multidimensionality of poverty, which goes beyond the economic framing to include aspects such as living standards and health. Empirical work for this thesis was completed in South Africa, (essay 2) and Bangkok, Thailand (essay 3). The data consists of interviews with consumers, representatives of grocery retail, and social workers. The consumers are residents of poor urban neighbourhoods, whose specific needs and grocery dynamics are often marginalised in favour of private sector agendas. The importance of the informal food sector is highlighted in the study, emphasizing the multidimensionality of the urban context. While there is a wave of grocery retail modernisation in the Global South, it is imperative to also consider the more traditional outlets, such as markets and micro retailers, in the solutions for urban food security.
  • Andersson, Ola; Campos-Mercade, Pol; Meier, Armando N.; Wengström, Erik (2021-09-15)
    We investigate how the anticipation of COVID-19 vaccines affects voluntary social distancing. In a large-scale preregistered survey experiment with a representative sample, we study whether providing information about the safety, effectiveness, and availability of COVID-19 vaccines affects the willingness to comply with public health guidelines. We find that vaccine information reduces peoples’ voluntary social distancing, adherence to hygiene guidelines, and their willingness to stay at home. Getting positive information on COVID-19 vaccines induces people to believe in a swifter return to normal life. The results indicate an important behavioral drawback of successful vaccine development: An increased focus on vaccines can lower compliance with public health guidelines and accelerate the spread of infectious disease. The results imply that, as vaccinations roll out and the end of a pandemic feels closer, policies aimed at increasing social distancing will be less effective, and stricter policies might be required.
  • Blomqvist, Isabel (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2021-09-06)
  • Espinoza Valenzuela, Alejandra (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-09-06)
  • Antman, Gustaf (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2021-09-06)
  • Blank, Margarita (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-09-06)
  • Grönblad, Eva (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2021-09-06)
  • Ginman, Andrea (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2021-09-06)
  • Halonen, Essi (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-09-06)
  • Gómez Pérez, Julio (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-09-06)
  • Henriksson, Nico (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2021-09-06)
  • Hellman, Fredrik (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2021-09-06)