Browsing by Subject "KOTA2017"

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  • Mickelsson, Karl-Jacob (2017-01-04)
    Purpose – The paper introduces the idea that consumers have relationships with their own recurring activities. Instead of the usual notion of investigating the relationships between actors, or between actors and their possessions, the paper focuses on the relationship between an actor and a particular activity that the actor regularly participates in. Design – The paper is conceptual and exploratory in nature. It discusses different perspectives on consumer activity in marketing, and then introduces a relationship view on activity. The paper proceeds to outline the conceptual foundations of this view by applying relationship characteristics found in the literature. Quotes from runners’ blogs are used to illustrate the different identified relationship themes. Findings – The paper argues that consumers can be seen as having long-term relationships with their activities, and introduces the concept of the “activity-relationship”. The paper proceeds to demonstrate how this concept differs from previous conceptualization of consumer activity and relationships. Implications – The activity-relationship perspective on consumer behavior opens up new venues for marketing research. It also facilitates new types of marketing practice, whereby
  • Ekman, Mats Johan (2017-12-21)
    This article extends the Coase Conjecture to ethical issues of property rights. The Coase Conjecture combines well with the Lockean labour-mixing criterion to limit the boundaries of morally legitimate initial acquisitions of unowned property; whenever the Coase Conjecture applies, the Lockean Proviso that there be “enough and as good” left is automatically satisfied. The essential point is that, when a claim is made, the marginal willingness to pay for the last portion of it is zero (infra-marginally, willingness to pay may be arbitrarily high). Thus, the market price of the claim is zero, except for the part of it that the claimant inhabits or improves. “Excessive” claims therefore come to have a zero market price, so anyone may take possession of them, by purchase or theft. In either case they must compensate the original claimant by a zero amount. It follows that non-claimants do not lose by putatively “excessive” grabs by claimants. Under these circumstances, any initial claims are just.
  • Subramony, Mahesh; Ehrhart, Karen; Groth, Markus; Holtom, Brooks C.; van Jaarsveld, Danielle D.; Yagil, Dana; Darabi, Tiffany; Walker, David; Bowen, David E.; Fisk, Raymond P.; Grönroos, Christian; Wirtz, Jochen (2017)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to accelerate research related to the employee-facets of service management by summarizing current developments in multiple research streams, providing propositions, and articulating new directions for theory and empirical inquiry. Design/methodology/approach Seven scholars provide short reviews of the core topics and findings from four employee-related research streams – collective turnover, service climate, emotional labor, and occupational stress; and generate propositions to guide future theoretical and empirical work. Four distinguished service scholars – David Bowen, Ray Fisk, Christian Grönroos, and Jochen Wirtz comment upon these research streams and provide future directions for accelerating employee-related research in service management. Findings All four research-streams yield insights that have the potential to advance service management research. Commentaries from the distinguished scholars further integrate this work with key concerns within service management including technology-enablement, transformative services, and service strategy. Originality/value This paper is unique in its scope of coverage of management topics related to service and its aim to promote interdisciplinary dialog between service management scholars and researchers conducting employee-related research relevant to services.
  • Diaz Ruiz, Carlos; Holmlund, Maria (2017-09-21)
    This paper conceptualizes the notion of actionable marketing knowledge by investigating how market researchers produce and justify actionable recommendations for their clients. We build upon the market practices approach, as well as a close reading of market research reports, to conceptualize the rhetorical strategies used to guide firms into action. The findings show three rhetorical strategies: First, framing managerial anomalies draws managerial attention to perplexing situations. Second, loading instruments with meaning develops a narrative in which charts and tables “speak for themselves.” Third, signposting prescriptions reduces interpretive flexibility by encoding guidelines within the text intended to lead readers to an intended interpretation. The relevance for business marketing is that by studying the ways representations are encoded in business reports, business scholars can better understand knowledge calibration in the theory-praxis gap.
  • Cenamor, Javier; Parida, Vinit; Oghazi, Pejvak; Pesämaa, Ossi; Wincent, Joakim (2017-06-22)
    This study examines how subsidiaries can manage dual embeddedness with both local partners and a multinational enterprise. Specifically, we examine the role of absorptive capacity and appropriability mechanisms on subsidiary performance. We analyse how absorptive capacity and appropriability enable subsidiaries to successfully address knowledge challenges related to internal and external networks. We conducted an empirical analysis on a sample of 165 subsidiaries. Our results suggest that absorptive capacity has a direct, positive effect on subsidiary performance, which is greater in emerging countries. The study also found an indirect effect of absorptive capacity on subsidiary performance, which is mediated through appropriability mechanisms. These findings extend the literature on international networks, dual embeddedness and absorptive capacity.
  • Blake, Vic; Hearn, Jeff; Jackson, David; Barber, Randy; Johnson, Richard; Luczynski, Zbyszek (2018)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the process of participating in a long-term collective memory work group of older men, focusing on the making/unmaking of older men and masculinities, and the potential of memory work with older men. Design/methodology/approach Participant review and reflection on collective memory work with a group of older men. Findings Collective memory work provides a novel way to explore ageing, gendering, men, and masculinities. Its potential for working with older men is examined critically in relation to gender politics, power and (in)equalities, interconnections and contradictions of men’s ageing and gendering, the personal and the political, as well as working with older men more generally, including those in transition and crisis. Originality/value There is little previous writing on this approach to ageing, men, and masculinities. The paper aims to stimulate wider applications of this approach.
  • Shy, Oz; Stenbacka, Rune (2017)
    The paper constructs an overlapping generations model to evaluate how different bank rescue plans affect banks’ risk-taking incentives. For a non-competitive banking industry, we find bailout with tax imposed on the old generation or equity bail-in to be efficient policies in the sense that they implement socially optimal risk-taking. In a competitive banking sector, no-bailout implements the socially-optimal risk-taking. Bailout policies financed by a tax imposed on the young generation always induce excessive risk-taking.
  • Saastamoinen, Jani; Ojala, Hannu; Pajunen, Kati; Troberg, Pontus (2017-12-21)
    While inputs used in analysts’ valuation models have been documented (Brown et al. 2015), it has not been studied how analysts’ personal characteristics are associated with their level of critical perception regarding agency conflict manifested in published financial statements. This is important because analysts are, to some extent, substitutes for industry‐specialised auditors in monitoring financial reporting (e.g., Sun and Liu 2011). To address this shortcoming, we investigate analysts’ level of critical perception concerning current goodwill accounting standards, which provide significant reporting latitude. We use data from a survey of Nordic financial analysts and examine this data with statistical methods, including factor analysis and structural equation modelling. We find two latent constructs, one which reflects a critical attitude to the current goodwill accounting standards and one which reflects an uncritical attitude to the current standards. Our structural equation model suggests that having a background in auditing, as well as general experience and exposure to different industries, is associated with a higher degree of critical perception of current standards. In contrast, having a basic (low) level of formal business (accounting) education is associated with a more uncritical perception than having a high level of education.
  • de Boise, Sam; Hearn, Jeff (2017)
    Sociological research, influenced by feminist and other critical perspectives, has noted how men’s emotional inexpressiveness was influenced, and supported, by patriarchal privilege. Such approaches have argued that ‘inexpression’ needs to be broken down in order to build gender equality and improve men’s own wellbeing. Emerging research has, however, challenged the argument that men are ‘emotionally inexpressive’ on two main premises: that, as a result of feminist critiques, many men now practise ‘softer’ or ‘more emotional’ forms of masculinity; second, that emotions always influence social action and so need to be better incorporated into sociological accounts of men’s behaviour. Yet these approaches entail some conceptual confusion as to what emotions are, how they link to social action and whether men’s emotions are inherently transformative for gender relations. This article first details how emotions and masculinity have been theorized in feminist-inspired approaches. It outlines recent work on emotions, men and masculinities before arguing for an understanding of emotions that engages with both physiologically grounded and postconstructionist debates. It finally suggests incorporating a material-discursive approach to men’s emotions, through feminist work on affect, which is attentive to the political dimensions of ‘increasing emotionality’ in order to contribute to a developing field of sociological research.
  • Sorsa, Ville-Pekka (2018-03-23)
    Sosiologinen arvotutkimus on laajentanut aiempaa tieteellistä käsitystä arvosta ja arvoista merkittävästi viimeisen muutaman vuosikymmenen aikana. Tässä tutkimuksessa on tarkasteltu arvottamisen eli asioiden arvokkaaksi ja arvojen mukaiseksi todentamisen tekniikoita ja menetelmiä. Tutkimussuuntaus on yritysetiikan tutkimuksen kannalta merkittävä. Sen mukaan yrityksen arvoista puhuminen ei ole mielekästä ilman, että huomioidaan yritysten konkreettiset käytännöt, joilla erilaiset asiat todennetaan arvojen mukaisiksi ja enemmän tai vähemmän arvokkaiksi. Uudessa sosiologisessa arvotutkimuksessa on tutkittu kollektiivisessa toiminnassa esiintyvien arvottamisen käytäntöjä ja arvottamisen laajalle levinneitä yhteiskunnallisia konventioita. Sen sijaan tutkimuksessa on toistaiseksi tarkasteltu varsin rajallisesti tietoista arvonluontia ja -lisäystä, joka perustuu monien eri arvojen varaan. Artikkelissa sovelletaan uuden arvotutkimuksen antamia käsitteellisiä työkaluja monimuotoisen arvonluonnin ja -lisäyksen edistämiseksi liiketoiminnassa.
  • Fellman, Johan (2017-12-20)
    In the 19th century, a series of international statistical congresses began that were important for population studies, including twin research. The introduction of common rules for the national demographic registers enabled scientists to contribute to the genesis of statistical research. The congress in St. Petersburg in 1872, in particular, focused on the movements of the population, and how they should be registered. Among the facts to be recorded were in multiple births the sex and number of children born alive or still-born, whether legitimate or illegitimate, and the age of the mother at the date of the births. During the history of twin research Hellin´s law (1895) has played a central role because it is an approximately correct association between the rates of multiple maternities. It has been mathematically proven that Hellin´s law does not hold as a general rule. Analyses show divergences from the law that are difficult to explain and/or eliminate. Varying improvements of this law have been proposed. The majority of all studies of Hellin´s law are based on empirical rates of multiple maternities, ignoring random errors. Such studies can never confirm the law, but only identify errors with respect to Hellin´s law that are too large to be characterised as random. It is of particular interest to note and explain why the rates of higher multiple maternities are sometimes too high or too low when Hellin´s law is used as a benchmark. Studies have shown that there have been investigators before Hellin who have contributed substantially to Hellin´s law. In this paper, we re-examine some old data sets and contributions in which Hellin´s law has been evaluated and also analyse recent data.
  • Neuman, Yrsa; Laakso, Mikael (2017-12-01)
    Introduction. Open access, the notion that research output, such as journal articles, should be freely accessible to readers on the Web, is arguably in the best interest of science. In this article, we (1) describe in-depth how a society-owned philosophy journal, Nordic Wittgenstein Review, evaluated various publishing models and made an informed decision on how best to adopt open access publishing for the journal, and (2) develop and implement measures to evaluate the chosen model. Method. This case study uses reports from editorial board members (mainly the editor-in-chief), Web access metrics as well as a Web survey to the journal community as well as the wider philosophy research community. Analysis. After two years as a delayed open access journal with commercial publishers, the journal made a decision to become an independent scholar-run journal without fees to readers or authors, and which would rely mainly on volunteer effort with university faculty support. This decision was made after evaluating various publishing scenarios and negotiating with potential publishers. This study breaks down what is involved in terms of input and effort compared to having handed over the publishing of the journal to an external publisher. Conclusions. For an open access journal choosing between publishing models, elements of ideology and feasibility need to be balanced. This article provides an overview of relevant elements and some means to judge feasibility in journal publishing endeavours.
  • Ehrnström-Fuentes, Maria; Kröger, Markus (2017-12-27)
    This study examines the role of states in developing contemporary extractivism based on recent investments and project plans in industrial forestry in Uruguay. This sheds light on several unanswered questions related to the role of the state and civil society in the governance, politics, and political economy of extractivism. The role played by states in contemporary extractive investments is a topic that requires studies that do more than simply analyse whether that role is strong or weak. Instead the focus should be on how states promote such investments, and on the political and socio-economic consequences thereof. Our analysis shows that the multiple roles of states need to be better understood when explaining the role of states in endorsing and expanding extractivism and its effect on the broader societal governance of business conduct. Our analysis indicates severe and negative developmental and socio-economic outcomes of pulp investments in Uruguay, which are hard if not impossible to transform as corporations can now use the investment protection laws – created by the government to regulate the state conduct – to restrict the possibilities of civil society and state actions.
  • Blomkvist, Magnus; Friman, Teemu; Korkeamäki, Timo (2018-03-20)
    We investigate whether access to bond markets affects acquisition activity of the European firms between 1999 and 2014. Our study provides insight into the effect that the growing European bond market has on corporate investment activity. We find that access to the bond markets, measured by the existence of a credit rating, has a significant effect on the tendency of firms to make acquisitions. The effect is strongest in Continental Europe and during times of high acquisition activity. We further find that consistent with prior U.S. evidence, bond market access has an inverse effect on abnormal returns generated by the acquisitions. That finding suggests that firms with superior access to financing pursue targets of lesser quality.
  • Sundvik, Dennis (2017-01-03)
    This study explores the link between earnings management and jurisdictional differences in book-tax conformity. A dataset of national reforms lowering the corporate tax rate is used to estimate the effect of conformity on private firm’s earnings management behavior when a specific incentive to manage earnings downward exists. Total and discretionary accruals are used to measure earnings management and a continuous measure is used to assess the level of book-tax conformity. Results suggest that changes in the statutory tax rate affect firms in jurisdictions with high book-tax conformity more than firms in jurisdictions with less book-tax conformity. However, more overall earnings management is attributed to firms in low conformity jurisdictions. These findings contribute to the ongoing debate on the appropriate level of book-tax conformity.
  • Sirén, Charlotta; Hakala, Henri; Wincent, Joakim; Grichnik, Dietmar (2017)
  • Primmer, Eeva; Termansen, Mette; Bredin, Yennie; Blicharska, Malgorzata; García Llorente, Marina; Berry, Pam; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Bela, Györgyi; Fabok, Veronika; Geamana, Nicoleta; Harrison, Paula A.; Haslett, John R.; Cosor, Georgia Lavinia; Andersen, Anne H. K. (2017-07)
    Individual decision‐makers at different governance levels operate in social contexts, which means that they sometimes need to compromise their personal values. Yet, this dissonance is rarely the direct target of empirical analyses of environmental decision‐making. We undertake a Q‐analysis of decision‐makers' personal perspectives and the perspectives they perceive to dominate in their decision‐making contexts. Our empirical analysis addresses biodiversity conservation, which has traditionally been justified with intrinsic value‐ and science‐based arguments. The arguments have recently been broadened with the concept of ecosystem services, highlighting human benefits and values. This evolving context is interesting because of the new rise of anthropocentric values, which can lead to decision‐makers experiencing dissonance. Our analysis of interviews with 43 biodiversity conservation decision‐makers from nine European countries reveals four personally held perspectives that highlight different, yet partly overlapping, values – intrinsic, human benefit, conservation and connection – as well as three perspectives perceived to dominate in decision‐making – utilitarian, insurance and knowledge values. The comparison of personally held and perceived dominant perspectives points to one major conflict: those decision‐makers who personally associate with intrinsic values and perceive utilitarian values to dominate in decision‐making experience dissonance. By contrast, personally held human benefit values are accommodated well in decision‐making contexts and decision‐makers who perceive insurance values to dominate experience the least conflict with personally held values. These findings demonstrate the potential of arguments stressing long‐term benefits for easing tension and conflicts in conservation decision‐making, and the usefulness of empirically testing of the coincidence of individual and social values.
  • Korkeamäki, Timo; Liljeblom, Eva; Pasternack, Daniel (2017-04-12)
    We study the effect of managerial power on CEOs’ tendency to imprint their personal leverage preferences upon the firms they manage. Using a unique data source that allows us to measure personal wealth and indebtness in great detail, we find a connection between CEOs’ personal leverage and that of their firms. The connection is driven by the CEOs with a longer tenure and the CEOs who serve in a dual role. The connection is significantly weaker for those CEOs who have a proportion of their personal wealth tied to the firm. Presence of block holders also weakens the connection.
  • Korkeamäki, Timo; Liljeblom, Eva; Pasternack, Daniel (2017-06-27)
    We study the connections between firm risk and the CEO’s personal wealth characteristics, using a unique dataset on CEO wealth and its components. Consistent with decreasing absolute risk aversion, we find that wealthier CEOs are associated with higher risk firms. Riskier firms tend to have CEOs whose wealth is more independent of the firm. We also find that CEOs with high personal portfolio betas run firms with higher betas. CEO’s tenure is negatively associated with firm risk measured either as beta, idiosynchratic risk, or volatility of accounting profitability. A possible interpretation is that risk-averse managers are better able to imprint their risk preferences on the firm over time. Stronger corporate governance weakens the connection between CEO wealth characteristics and firm risk.
  • Galkina, Tamara; Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena (2017-09-21)
    The present study views coopetition as an entrepreneurial process that involves coping with uncertainty, risk-taking behavior, exploring and exploiting opportunities, and developing innovative solutions. It also shows that coopetition can be not only an intended but also an emergent process with low levels of goal specificity, which enables the incorporation of effectuation theory into coopetition research. The empirical part of the article is based on a longitudinal case study of three media companies from Finland that compete and cooperate simultaneously. Our results demonstrate that coopetitive interactions combine effectuation and causation, and this interplay depends on stages of the coopetition process and on managerial levels. Therefore, the effectuation lens allows to examine coopetition process from a novel micro-perspective of individual decision makers. Our cross-disciplinary study concludes with outlining new avenues for future research in both coopetition and entrepreneurial effectuation.