Browsing by Subject "AoS: Leading for growth and well-being"

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  • Salin, Denise (2020-02-24)
    The aim of this article is to analyze the possible persistence of gender bias in the evaluation of leaders in Finland. Findings are based on two different studies. The first study confirmed that the perceived effectiveness and likeability ratings of fictive leaders (n = 358) varied as a function of leader gender. The second study, based on qualitative content analysis of subordinates’ descriptions (n = 119) of good and poor leaders, pointed to gendered differences in the dimensions that subordinates paid attention: female leaders were both more likely than men to be praised for having, and criticized for not having, communal traits, whereas men were more likely than women to be judged on their expertise. As Finland has consistently been rated one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, these findings can be seen as particularly strong evidence of the persistence of gender bias in evaluations and of ongoing gendering of leadership.
  • Fredström, Ashkan; Peltonen, Juhana; Wincent, Joakim (2020-02-21)
    Developing the concept of institutional incongruence and employing panel data from 60 countries, we outline an alternative view of the informal economy and the effects of regulative institutions on entrepreneurship productivity. We find evidence that the informal economy's size is, largely, negatively associated with entrepreneurship productivity, and that in the presence of a large informal economy, governmental efforts to improve governance quality can be counterproductive. Our results suggest policy interventions aimed at changing institutions to practice formal entrepreneurship should be implemented cautiously to avoid inducing institutional incongruence.
  • Ehrnrooth, Mats; Barner-Rasmussen, Wilhelm; Koveshnikov, Alexei; Törnroos, Maria (2020-07-15)
    Even while attempting to explain the same outcomes, research on leadership and on human resource management (HRM) have largely progressed on parallel trajectories. We extend recent efforts to bring these fields closer together by testing how employee perceptions of a high-performance work system (HPWS) and transformational leadership (TL), independently and jointly, influence four important employee attitudes. Analyses of 308 subordinates of 76 managers in five multinational companies suggest that a HPWS substitutes for much of the independent influence of TL and constitutes an important boundary condition for some of this influence. Implications for future research on HRM and leadership are discussed.
  • Wesemann, Henrik; Wincent, Joakim (2021-03-23)
    Female entrepreneurs are subjected to stereotypes that make it difficult to secure funding. Crowdfunding challenges many of the causes of this discrimination but we know little about if and how it changes optimal funding strategies for female entrepreneurs. Using a sample of 3191 crowdfunding campaigns by female entrepreneurs, we draw from signaling theory to develop and test a series of counterintuitive conjectures for female crowdfunding success. Our results contradict advice that may be derived from traditional entrepreneurial finance: women in crowdfunding should use their gender as advertising, use more female-centric language, avoid self-promotion, start businesses in male-dominated sectors, and ask for more money. These findings highlight new theoretical mechanisms in crowdfunding and develop recommendations for female entrepreneurs who want to raise funds.
  • Nordbäck, Emma; Hakonen, Marko; Tienari, Janne (2021-04-03)
    Neoliberalism, precarious jobs, and control of work have multiple effects on academic identities as our allegiances to valued social groups and our connections to meaningful locations are challenged. While identities in neoliberal universities have received increasing research attention, sense of place has passed unnoticed in the literature. We engage with collaborative autoethnography and contribute to the literature in two ways. First, we show that while academic identities are put into motion by the neoliberal regime, they are constructed through mundane constellations of places and social entities. Second, we elucidate how academic identities today are characterized by restlessness and how academics use place and time to find meaning for themselves and their work. We propose a form of criticism to neoliberal universities that is sensitive to positionalities and places and offer ideas on how to build shared understandings that help us survive in the face of neoliberal standards of academic “excellence.”
  • Zedlacher, Eva; Salin, Denise (2021-06-16)
    Workplace bullying consists of repeated, long-term exposure to a variety of negative behaviors. However, it remains unclear when behaviors are seen as morally acceptable vs. become bullying. Moral judgments affect whether third parties deem it necessary to intervene. In this qualitative study, we first conceptualize and then explore via 27 interviews with Austrian HR professionals and employee representatives whether twelve diverse negative behaviors elicit distinct causal attributions and moral judgments. In particular, we examine how a perpetrator’s hierarchical position and gender shape the third parties’ evaluations. A qualitative content analysis reveals the behaviors vary in their perceived acceptability and associations with workplace bullying. Ambiguous behaviors require specific cues such a perpetrator’s malicious intent to be labeled workplace bullying. Overall, third parties judge behaviors by supervisors more harshly, particularly when managerial role expectations are violated. The majority of informants reject the notion that their perceptions are affected by perpetrator gender. Still, women who engage in behaviors associated with anger or a lack of empathy are often perceived as acting with intent. The findings suggest that the violation of social role expectations amplifies the attribution of dispositional causes (e.g., malicious intent). We discuss the relevance of perpetrator intent for research and practice.
  • Einarsen, Kari; Salin, Denise; Einarsen, Ståle Valvatne; Skogstad, Anders; Mykletun, Reidar Johan (2019-04-01)
    Purpose Drawing on the resource-based view, the purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which the level of the organization’s human resource management (HRM) practices, perceived financial resources and organizational size predict the existence of a well-developed ethical infrastructure against workplace bullying. Design/methodology/approach The human resource (HR) managers or the main health and safety representatives (HSRs) in 216 Norwegian municipalities responded to an electronic survey, representing some 50 percent of the municipalities. Findings The level of high-quality HRM practice predicted the existence of an ethical infrastructure against workplace bullying, particularly informal systems represented by a strong conflict management climate. Perceived financial resources did not predict the existence of such ethical infrastructure. Organizational size predicted the existence of policies and having training against bullying. Practical implications This study informs practitioners about organizational resources associated with organization having a well-developed ethical infrastructure against workplace bullying. A high level of high-quality HRM practices seems to be more important for the existence of a well-developed ethical infrastructure against workplace bullying compared to financial resources and organizational size, at least as perceived by HR managers and HSRs. Originality/value This study provides empirical evidence for the importance of having a high level of high-quality HRM practices as predictors of the existence of ethical infrastructure to tackle workplace bullying. An essential finding is that the existence of such an infrastructure is not dependent on distal resources, such as organizational size and perceived financial resources.
  • Einola, Katja; Alvesson, Mats (2020-07-18)
    Is complex, ambiguous, and fluctuating social reality measurable? Sometimes yes, perhaps, but often not. At least not in the fairly straightforward way assumed by many researchers. This study is an ethnographic inquiry into data collection during a survey research project. Based on our observations of participants’ spontaneous thoughts and confusions as they filled in questionnaires on “leadership” and “teamwork”, we draw attention to hidden problems in much organizational research. Many respondents found measures ambiguous, irrelevant, or misleading. We (a) underline the inherently interpretative nature of research into complex organizational phenomena, (b) warn against lack of reflexivity and overreliance on existing survey instruments when we study complex social aspects of organizations, (c) identify five categories of possible problems, and (d) suggest paths towards better informed research that take context seriously.
  • Pauksztat, Birgit; Salin, Denise; Kitada, Momoko (2022-03-11)
    Purpose Workplace bullying has severe negative consequences for the well-being of targeted employees. Previous research suggests that social support may buffer against such adverse effects. However, it remains unclear if different forms of support have equally strong effects and if support buffers equally effectively against different outcomes. Further, little is known about social support as a mitigating factor in remote occupational groups such as seafarers. This study examines the buffering effects of four forms of support (instrumental and emotional peer support, company support, non-work support) on three aspects of employee well-being (depression, anxiety, and exhaustion) among seafarers. Methods Responses to a cross-sectional online survey from a convenience sample of 414 seafarers on international commercial vessels were analyzed using moderated regression analyses with PROCESS. Results Exposure to workplace bullying behavior increased seafarers’ depression, anxiety and exhaustion. Instrumental peer support and non-work support buffered the negative impact of bullying on depression. The impact of bullying on exhaustion was buffered by company support. The impact of bullying on anxiety was not buffered by any of the four forms of support. Conclusion Extending previous research, the findings suggest that the interaction between workplace bullying and support depends not only on the source of support, but also on the type of support and the outcome considered. While support from colleagues on board was important for seafarers, company and non-work support must not be overlooked. Interventions should, therefore, encourage the development of peer support and ensure access to shore-based support for workers in remote locations.
  • Santokhie, Stefan; Lipps, Garth E. (2020-01-01)
    This study developed and validated a measure of Locus of Control in university students. Tertiary academic locus of control is the general expectancy that university students have regarding their ability to change their academic outcomes. Students who have an internal academic locus of control expect that their own efforts, skill, or luck will lead to academic success, while those with an external locus of control believe that academic outcomes are a result of luck, destiny, fate, or the behaviors of others. A series of steps were taken to develop the Tertiary Student Locus of Control (TSLOC) scale. These steps included defining the construct, developing a nomological network of the construct, and constructing an item pool of 66 items. Following the creation of the item pool, an item analysis was conducted on the 66-item measure to produce the 30-item TSLOC scale. The draft scale was administered to 100 participants (80 females and 20 males predominantly of Afro-Caribbean heritage from English-speaking Caribbean islands). The TSLOC scale had an internal consistency of.96 and had strong concurrent validity and moderate discriminant validity. A principal component analysis indicated that the TSLOC was a multidimensional scale composed of three underlying dimensions. The TSLOC scale was found to be valid and reliable for the current population of Caribbean tertiary students. The limitations and implications are discussed.
  • Karlsson, Charlie; Rickardsson, Jonna; Wincent, Joakim (2019-10-24)
    In this paper, we review and comment upon the development of the literature on diversity, innovation, and entrepreneurship. In an overview of previous studies and various strands of literatures, we outline and argue that to better understand the intricate dynamic relationships between diversity, innovation, entrepreneurship, and regional development there is a strong need to further develop “the economics of spatial diversity.” We further argue that this development may benefit from combining various literatures based upon sound economic micro-foundations, to develop a more absolute understanding of diversity and fulfill the need of more clear mechanisms for future empirical testing. Obviously, this is important both from a research point of view and in order to provide policymakers with a powerful set of analytical tools. We call for more analytical work and more high-quality empirical studies. With a set of papers, we believe this special issue to provide a contribution in this direction.
  • Peltonen, Juhana; Johansson, Edvard; Wincent, Joakim (2020-06-22)
    Attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly inheritable condition with a rather stable prevalence over time and geography, and it is associated with a broad range of negative life outcomes. Increasing knowledge on the condition has led to a growing trend of dampening ADHD symptoms through medication. Although this development has led to many positive outcomes, the broader societal implications are still poorly understood. In particular, person‐level studies suggest that ADHD‐like behavior may possess some advantages for engaging in entrepreneurship and the initiation of new businesses, which is considered a key activity for economic development. Using recent panel data from 11 countries and one special administrative region (SAR), we investigate if the increasing use of ADHD medication in adults is associated with an unintended outcome of reducing entrepreneurship. We find that a roughly one unit increase in the prevalence of adult ADHD medication is associated with a one unit decrease in limited liability company registrations per working age population. In practical terms, the effect of a one within‐country/SAR standard deviation increase of adult ADHD medication prevalence corresponds to a decrease in new business formation of 20% of its mean in the sample.
  • Notelaers, Guy; Törnroos, Maria; Salin, Denise (2019-02-25)
    Previous research shows that work environment factors are important antecedents of workplace bullying (WB), because of the stress they may induce. While previous studies have typically used Karasek's Job Demand-Control model or the Demands-Resources model, the present study investigates whether another important occupational stress model, that is the Effort-Reward Imbalance model, is also associated to WB. A survey study in 19 Belgian organizations (n = 5727) confirmed that employees experiencing an imbalance between efforts and reward were more likely to be targets of exposure to bullying. In line with previous research, this study illustrates that stressful situations increase the risk of exposure to WB. It shows that the perceived incongruence between effort and reward may increase employee vulnerability to bullying. The perceived injustice may lead employees to engage in norm-breaking behavior and also signal low social standing to others, thereby potentially eliciting negative behaviors from others.
  • Shepherd, Dean A.; Parida, Vinit; Wincent, Joakim (2020-02-13)
    Research has focused on the role of entrepreneurial action in alleviating poverty. However, there is a gap between individuals’ short-term outcomes from entrepreneurship overcoming immediate resource concerns and the large-scale impact of entrepreneurship on institutional and system change. Therefore, in this study, we explore entrepreneurs’ beliefs about how entrepreneurial action can alleviate poverty. To do so, we conducted a qualitative study of entrepreneurs of businesses located in Indian slums and identified the impact of expectations, role models, and the subjective value of their children’s education in attempts to alleviate poverty.
  • Khoreva, Violetta; Kostanek, Edyta (2019-07-01)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evolving patterns and challenges of talent management (TM) in the emerging markets of Russia and Kazakhstan from the employer perspective. Increasing the understanding of how TM is recognized from the employer perspective may better equip us to address how to effectively manage and lead the available talents in these and other emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a qualitative study comprising 50 semi-structured interviews, with 37 business leaders from Russian subsidiaries, and 13 from Kazakh subsidiaries, in all cases of Nordic Multinational enterprises (MNEs). Findings The study supports the object approach to TM in the emerging markets of Russia and Kazakhstan. The authors reveal that the exclusive and developable talent philosophy is predominant in these emerging markets, where TM faces the challenges of fierce competition for talents and an insufficient supply, so business leaders tend to be reluctant to inform employees of their talent pool membership. The results demonstrate that MNEs do not act independently of context, thus supporting calls for consideration of the local institutional context. Originality/value TM is still a somewhat novel idea in many emerging economies, and challenges related to managing talents are believed to be far more complex in such settings. Furthermore, to the best of authors’ knowledge, no studies have investigated the notion of talent and TM conceptualization in the emerging markets from an employer perspective.
  • Khoreva, Violetta; Wechtler, Heidi (2020-02-12)
    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore empirically the consequences of knowledge hiding at the individual level and from the knowledge hiding committers' perspective. Hence, in line with agency theory and prior literature on knowledge hiding, the study investigates the associations between different facets of knowledge hiding and individual-level job performance, as well as the mediating role of employee well-being in the associations. Design/methodology/approach: Structural equation modeling was used to analyze multisource survey data from a sample of 214 employees and 34 immediate supervisors, in a professional services company in Finland. Findings: Evasive hiding was found to be negatively associated with in-role job performance and positively associated with innovative job performance. Playing dumb was found to be positively associated with in-role job performance. Finally, even though the association between rationalized hiding and innovative job performance was found to be positive, it was found to be of a smaller magnitude when employee well-being was taken into account. Practical implications: Forceful unhealthy competition and exploitative and workaholic cultures are discussed to reduce knowledge hiding behavior among employees and their negative consequences. Originality/value: The study highlights the paradox of managing organizational knowledge. In line with agency theory, we advocate that while knowledge sharing is one of the major assets of organizational welfare from the organizational perspective, it may resonate with the employee's perspective. Consequently, unless employees' self-interest and organizational interests are aligned, the paradox of managing organizational knowledge arises, and the classic agency problem occurs.
  • Rosander, Michael; Salin, Denise; Viita, Lina; Blomberg, Stefan (2020-10-06)
    The aim of this study was to examine the role of gender in the process of workplace bullying. In particular, we examined how gender affects reported prevalence rates and health consequences of bullying. In addition, we pay particular attention to if the measurement method – self-labelling or behavioural experience methods – affects potential gender differences. A longitudinal study, with two measurement points 18 months apart, was conducted in Sweden (n = 1854 at T1; n = 1096 at T2). It was a probability sample out of a population of all 3.3 million people in Sweden working at workplaces with ten or more employees. The results showed a slightly higher tendency for women to self-label as bullied (8% vs. 6%), while a higher proportion of men than women could be labelled as bullied based on the negative acts they had been exposed to (21% vs. 14%). Exposure to negative acts was associated with more subsequent mental health problems for both men and women, whereas self-labelling was associated with mental health problems for men only. Mental health problems at baseline also increased the risk of bullying for both men and women; however, the measurement method affected if the effect was stronger for men or women. Overall, the study advances our understanding of the role of gender in bullying, in particular highlighting the importance of the measurement method for understanding such gender differences.
  • Helkkula, Anu; Arnould, Eric; Chen, An (2022-05-09)
    In the global world, service cultures interact. The co-shaping interaction of local and global service cultures is a form of glocalization. In China, interaction between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine (WM) has produced glocalized versions of both services. Through analysis of customers’ experience of healthcare service in southwestern China, this paper addresses two research questions: What distinctive cultural resources do informants associate with WM and TCM? And how do tensions emerge in the contrast between customers’ expected and experienced cultural resources in glocalized healthcare service? The resource integration construct provides theoretical language to analyze customers’ service experiences in glocalized service cultures. One theoretical contribution resulting from this analysis is showing that culturally specific resources embedded in service systems emerge phenomenologically through resource integration in customers’ experiences. A second theoretical contribution resulting from this analysis is demonstrating how the mix of culturally specific resources from two glocalized services causes tensions and effects how experience is interpreted and valued. The article’s managerial contribution is a four-step culture-comparative resource framework. The framework can help managers identify tensions in customer expectations and experiences in glocalized service and identify needed changes to facilitate customers’ positive service experiences.
  • Baillien, Elfi; Salin, Denise; Bastiaensen, Caroline; Notelaers, Guy (2022-05)
    High performance work systems (HPWS) have typically been shown to positively influence employee attitudes and well-being. Research in the realm of HPWS has, in this respect, established a clear connection between these systems and employee engagement through organizational justice. In this study, we analyzed if being bullied affects this relationship. Using reasoning from Affective Events Theory (AET), we expected that the positive association between HPWS and engagement through perceptions of organizational justice is impaired by experiences of workplace bullying. Moreover, we expected a remaining direct effect between HPWS and engagement, also attenuated by bullying. Our results in a sample of service workers in Finland (n = 434) could not support the moderating role of bullying in the indirect effect. Workplace bullying did, however, impair the remaining direct relationship indicating it disrupts the positive effect of HPWS on engagement. In all, whereas HPWS were found to be beneficial for not bullied respondents, it was associated with decreased engagement for the bullied. Our findings further underscore the importance of preventing bullying in our workplaces, as it may significantly alter the outcomes of positively intended HR practices into an undesired result.
  • Törnroos, Maria; Salin, Denise; Magnusson Hanson, Linda (2020-07-31)
    Despite the serious consequences of exposure to workplace bullying for the wellbeing of individuals and functioning of organisations, few studies have investigated how organisational practices could reduce the negative impact of bullying on employee wellbeing. In the present study, we investigate the longitudinal association of exposure to workplace bullying with depressive symptoms and sleep problems, and whether high-involvement work practices (HIWP) and conflict management (CM) procedures moderate these associations. The data for the study were drawn from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final sample comprised 21,029 individuals with 45,678 person-observations from 4 waves. Longitudinal multilevel models (with study waves nested under individuals) showed that exposure to workplace bullying increased depressive symptoms and sleep problems. Furthermore, both HIWPs and CM procedures were moderators of the association between exposure to bullying and depressive symptoms and sleep problems. The results support previous findings, suggesting that workplace bullying has severe consequences for subsequent wellbeing. Moreover, it extends previous research by showing that organisational practices, such as high-involvement work practices and collaborative conflict management procedures, may act as organisational resources that buffer the negative effects of exposure to bullying on wellbeing.