Browsing by Subject "514,1 Sociology"

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  • Fredström, Ashkan; Peltonen, Juhana; Wincent, Joakim (2020-02-21)
    Developing the concept of institutional incongruence and employing panel data from 60 countries, we outline an alternative view of the informal economy and the effects of regulative institutions on entrepreneurship productivity. We find evidence that the informal economy's size is, largely, negatively associated with entrepreneurship productivity, and that in the presence of a large informal economy, governmental efforts to improve governance quality can be counterproductive. Our results suggest policy interventions aimed at changing institutions to practice formal entrepreneurship should be implemented cautiously to avoid inducing institutional incongruence.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Parkin, Wendy (Sage publications, 2021)
    Age at Work explores the myriad ways in which ‘age’ is at ‘work’ across society, organizations and workplaces, with special focus on organizations, their boundaries, and marginalizing processes around age and ageism in and across these spaces. The book examines: • how society operates in and through age, and how this informs the very existence of organizations; • age-organization regimes, age-organization boundaries, and the relationship between organizations and death, and post-death; • the importance of memory, forgetting and rememorizing in re-thinking the authors’ and others’ earlier work; and • tensions between seeing age in terms of later life and seeing age as pervasive social relations. Enriched with insights from the authors’ lived experiences, Age at Work is a major and timely intervention in studies of age, work, care and organizations. Ideal for students of Sociology, Organizations and Management, Social Policy, Gerontology, Health and Social Care, and Social Work.
  • Pajumets, Marion; Hearn, Jeff (Palgrave Macmillan, 2021)
    Is ecological sensitivity sufficient for revolutionising gender relations? Are eco-communities sites from where new masculinities can arise that are truly caring towards nature as well as women, other men and further genders? Could eco-villages be hatcheries of “ecological masculinity”? We present Estonian men eco-communards’ “gender-neutral holistic worldview” comprising discourses of “ecology”, “sustainable economy”, “re-establishing community”, and “spirituality” as an exemplary case for studying doing gender by not doing gender deliberately or explicitly. Analysis of open-ended interviews with eco-communard men, and the articles they published in Estonian media identifies the presence of, and negotiations between, varied masculine subject positions in talking of their green worldview. Thus, gender may be implicitly constructed as an undercurrent of “other” pursuits that are presented as having little or nothing to do with gender power relations. Practices, interactions and identities are rarely gender-neutral, despite some perceptions and appearances to the contrary. This approach examining the multiple masculinity/ies within a “gender-neutral” material-discursive field also has further relevance for discerning the implicit maintenance of social divisions and power relations in other contexts.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Strid, Sofia; Humbert, Anne Laure; Balkmar, Dag; Delaunay, Marine (2020-09-08)
    What happens when we focus primarily on violence as a central question—either within the gender regime approach or by making violence regime an approach in itself? The article first interrogates gender regimes theoretically and empirically through a focus on violence, and then develops violence regimes as a fruitful approach, conceptualizing violence as inequality in its own right, and a means to deepen the analysis of gender relations, gender domination, and policy. The article is a contribution to ongoing debate, which specifically and critically engages with the gender regime framework.
  • den Hond, F.; Boersma, F.K.; Heres, L.; Kroes, E.H.J.; van Oirschot, E. (2012-08-01)
    There is an increasing interest in the application of Structuration Theory in the fields of management and organization studies. Based upon a thorough literature review, we have come up with a data-set to assess how Structuration Theory has been used in empirical research. We use three key concepts of this theory (duality of structure, knowledgeability, and time-space) as sensitizing concepts for our analysis. We conclude that the greatest potential of Structuration Theory for management and organization studies is to view it as a process theory that offers a distinct building block for explaining intra and interorganizational change, as exemplified through concepts such as routine, script, genre, practice, and discourse.
  • Harviainen, J. Tuomas; Frank, Katherine (2016)
    Drawing on ethnographic and interview data collected from the United States and Finland on lifestyle (‘‘swinging’’) events, this article explores the implicit and explicit rules influencing negotiations for group sex as a type of play. Participants maintain a sense of freedom and spontaneity while acting within situational constraints—ethical expectations, preexplicated rules, implicit rules, and complex negotiations that occur during the play itself either openly or more subtly. Because it has implications for the participants’ everyday lives, lifestyle group sex is a phenomenon on the border between games and adult play. Through an analysis of the rules and social contracts arising in group sex, we demonstrate how participants learn to read interactions at group sex events in the way that players learn game systems and how they can and do become ‘‘good players’’ in such situations.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Hall, Matthew (2019)
  • Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Biese, Ingrid; Heikkinen, Suvi; Louvrier, Jonna Kristina; Niemistö, Charlotta; Kangas, Emilia; Koskinen, Paula; Jyrkinen, Marjut; Gustavsson, Malin; Hirvonen, Petri (Hanken School of Economics, 2015)
  • Husu, Liisa; Tainio, Liisa (2016)
    Women’s underrepresentation in the scientific community is currently on the agenda of science policy, both in Europe and internationally. The significance of media as a provider of female role models, on the one hand, and in reproducing stereotypical images of scientists, on the other hand, is often mentioned in this context. However, there is relative lack of research on how women researchers are depicted in the media, especially outside US and UK contexts. Finland provides an interesting context to study media representations of women in research, as a relatively gender equal and research intensive setting seen from a global perspective. The media representations of women researchers in Finland were explored by analyzing person interviews in Finnish printed media: newspapers, women’s magazines and magazines aimed for general public. The data consists of 107 interviews of women researchers from all fields of research, published in 1997-2014. Overwhelming majority of the interviews was written by female journalists. The analysis focuses on both social and linguistic aspects of the interviews from a gender perspective. Women researchers were found to be represented by a variation of frames, the most common of which were the Expert and the Top Researcher. Their family context was frequently mentioned, and the interviews frequently commented their appearance (e.g. hair, physique, way of moving). The fact that the interviewees’ family context was often highlighted in the interviews may serve to convey a message that it is possible and common to combine a career in research and family. One main result of the study was the diversity of representations of female researchers, compared to US and UK studies. The diversity of the media images of female researchers suggests that the media may provide important role models for young women, encouraging women to choose research as a profession.
  • Saari, Milja; Koskinen Sandberg, Paula Hannele (2017-03-03)
  • Hearn, Jeff (2019-04-01)
    Following introductory remarks on how the terms “masculinities” and “men” have been used differentially in recent critical studies on men and masculinities (CSMM), the article reviews some key aspects of CSMM - past, present and future. The diverse influences on CSMM have included various feminisms, gay studies, anti-imperialism, civil rights, anti-racism, green and environmental movements, as well as LGBTIQ+ movements, Critical Race Studies, Globalization/Transnational Studies, and Intersectionality Studies. In the present period, the range of theoretical and political approaches and influences on studies continues to grow, with, for example, queer, post-, post post-, new materialist, posthumanist, and science and technology studies, making for some discontinuities with established masculinities theory. In many regions, there are now more women working explicitly and long-term in the area, even if that is itself not new. CSMM have also become more geographically widespread, more dispersed, more comparative, international, transnational, postcolonial, decolonializing, globally “Southern”, global, globalized and globalizing; this diversifying feature is transforming CSMM. Key areas for future research are identified, including the relations of men and masculinities to: first, ecology, environment and climate change; second, ICTs, social media, AI, robotics and big data; third, transnational/global, transnational institutions and processes; and, fourth, nationalism, racism, authoritarianism, neo-fascism and political masculinism. Together, these make for a “lurking doom”. At the same time, there is a whole range of wider theoretical, methodological, epistemological and ontological questions to be taken up in CSMM much more fully in the future.
  • Strid, Sofia; Humbert, Anne Laure; Hearn, Jeff; Balkmar, Dag (2021-04-15)
    The aim of the article is to examine if and how the welfare state regime typology translates into a violence regime typology in a European context. It builds on the concept of violence regimes (Strid et al. 2017; Hearn et al. 2020) to empirically examine whether the production of interpersonal violence constitutes distinct regimes, and how these correspond (or not) with welfare regimes, gender regimes, and with other comparative metrics on violence, gender equality and feminist mobilisation and transnational actors. Its main contribution is to operationalise the concept of violence regimes, thereby moving from theory to a first empirical measurement. By first constructing a new composite measure of violence, a Violence Regimes Index, based on secondary administrative and survey data covering the then 28 EU member states, countries are clustered along two axes of violence: ‘deadly’ violence and ‘damaging’ gender-based violence. This serves to examine if, and how, the production of gendered violence in different states constitutes distinct regimes, analogous to welfare state regimes, as well as to enable future research and further comparisons and contrasts, specifically related to violence and the welfare state. By providing an empirical measurement of violence regimes in the EU, the article then contributes further to the debates on welfare, welfare regimes, and violence. It specifically contributes with discussions on the extent to which there are different violence regimes, comparable to welfare regimes, and with discussions on the relevance of moving from thinking about violence as an institution within other inequality regimes, to thinking about violence as a macro-regime, a way of governing and ruling in its own right. The article concludes that the exclusion of violence from mainstream social theory and research has produced results that may not be valid, and offers an alternative classification using the concept of violence regimes, thereby demonstrating the usefulness of the concept.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Biese, Ingrid; Heikkinen, Suvi; Louvrier, Jonna Kristina; Niemistö, Charlotta; Kangas, Emilia; Koskinen, Paula; Jyrkinen, Marjut; Gustavsson, Malin; Hirvonen, Petri (Hanken School of Economics, 2015)
  • Humbert, Anne Laure; Strid, Sofia; Hearn, Jeff; Balkmar, Dag (2021-05-05)
    Measuring violence against women raises methodological questions, as well as the wider question of how to understand violence and locate it in relation to a societal context. This is all the more relevant given that measurement of violence against women in the EU has made an interesting phenomenon apparent, the so-called ‘Nordic Paradox’, whereby prevalence is higher in more gender equal countries. This article examines this phenomenon by exploring a range of factors—methodological, demographic and societal—to contextualise disclosed levels of violence. The analysis makes use of a multilevel analytic approach to take into account how macro and micro levels contribute to the prevalence of violence. The intercepts are then used to illustrate how taking these into account might provide an alternative ranking of levels of violence against women in EU countries. The results show that the ‘Nordic Paradox’ disappears—and can be undone—when factors at individual and country levels are considered. We conclude that the ‘Nordic Paradox’ cannot be understood independently from a wider pattern of violence in society, and should be seen as connected and co-constituted in specific formations, domains or regimes of violence. Our results show that the use of multi-level models can provide new insights into the factors that may be related to disclosed prevalence of violence against women. This can generate a better understanding of how violence against women functions as a system, and in turn inform better policy responses.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Strid, Sofia; Humbert, Anne Laure; Balkmar, Dag (2022-02-07)
    This paper critically interrogates the usefulness of the concept of violence regimes for social politics, social analysis, and social theory. In the first case, violence regimes address and inform politics and policy, that is, social politics, both around various forms of violence, such as gender-based violence, violence against women, anti-lesbian, gay and transgender violence, intimate partner violence, and more widely in terms of social and related policies and practices on violence and anti-violence. In the second case, violence regimes assist social analysis of the interconnections of different forms and aspects of violence, and relative autonomy from welfare regimes and gender regimes. Third, the violence regime concept engages a wider range of issues in social theory, including the exclusion of the knowledges of the violated, most obviously, but not only, when the voices and experiences of those killed are unheard. The concept directs attention to assumptions made in social theory as incorporating or neglecting violence. More specifically, it highlights the significance of: social effects beyond agency; autotelic ontology, that is, violence as a means and end in itself, and an inequality in itself; the relations of violence, sociality and social relations; violence and power, and the contested boundary between them; and materiality-discursivity in violence and what is to count as violence. These are key issues for both violence studies and social theory more generally.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Hall, Matthew (2018-11-14)
    Revenge pornography is the online, and at times offline, non-consensual distribution, or sharing, of explicit images by ex-partners, partners, others, or hackers seeking revenge or entertainment. In this article, we discursively analyse a selected range of electronic written texts accompanying explicit images posted by self-identified straight/gay/lesbian (male-to-female, female-to-male, male-to-male, female-to-female postings) on a popular revenge pornography website ‘’. Situating our analysis in debates on gender and sexuality, we examine commonalities and differences in the complex and sometimes contradictory ways in which gender and sexuality are invoked in posters’ accounts of their motivations for revenge pornography.