Browsing by Subject "AoHP: Humanitarian and societal logistics"

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  • Zhu, Qingyun; Martins, Roberto Antonio; Shah, Purvi; Sarkis, Joseph (2021-02-24)
    In order to succeed in today's dynamic and competitive marketplace, it is of paramount importance for firms to manage their brand and product portfolios such that they not only create or acquire new brands/products, manage the existing ones, but also delete the ones that are underperforming. Brand/product deletion is an important but daunting strategic choice for firms. It deserves focused academic research attention, especially theory development, due to the fragmented nature of the literature in this field. This article conducts a comprehensive bibliometric review on relevant publications in the brand/product deletion literature with an aim to provide insights into the field's current intellectual structure and thematic classification of the published studies, and offers avenues for future development of this critical area of strategic brand and product management.
  • Sarkis, Joseph; Cohen, Maurie J.; Dewick, Paul; Schröder, Patrick (2020-04-17)
  • Grant, David B.; Banomyong, Ruth; Gibson, Brian J. (2021-10-04)
    This perspective paper considers the current state of retail and retail logistics and supply chain management to discuss what the future may hold for it through four important issues: changing consumer expectations, the impact of e-commerce, and the relationship with the natural environment all of which are influenced by the economic environment. These issues apply to retailing globally and have been exacerbated by events such as the global COVID-19 pandemic, and examples are provided from various retail markets to illustrate them. Retailers will need to think strategically how to adapt their business models to address these issues by recognising the needs of new consumer segments, focussing on niche service and products to avoid direct clashes with larger physical store and Internet retailers, embracing more fully opportunities in e-commerce, and ensuring their activities are sustainable economically, socially and ecologically.
  • Grant, David B.; Elliott, Michael (2018-06-26)
    This paper develops and tests a conceptual environmental risk assessment and management framework to guide businesses and other stakeholders, including government, in defining and addressing potential environmental problems in ocean shipping and port operations. The framework aims to protect the natural environment and its ecosystem services while at the same time allowing society to obtain goods and benefits from the seas. As such it integrates three elements: firstly, the criteria required to achieve sustainable management that, secondly, underpin a problem structuring method which, thirdly, can be assessed using an ISO Bow-tie industry standard analysis tool. Ocean pollution from water and air-borne discharges are used to illustrate this framework; this uses an input from an exploratory research study with maritime practitioners which investigated the framework veracity and potential for use, highlighting its potential and shortcomings.
  • Kovacs, Gyöngyi; Moshtari, Mohammad (2019-07-16)
    Given the substantial costs of natural and man-made disasters (i.e., mortality, morbidity, and financial losses), scholars in operations management and operations research have conducted extensive research in the last decade in a humanitarian setting. A total of 43 studies that reviewed papers on disaster management and humanitarian operation and pointed out the research gaps in this field of study were published from 2006 to 2018. To enhance the rigor and relevance of future studies, this paper focuses on the methodological aspect of studies on humanitarian operations. The study highlights a set of vital items that should be considered when conducting research in a humanitarian setting: including the problem structuring, understanding the contextual factors in a humanitarian setting, acknowledging the uncertainties in humanitarian operations, incorporating uncertainty in the model, enabling technologies in model development and implementation, and selecting appropriate data and research methods. In addition, this study suggests a meta-process for research on humanitarian operations to target a higher level of research quality in this setting. The implications of the study for authors and reviewers of manuscripts and research proposals are discussed in the last section of the paper.
  • Harpring, Russell; Maghsoudi, Amin; Fikar, Christian; Piotrowicz, Wojciech; Heaslip, Graham (2021-03-03)
    Purpose: This research describes compounding factors in a complex emergency which exacerbate a cholera epidemic among vulnerable populations due to supply chain disruptions. Basic needs such as food, medicine, water, sanitation, and hygiene commodities, are critical to reduce the incidence rate of cholera and control the spread of infection. Conflicts cause damage to infrastructure, displace vulnerable populations, and restrict the flow of goods from both commercial and humanitarian organizations. This work assesses the underlying internal and external factors which either aggravate or mitigate the risk of a cholera outbreak in such settings, using Yemen as a case study. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study adopts a system dynamics methodology to analyze factors which influence cholera outbreaks in the context of the Yemeni Civil War. A causal loop diagram with multiple components was constructed to represent the complexities of humanitarian situations which require critical decision-making. The model was built using data from humanitarian organizations, NGOs, and practitioners, along with literature from academic sources. Variables in the model were confirmed through semistructured interviews with a field expert. Findings: Compounding factors which influenced the cholera outbreak in Yemen are visualized in a causal loop diagram, which can improve understanding of relationships where numerous uncertainties exist. A strong link exists between humanitarian response and the level of infrastructure development in country. Supply chains are affected by constraints deriving from the Yemeni conflict, further inhibiting the use of infrastructure, which limits access to basic goods and services. Aligning long-term development objectives with short-term humanitarian response efforts can create more flexible modes of assistance to prevent and control future outbreaks. Research limitations/implications: The model focuses on the qualitative aspects of system dynamics to visualize the logistics and supply chain-related constraints that impact cholera prevention, treatment, and control through humanitarian interventions. The resulting causal loop diagram is bounded by the Yemen context, thus an extension of the model adapted for other contexts is recommended for further study. Practical implications: This research presents a systematic view of dynamic factors existing in complex emergencies which have cause and effect relationships. Several models of cholera outbreaks have been used in previous studies, primarily focusing on the modes and mechanisms of transmission throughout a population. However, such models typically do not include other internal and external factors which influence the population and context at the site of an outbreak. This model incorporates those factors from a logistics perspective to address the distribution of in-kind goods and cash and voucher assistance. Social implications: This research has been aligned with six of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, using their associated targets in the model as variables which influence the cholera incidence rate. Recognizing that the SDGs are interlinked, as are the dynamic factors in complex humanitarian emergencies, we have chosen to take an interdisciplinary approach to consider social, economic, and environmental factors which may be impacted by this research. Originality/Value: This paper provides an insight into the underlying interrelations of internal and external factors present in the context of a cholera outbreak in a complex emergency. Supply chains for food, WASH, and health commodities are crucial to help prevent, control, and treat an outbreak. The model exposes vulnerabilities in the supply chain which may offer guidance for decision makers to improve resilience, reduce disruptions, and decrease the severity of cholera outbreaks. Keywords: Humanitarian logistics, complex emergency, cash and voucher assistance, epidemics, in-kind assistance, system dynamics, resilience, cholera outbreak, disruptions, casual loop diagram
  • Heyns, Andries; du Plessis, Warren; Curtin, Kevin M.; Kosch, Michael; Hough, Gavin (2021-04-10)
    Tower-mounted camera-based wildfire detection systems provide an effective means of early forest fire detection. Historically, tower sites have been identified by foresters and locals with intimate knowledge of the terrain and without the aid of computational optimisation tools. When moving into vast new territories and without the aid of local knowledge, this process becomes cumbersome and daunting. In such instances, the optimisation of final site layouts may be streamlined if a suitable strategy is employed to limit the candidate sites to landforms which offer superior system visibility. A framework for the exploitation of landforms for these purposes is proposed. The landform classifications at 165 existing tower sites from wildfire detection systems in South Africa, Canada and the USA are analysed using the geomorphon technique, and it is noted that towers are located at or near certain landform types. A metaheuristic and integer linear programming approach is then employed to search for optimal tower sites in a large area currently monitored by the ForestWatch wildfire detection system, and these sites are then classified according to landforms. The results support the observations made for the existing towers in terms of noteworthy landforms, and the optimisation process is repeated by limiting the candidate sites to selected landforms. This leads to solutions with improved system coverage, achieved within reduced computation times. The presented framework may be replicated for use in similar applications, such as site-selection for military equipment, cellular transmitters, and weather radar.
  • Kouhizadeh, Mahtab; Sarkis, Joseph; Zhu, Qingyun (2019-04-25)
    The circular economy (CE) is an emergent concept to rethink and redesign how our economy works. The concept recognizes effective and efficient economic functioning at multiple scales-governments and individuals, globally and locally; for businesses, large and small. CE represents a systemic shift that builds long-term resilience at multiple levels (macro, meso and micro); generating new business and economic opportunities while providing environmental and societal benefits. Blockchain, an emergent and critical technology, is introduced to the circular economy environment as a potential enabler for many circular economic principles. Blockchain technology supported information systems can improve circular economy performance at multiple levels. Product deletion, a neglected but critical effort in product management and product portfolio management, is utilized as an illustrative business scenario as to blockchain's application in a circular economy research context. Product deletion, unlike product proliferation, has received minimal attention from both academics and practitioners. Product deletion decisions need to be evaluated and analyzed in the circular economy context. CE helps address risk aversion issues in product deletions such as inventory, waste and information management. This paper is the first to conceptualize the relationships amongst blockchain technology, product deletion and the circular economy. Many nuances of relationships are introduced in this study. Future evaluation and critical reflections are also presented with a need for a rigorous and robust research agenda to evaluate the multiple and complex relationships and interplay amongst technology, policy, commerce and the natural environment.
  • Maghsoudi, Amin; Harpring, Russell; Piotrowicz, Wojciech; Heaslip, Graham (2021-10-25)
    This study reviews research on cash and voucher assistance (CVA) by applying a humanitarian supply chain management perspective. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify, analyse, and synthesize past academic research. The Content-Context-Process framework was used to structure the content analysis. The findings reveal that the outcomes of CVA programmes are dependent upon critical context-specific factors which influence feasibility and operability. Humanitarian actors must consider factors that are external to the supply chain (i.e., the nature of disaster, politics, economy, and infrastructure) as well as internal to the supply network (i.e., local market availability and accessibility, supplier/donor interest, supplier/vendor selection and contracting, and beneficiary preference). The delivery process is influenced by these factors, which has an impact on programme responsiveness and cost-efficiency. The results provide insights for humanitarian practitioners to reconsider their supply chain strategies when deciding on the selection and implementation of CVA programmes. Potential gaps in the literature are identified, and ecommendations for further research are listed.
  • Maghsoudi, Amin; Moshtari, Mohammad (2020-12-25)
    This paper identifies the challenges during a recent disaster relief operation in a developing country where the humanitarian response is dominated by national actors, with international actors having a minor role. A case study design is used; the main data sources are semi-structured interviews with 43 informants involved in the 2017 Kermanshah earthquake relief operation. The findings suggest that humanitarian practitioners deal with multiple challenges during disaster relief operations. One group of challenges relates to humanitarian logistics (HL) like needs assessment, procurement, warehousing, transportation, and distribution, all widely discussed in the literature. Another involves the growing use of social media, legitimacy regulations, and the engagement of new humanitarian actors (HAs) like social media activists and celebrities. These factors have not been extensively studied in the literature; given their growing influence, they require more scholarly attention. The findings will help humanitarian practitioners and policymakers better understand the challenges involved in disaster relief operations conducted by multiple actors and thus help them improve their practices, including the creation of proper regulations, policies, and logistics strategies. The study uses primary data on a recent disaster to assess and extend the findings of previous studies regarding HL challenges. It also elaborates on the critical non-logistical challenges that influence aid delivery in emergency responses, including the growth of social media, regulations, and the engagement of new HAs. The results may motivate future empirical and modelling studies to investigate the identified challenges and identify practices to mitigate them.
  • Annala, Linda; Polsa, Pia; Kovacs, Gyöngyi (2019-05-07)
    Purpose The institutional logic in developing countries is changing from aid toward trade, having implications for institutionally embedded supply chains (SCs) and their members. The purpose of this study is to investigate the transition from aid toward trade through a theoretical lens of institutional logics and the implications of changing logics for SC members and designs. Design/methodology/approach This is a large-scale qualitative study of the SCs of maintenance and repair operations (MRO) of water points. Empirical data were collected via 53 semi-structured interviews, observations, including photographs, and field notes from several echelons of MRO SCs in ten different Ethiopian districts. Findings In spite of the same underlying tenet of a unidirectional trajectory toward a business logic, the study shows that the co-existence or constellation of different institutional logics resulted in diverse practices that impacted SC design. Research limitations/implications The research was carried out in the MRO SC at a time of changing institutional logics, thereby being able to study their transition or constellation of logics. Practical implications The research has implications for policymakers and development practitioners: when designing and implementing rural water supply programs, the presence of co-existing logics and the lack of uniform SC designs should not be viewed as a hindrance. In fact, the study showed how constellations of logics can provide ways through which water points continue functioning and providing clean drinking water to the communities. Originality/value Few studies so far have focused on institutional logics and their implications for SC design.
  • Aminoff, Anna; Sundqvist-Andberg, Henna (2021-12-09)
    This study aims to systematically go through the various factors that prevent the implementation and diffusion of new closed-loop solutions and, thus, the transformation towards a circular economy. These factors are studied in the context of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) management. WEEE management offers an interesting context to study this, as technologies and political pressures, as well as a business potential for more efficient material recovery, exist. The study follows an embedded single case design based on interviews with actors in the WEEE management system. While the individual constraints may hinder the uptake of advanced recycling solutions, the interactions between these constraints seem to have an enforcing effect and lead to the formation of system-level lock-ins. This study identified three system-level lock-ins, the national extended producer responsibility scheme, techno-economic issues, and tensions in the supply chain, which impede the adoptation of innovations and the consequent transformation of the WEEE management system. Understanding how these constraints interact is essential for any effort to unlock the system and support the circular economy transformation.
  • Grange, Ray; Heaslip, Graham; McMullan, Caroline (2019-12-04)
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how coordination has evolved in humanitarian logistics, what were the triggers for change, and how have they been facilitated. Design: Systematic literature review of academic journals. Findings: This is the first paper to discuss the concepts of network orchestration and choreography in a humanitarian context. The research revealed that network coordination has moved on in the commercial sector to include orchestration and now, choreography concepts which have not been tested in HL literature. This reveals a lag exists between HL research and practice. Research limitations/implications: This paper represents an exploratory study and provides the basis for further research on the concepts of orchestration and choreography in humanitarian logistics. The paper sets a research agenda for academics. Practical implications: This paper is the first to discuss the concepts of network orchestration and choreography in a humanitarian context. Originality/value: The areas of orchestration and choreography have received limited consideration within the humanitarian aid logistics literature to date. This paper is designed to redress this shortfall. As a result, it is hoped that it will act as a catalyst for further research and to widen and deepen the resultant debate with a view to improving the outcome for those affected by current and future disasters.
  • Larson, Paul D. (2019-12-19)
    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop and test theory-driven hypotheses on the influence of corruption and gender inequality on logistics performance. Design/methodology/approach – This paper develops hypotheses based on a review of the literature and theory linking corruption, gender inequality and logistics performance. Testing the hypotheses draws on the following secondary data sources: the World Bank Logistics Performance Index, Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index and the United Nations Development Programme Gender Inequality Index. Regression analysis is used to test the hypotheses. Findings – A significant direct effect is evident between corruption perceptions and perceived logistics performance. Corruption is detrimental to logistics. Further, there is evidence of an indirect effect, via gender inequality. Gender inequality is also linked directly to lower logistics performance. Gross domestic product/ capita enters the analysis as a control variable. Research limitations/implications – While the analysis uses secondary data, sources are credible and their methods – while not perfect – are logical and appear to be reasonable. It is possible that excluded variables could further explain the relationships under study. This implies future research opportunities, perhaps involving case studies of specific nations. Practical implications – The results should inspire businesses, non-governmental organizations and governments to invest in, aid, advocate for and legislate toward greater gender equality – and against corruption. Logistics educators have an important role in disseminating this message. Social implications – Gender inequality and corruption are current, global social issues. Moving forward toward equality and away from corruption are the right moves. Such moves appear to also yield better logistics. Originality/value – This paper is among the first linking corruption and gender inequality to logistics performance. It shows how social issues impact logistics performance at a national level.
  • Sarkis, Joseph; Kouhizadeh, Mahtab; Zhu, Qingyun Serena (2020-10-20)
    Purpose This study provides a reflective overview on the role of traditional and emergent digitalization and information technologies for leveraging environmental supply chain sustainability – while reflecting on potential trade-offs and conflicts of digitalization and greening. Design/methodology/approach The authors use relevant literature and literature from Industrial Management and Data Systems (IMDS) research published in this journal over the past 50 years. They also use their knowledge and over 30 years of research experience in the field to provide professional scholarly reflections and perspective. Findings The authors provide a focused and succinct evaluation for research directions. A pressures, practices and performance framework sets the stage for pertinent research questions and theoretical needs to investigate the nexus of digitalization and green supply chain management. The authors provide two frameworks with exemplary practices and research for traditional and emergent digitalization and information technology. Their reflection concludes with a summary and steps forward. Social implications The authors show how research and practice can be used to affect supply chain greening with digitalization and information technology. They observe that care should be taken given that these technologies can paradoxically simultaneously offer solutions to environmental degradation and potentially be a source of environmental degradation across the supply chain. Originality/value This work provides a summary and unique perspective that links traditional and emergent digitalization technology to green and environmental sustainability work. The area has not seen a clear summary and path forward and shows how IMDS literature has contributed to the field for decades.
  • Nguyen, Hang Thanh; Grant, David; Bovis, Christopher; Nguyen, Thuy Thi Le; Mac, Yen Thi Hai (2022-02-09)
    This paper investigates how customs officials perceive the implementation of e-customs will influence business performance in Vietnam, a developing country with a lower technological environment. A survey of customs officials was conducted, and data were analyzed by structural equation modelling. The outcomes discover two significant enablers related to relative advantages and the new exploring factor Culture while Finance & Human Resources and Legislation as the inhibitors. Additionally, the study also emphasized that e-customs implementation had a positive influence on firm performance in Vietnam. In addition, the study provides different viewpoints of cultural dimensions in case study of applying e-customs in Vietnam in comparison with previous studies. Culture with attributions related to uncertain acceptance and individualism encourage innovation in other literature reviews, however, the study indicates uncertainty avoidance and collectivism as Vietnam also promotes e-customs deployment. Vietnam with high power distance and short-term orientation became old themes. This emerging country switched to low distance and long-term orientation in terms of e-customs innovation. In contrast to previous studies related to constraints from technology in emerging economies, technological factors are not an obstacle for Vietnam. Furthermore, previous literature reviews inflected legislation and regulations of government as one of the limitations that should be examined in further and this research carried-out this investigation in one of emerging economies. The results of the paper support policy makers who can have essential solutions to enhance e-customs implementation as well as enterprises’ managers set-up strategy to adapt with the modernization environment.
  • Bekrar, Abdelghani; Ait El Cadi, Abdessamad; Todosijevic, Raca; Sarkis, Joseph (2021-03-08)
    The circular economy is gaining in importance globally and locally. The COVID-19 crisis, as an exceptional event, showed the limits and the fragility of supply chains, with circular economy practices as a potential solution during and post-COVID. Reverse logistics (RL) is an important dimension of the circular economy which allows management of economic, social, and environmental challenges. Transportation is needed for RL to effectively operate, but research study on this topic has been relatively limited. New digitalization opportunities can enhance transportation and RL, and therefore further enhance the circular economy. This paper proposes to review practical research and concerns at the nexus of transportation, RL, and blockchain as a digitalizing technology. The potential benefits of blockchain technology through example use cases on various aspects of RL and transportation activities are presented. This integration and applications are evaluated using various capability facets of blockchain technology, particularly as an immutable and reliable ledger, a tracking service, a smart contract utility, as marketplace support, and as tokenization and incentivization. We also briefly introduce the physical internet concept within this context. The physical internet paradigm proposed last decade, promises to also disrupt the blockchain, transportation, and RL nexus. We include potential research directions and managerial implications across the blockchain, transportation, and RL nexus
  • Nandi, Santosh; Sarkis, Joseph; Hervani, Aref; Helms, Marilyn (2020-12-22)
    Purpose: Using the resource-based and the resource dependence theoretical approaches of the firm, the paper explores firm responses to supply chain disruptions during COVID-19. The paper explores how firms develop localization, agility and digitization (L-A-D) capabilities by applying (or not applying) their critical circular economy (CE) and blockchain technology (BCT)-related resources and capabilities that they either already possess or acquire from external agents. Design/methodology/approach: An abductive approach, applying exploratory qualitative research was conducted over a sample of 24 firms. The sample represented different industries to study their critical BCT and CE resources and capabilities and the L-A-D capabilities. Firm resources and capabilities were classified using the technology, organization and environment (TOE) framework. Findings: Findings show significant patterns on adoption levels of the blockchain-enabled circular economy system (BCES) and L-A-D capability development. The greater the BCES adoption capabilities, the greater the L-A-D capabilities. Organizational size and industry both influence the relationship between BCES and L-A-D. Accordingly, research propositions and a research framework are proposed. Research limitations/implications: Given the limited sample size, the generalizability of the findings is limited. Our findings extend supply chain resiliency research. A series of propositions provide opportunities for future research. The resource-based view and resource-dependency theories are useful frameworks to better understanding the relationship between firm resources and supply chain resilience. Practical implications: The results and discussion of this study serve as useful guidance for practitioners to create CE and BCT resources and capabilities for improving supply chain resiliency. Social implications: The study shows the socio-economic and socio-environmental importance of BCES in the COVID-19 or similar crises. Originality/value: The study is one of the initial attempts that highlights the possibilities of BCES across multiple industries and their value during pandemics and disruptions.
  • Vega, Diego (2019-10-31)
    Project networks link specialists from different fields and organizations to work jointly on a shared activity for a limited period. In this structure, the central actor - the project owner - plays a key role acting as host, sponsor or parent of the project network. But, how do owners fulfil their role?We argue that the role of the project owner is to continuously reconfigure the relationships among the networks to quickly develop temporary organizations that respond to emerging needs. Using a humanitarian organization, we consider the important activity of the project owner as dynamic assembling. This capability relies on the owner's capacity to conceive, combine, coordinate and control the network. By adopting a dynamic view of the project, businesses could increase their capability to rapidly respond to trends. Playing a central role on multiple project network contributes to the owner's capability to dynamically combine resources and increase its innovation capacity.
  • Heaslip, Graham; Stuns, Karl-Kristian (2019-08-08)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of humanitarian logistics training for the Finnish Red Cross (FRC) Emergency Response Unit (ERU) delegates, and the factors that influence its success. The managerial purpose of this research is to support the FRC in improving their Logistics ERU Foundation training. Additionally, this research provides humanitarian organisations, engaged in emergency response efforts, insights for logistics training design. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study examining the FRC, with qualitative data being collected in a field study, utilising participant observation and in-context interview techniques for rich data collection. Findings This research evaluated the effectiveness of the Logistics ERU Foundation training of the FRC by adapting the four-level training evaluation model by Kirkpatrick and transfer of training theories. The research has contributed to Gralla et al.’s (2015) call for further research in evaluating what people learn from humanitarian logistics trainings and in documenting and sharing experiences with specific training programs. Practical implications The conceptual framework serves as a basis for exploratory qualitative investigation of training transfer, from the perspectives of trainees, facilitators and human resource personnel. Originality/value This research contributes to the humanitarian community by identifying gaps in Red Cross Logistics ERU training and to the development of curricula content relating to Red Cross logistics response phase operations. Additionally, this gives other humanitarian organisations, operating in the response phase of natural disasters, insights for logistics training design.