Browsing by Subject "Gamification"

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  • Warmelink, Harald; Koivisto, Jonna; Mayer, Igor; Vesa, Mikko; Hamari, Juho (2018-09-27)
    This article presents a review of the current body of academic literature concerning gamification of production and logistics to understand the status quo and provide suggestions for future research. The findings indicate that the execution and control of production and logistic processes has been addressed most often in the current body of literature, which mostly consists of design research. Objectives and goals, points, achievements, multimedial feedback, metaphorical or fictional representations, and levels and progress are currently the most often employed affordances within this field. Research has focused in the given context on examining or considering motivation, enjoyment and flow, as the main psychological outcomes of gamification, while individual performance and efficiency are the most commonly examined or suggested behavioral and organizational impacts. Future studies should employ more rigorous designs within new subdomains of production and logistics and should firmly ground research designs and discussions in management theory and critical studies.
  • Hassan, Lobna; Dias, Antonio; Hamari, Juho (2019-06-01)
    With the increasing provenance of hedonic and social information systems, systems are observed to employ other forms of feedback and design than purely informational in order to increase user engagement and motivation. Three principle classes of motivational design pursuing user engagement have become increasingly established; gamification, quantified-self and social networking. This study investigates how the perceived prominence of these three design classes in users’ use of information system facilitate experiences of affective, informational and social feedback as well as user’s perceived benefits from a system and their continued use intentions. We employ survey data (N = 167) gathered from users of HeiaHeia; an exercise encouragement system that employs features belonging to the three design classes. The results indicate that gamification is positively associated with experiences of affective feedback, quantified-self with experiences of both affective and informational feedback and social networking with experiences of social feedback. Experiences of affective feedback are further strongly associated with user perceived benefits and continued use intentions, whereas experiences of informational feedback are only associated with continued use intentions. Experiences of social feedback had no significant relationship with neither. The findings provide practical insights into how systems can be designed to facilitate different types of feedback that increases users’ engagement, benefits and intentions to continue the use of a system.
  • Morschheuser, Benedikt; Hassan, Lobna; Werder, Karl; Hamari, Juho (2017-10-28)
    Context Since its inception around 2010, gamification has become one of the top technology and software trends. However, gamification has also been regarded as one of the most challenging areas of software engineering. Beyond traditional software design requirements, designing gamification requires the command of disciplines such as (motivational/behavioral) psychology, game design, and narratology, making the development of gamified software a challenge for traditional software developers. Gamification software inhabits a finely tuned niche of software engineering that seeks for both high functionality and engagement; beyond technical flawlessness, gamification has to motivate and affect users. Consequently, it has also been projected that most gamified software is doomed to fail. Objective This paper seeks to advance the understanding of designing gamification and to provide a comprehensive method for developing gamified software. Method We approach the research problem via a design science research approach; firstly, by synthesizing the current body of literature on gamification design methods and by interviewing 25 gamification experts, producing a comprehensive list of design principles for developing gamified software. Secondly, and more importantly, we develop a detailed method for engineering of gamified software based on the gathered knowledge and design principles. Finally, we conduct an evaluation of the artifacts via interviews of ten gamification experts and implementation of the engineering method in a gamification project. Results As results of the study, we present the method and key design principles for engineering gamified software. Based on the empirical and expert evaluation, the developed method was deemed as comprehensive, implementable, complete, and useful. We deliver a comprehensive overview of gamification guidelines and shed novel insights into the nature of gamification development and design discourse. Conclusion This paper takes first steps towards a comprehensive method for gamified software engineering.
  • Hassan, Lobna (Hanken School of Economics, 2018-10-17)
    For a long time, information systems have been designed to provide organizational utility, efficiency, and cost reduction. As technological advancement took place, information systems grew to further facilitate personal productivity and entertainment. Out of modern systems, games have an extraordinary reach in modern society. That reach eventually became too significant to ignore without systematic study. While many individuals recognize the value of and need for hard work in life, many—perhaps all—do not wish to live in a universe of pure work or passive engagement with their life’s activities. In that light, scholars began investigating game design as a means to attain enjoyment and motivation in mundane life activities, giving birth to the gamification movement as we know it today. As a design and research stream, gamification refers to the design of systems, services, and processes to provide “gameful” experiences—psychological experiences, similar to those provided by games—to positively influence engagement with mundane life activities. While the user benefits reported from implementing gamification showcase its potentially positive impact, the understanding of how to design gamification is still in its infancy. Some gamification designs may be suitable to some users or in certain contexts, but the same designs may not have the same results for different users or in different contexts. Furthermore, current methods to design gamification have been developed in isolation, each reinventing the wheel, and hence struggle to provide comprehensive guidance for the gamification design process. This dissertation employs the goal-setting theory, showcasing how gamification design can suit the preferences of different users. The dissertation additionally investigates contextualized gamification design by employing the deliberation theory and researching design for collective, group engagement such as is seen in the context of civic engagement. Finally, the dissertation contributes a holistic gamification design method that incorporates the design knowledge currently gathered in the gamification fields, as well as lessons learned from the failure of gamification projects. The contributions complement each other and provide a multi-dimensional gamification design knowledge on how gamification should be designed. While this dissertation has theoretically and practically contributed to the knowledge on gamification design, there is more to be researched before gamification design can come close to being perfect. The journey to gamify is merely commencing. Not only is this pursuit of how to gamify essential to understand a phenomenon and the human behavior around it, but it is also essential to create a gameful reality, one not of pure work but of enjoyment, motivation, persistence and flow.