Browsing by Subject "PREM2021_09"

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  • Leitner-Hanetseder, Susanne; Lehner, Othmar M.; Eisl, Christoph; Forstenlechner, Carina (2021-05-07)
    Purpose: This article ties in with current debates on the digital transformation of society and the consequent work changes. Using an artificial intelligence (AI)-based accounting context, the focus of this paper is on actors, roles and tasks and related skills on an individual level. The authors look at the effect of AI-based “smart” technology on the workforce in the broader accounting profession taking an intrafirm perspective, yet acknowledging that the digital transformation encompasses a much larger field in the financial sector. Design/methodology/approach: The authors conduct a Delphi study to identify the new roles and tasks in future accounting. In addition, the authors use expert workshops to clarify the related tasks and skills and determine whether either humans or AI-based technologies perform the roles or collaborate in professional accounting occupations. Findings: The results show that tasks and skills for existing professional occupations in the broader acounting context will be subject to major changes in the next 10 years due to (AI based) digital technologies, while “core” roles and tasks will continue to exist in the future, some will not be performed by humans but by AI-based technology. For other “new” roles, humans will need to make informed use of digital technologies and, to some extent, collaborate with AI-based technology. Research limitations/implications: The authors look at the effect of AI-based “smart” technology on the workforce in the broader accounting profession, taking an intrafirm perspective. Practical implications: This article ties in with current debates on the digital transformation of society and the consequent work changes. Using an AI-based accounting context, the focus of this paper is on the new and adapted roles and tasks. Originality/value: The comprehensive analysis based on the Delphi study and expert workshops provide ample innovative ground for future research on the impact of AI on organisations and society.
  • Wesemann, Henrik; Wincent, Joakim (2021-03-23)
    Female entrepreneurs are subjected to stereotypes that make it difficult to secure funding. Crowdfunding challenges many of the causes of this discrimination but we know little about if and how it changes optimal funding strategies for female entrepreneurs. Using a sample of 3191 crowdfunding campaigns by female entrepreneurs, we draw from signaling theory to develop and test a series of counterintuitive conjectures for female crowdfunding success. Our results contradict advice that may be derived from traditional entrepreneurial finance: women in crowdfunding should use their gender as advertising, use more female-centric language, avoid self-promotion, start businesses in male-dominated sectors, and ask for more money. These findings highlight new theoretical mechanisms in crowdfunding and develop recommendations for female entrepreneurs who want to raise funds.
  • Gummerus, Johanna; Mickelsson, Jacob; Trischler, Jakob; Härkönen, Tuomas; Grönroos, Christian (2021-07-19)
    Purpose: This paper aims to develop and apply a service design method that allows for stronger recognition and integration of human activities into the front-end stages of the service design process. Design/methodology/approach: Following a discussion of different service design perspectives and activity theory, the paper develops a method called activity-set mapping (ActS). ActS is applied to an exploratory service design project to demonstrate its use. Findings: Three broad perspectives on service design are suggested: (1) the dyadic interaction, (2) the systemic interaction and (3) the customer activity perspectives. The ActS method draws on the latter perspective and focuses on the study of human activity sets. The application of ActS shows that the method can help identify and visualize sets of activities. Research limitations/implications: The ActS method opens new avenues for service design by zooming in on the micro level and capturing the set of activities linked to a desired goal achievement. However, the method is limited to activities reported by research participants and may exclude unconscious activities. Further research is needed to validate and refine the method. Practical implications: The ActS method will help service designers explore activities in which humans engage to achieve a desired goal/end state. Originality/value: The concept of “human activity set” is new to service research and opens analytical opportunities for service design. The ActS method contributes a visualization tool for identifying activity sets and uncovering the benefits, sacrifices and frequency of activities.
  • Sarasvuo, Sonja (2021-08-03)
    Purpose The implications of multiple organizational identities for branding research have been scarcely considered. This paper aims to explore what sources of identity internal stakeholders use to construct organizational identities and corporate identities, and identify how diversity emerges in the perceived identities across various stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach The empirical study includes 59 in-depth interviews with internal stakeholders in a business-to-business service company. Findings Employees may perceive identity diversity as a strategic benefit for the company, and employees may not identify with a uniform corporate identity. The corporate identity could become more identifiable for employees through managerial recognition of different dimensions of identity diversity, such as multiple professional and locational identities. Originality/value The study bridges insights between organizational identity and corporate identity and problematizes identity coherence and consistency as strategic principles for corporate branding by proposing an alternative approach guided by identity diversity. Additionally, the study discusses identity diversity-based approaches to internal branding and co-creation in branding.
  • Colak, Gonul; Korkeamäki, Timo (2021-07-08)
    Career concerns can limit a manager's willingness to take risks, which can lead to excessive policy conservatism. An increase in a CEO's ability and willingness to change jobs (CEO mobility) can diversify her human capital and reduce her conservatism. We derive several CEO mobility measures and relate them to a policy riskiness index that captures the overall risk embedded in a firm's corporate policies. We find a strong positive relation between CEO mobility and the riskiness of corporate policies. We also link external regulatory shocks that constrain labor mobility to significant drops in corporate risk-taking.
  • Linde, Lina; Sjödin, David; Parida, Vinit; Wincent, Joakim (2021-02-01)
    Firms are faced with increased dynamism due to rapid technological development, digitalization, and sustainability requirements, creating novel opportunities for ecosystem innovation. This is particularly prevalent in smart city contexts where initiatives concerning, for example, energy efficient buildings and smart energy grids drive new kinds of ecosystem formation. Orchestrating emerging innovation ecosystems can offer a path to sustained competitive advantage for ecosystem leaders. Yet, it calls for the development of new capabilities to sense, seize, and reconfigure digitalization opportunities in a highly dynamic ecosystem environment. Yet, prior research lacks insights into the dynamic capabilities and routines required for ecosystem innovation. Therefore, this study investigates how firms can develop dynamic capabilities to orchestrate ecosystem innovation and, thus, gain from it. Through a multiple case study of smart city initiatives, we offer insights into the specific micro-foundations or sub-routines underlying the ecosystem leader's sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring capabilities, which are necessary to orchestrate ecosystem innovation. We develop a capability-based framework demonstrating three orchestration mechanisms – namely, configuring ecosystem partnerships, value proposition deployment, and governing ecosystem alignment. Our findings carry implications for the literature on innovation ecosystems and dynamic capabilities, as well as for managers.
  • Brax, Saara A.; Calabrese, Armando; Levialdi Ghiron, Nathan; Tiburzi, Luigi; Grönroos, Christian (2021-05-31)
    Purpose: Previous research reports mixed results regarding the performance impact of servitization in manufacturing firms. To resolve this, the purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptually consistent and comprehensive measurement framework for both dimensions, servitization and its performance effect, and apply in a configurational analysis to reexamine previous evidence, arriving at a configurational theory of the relationship between servitization and firm performance. Design/methodology/approach: Combining systematic literature review (SLR) and inductive reasoning, the existing indicators for servitization and performance are identified and clustered into groups that adequately represent both dimensions. The dataset is reanalyzed against the resulting framework to identify the configurational patterns and to formulate the theoretical propositions. Findings: Financial and nonfinancial indicators of servitization and its performance impact are organized into a comprehensive measurement framework grounded on existing research. The subsequent meta-analysis shows that the positive or negative impacts of servitization on performance depend on how firms implement servitization strategies and which performance aspects are examined. Research limitations/implications: The results explain when servitization can be successful and confirm the existence of the so-called servitization paradox. The meta-analysis identified patterns that explain the previous mixed results, shaping a configurational theory of servitization. Thus, the measurement framework is conceptually robust and has sufficient detail to capture servitization and its performance outcome as it feasibly distinguished between different organizational configurations. Originality/value: The framework provides a comprehensive portfolio of indicators for both managers and scholars to measure servitization intensity and performance. This supports managers of servitizing firms in leading this organizational transformation while avoiding its organizational and financial paradoxes.
  • Baharmand, Hossein; Maghsoudi, Amin; Coppi, Giulio (2021-07-20)
    Purpose Some studies and reports have recently suggested using blockchain technology to improve transparency and trust in humanitarian supply chains (HSCs). However, evidence-based studies to display the utility and applicability of blockchains in HSCs are missing in the literature. This paper aims to investigate the key drivers and barriers of blockchain application to HSCs and explore whether evidence could support that the application of blockchain improves transparency and trust in HSCs. Design/methodology/approach This paper puts forward a two-stage approach to explore the blockchain application in HSCs: an initial exploration of humanitarian practitioners and academicians interested in blockchain through focus group discussions; semi-structured interviews with practitioners involved at the UK Department for International Development's Humanitarian Supply Blockchain pilot project. Findings First, we found that main drivers include accountability, visibility, traceability, trust, collaboration, time efficiency, reducing administrative work and cross-sector partnership. Main barriers, however, are composed of engagement issues, lack of technical skills and training, lack of resources, privacy concerns, regulatory problems, pilot scalability issues and governance challenges. Second, evidence from our case study revealed the blockchain application could have added value to improve visibility and traceability, thus contributing to improve transparency. Concerning trust, evidence supports that blockchain could enhance both commitment and swift trust in the pilot study. Practical implications Our study contributes to a more understanding of added values and challenges of blockchain application to HSCs and creates a perspective for humanitarian decision-makers. Originality/value This study provides the first evidence from the actual application of blockchain technology in HSCs. The study discovered that it is still less evident in many humanitarian organizations, including medium- and small-sized nongovernmental organizations, that they engage in a direct deployment of in-house or customized blockchain-based HSC. Instead, these actors are more likely to indirectly use blockchain in HSCs through a private commercial partner.
  • Nguyen, Hang Thanh; Grant, David B.; Bovis, Christopher; Nguyen, Thuy Thi Le; Mac, Yen Thi Hai (2021-02-28)
    The paper identifies the enablers (drivers) and inhibitors (barriers) influencing e-customs implementation in Vietnam (known as a developing country with a lower technological environment) along with determining the impact of e-customs on firm performance. The survey was conducted with the representatives (managers) of firms in five cities and provinces dominating Vietnam’s international trade. The data was analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings show two significant drivers (enablers) - relative advantages and national culture, while compatibility and ease of use are the barriers. Previous studies showed that cultural dimensions related to ‘uncertainty acceptance’ and ‘individualism’ encourage innovation; however, this paper demonstrates that ‘uncertainty avoidance’ and ‘collectivism’ promote e-customs deployment in Vietnam. Previously, Vietnamese culture was known for scoring high on cultural dimensions related to ‘power distance’ and ‘short-term orientation’. However, today, as an emerging country, Vietnamese has switched to ‘low distance’ and ‘long-term orientation’, especially in terms of e-customs innovation. Additionally, the paper also emphasized that e-customs implementation had a positive influence on firm performance in Vietnam. Based on the results of the paper, policy-makers can devise essential solutions to enhance e-customs implementation as well as managers of firms can set-up strategies to adapt to the modernized environment.
  • Anokhin, Sergey; Chistyakova, Natalia; Antonova, Irina; Spitsina, Lyubov; Wincent, Joakim; Parida, Vinit (2021-01-23)
    Employing a panel setting of 88 counties in the State of Ohio over the five-year period ending in 2006, this study aims to investigate the applicability of the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship in explaining the relationships between flagship enterprises, entrepreneurial clusters, and business entry rates. The study confirms the overall positive relationship between flagship enterprises and startup rates, and the negative relationship between entrepreneurial clusters and startup rates. It further demonstrates that the effect of clusters is moderated by local unemployment rates so that higher rates of unemployment weaken the negative impact of entrepreneurial clusters on startup rates. Based on the evidence collected, policy makers should increase support for flagship enterprises in their regions, and would-be business owners should consider locating their ventures in proximity to flagship companies.
  • Annala Tesfaye, Linda; Fougère, Martin (2021-07-05)
    In this paper we investigate how different discourses on frugal innovation are articulated, and how the dynamics between these different discourses have led to a certain dominant understanding of frugal innovation today. We analyse the dynamic interactions between three discourses on frugal innovation: (1) innovations for the poor, (2) grassroots innovations by the poor, and more recently (3) co-creating frugal innovations with the poor. We argue that this latter discourse is articulated as a hegemonic project as it is designed to accommodate demands from both business and poor communities. We draw on Laclau and Mouffe’s concepts of ‘chain of difference’, ‘empty signifier’ and ‘floating signifier’ to explain the advent of the hegemonic discourse on co-creating innovations with the poor. We show how a floating signifier with radical potential, frugal innovation, has been hijacked and co-opted in a hegemonic project that has leveraged powerful ambiguous signifiers, with co-creation acting as an empty signifier. To clarify what is problematic in this hegemonic intervention, we expose how contemporary frugal innovation discourse contributes to a project of governing and exploiting rather than helping the poor, in ways that benefit formal economic actors while further worsening global inequalities.
  • Sjödin, David; Parida, Vinit; Palmié, Maximilian; Wincent, Joakim (2021-06-12)
    Artificial intelligence (AI) is predicted to radically transform the ways manufacturing firms create, deliver, and capture value. However, many manufacturers struggle to successfully assimilate AI capabilities into their business models and operations at scale. In this paper, we explore how manufacturing firms can develop AI capabilities and innovate their business models to scale AI in digital servitization. We present empirical insights from a case study of six leading manufacturers engaged in AI. The findings reveal three sets of critical AI capabilities: data pipeline, algorithm development, and AI democratization. To scale these capabilities, firms need to innovate their business models by focusing on agile customer co-creation, data-driven delivery operations, and scalable ecosystem integration. We combine these insights into a co-evolutionary framework for scaling AI through business model innovation underscoring the mechanisms and feedback loops. We offer insights into how manufacturers can scale AI, with important implications for management.
  • Fey, Natalia; Nordbäck, Emma; Ehrnrooth, Mats; Mikkonen, Kirsi (2021-06-12)
    Pressure is increasing on traditional organizations to transform by moving away from old hierarchical structures towards more self-management in order to respond to nimble and agile entrepreneurial ventures and start-ups. In order for organizations to succeed in such transformations we need to know more about how radically self-managing organizations function, and what makes employees thrive and struggle in such settings. In this paper, we delve into an innovative peer coaching system used by Nitor, a self-managing digital engineering company, which challenges the mainstream belief how profitable companies should be organized and managed. In our study we explore the key characteristics of this peer coaching system, the mechanisms through which it enables employee proactivity and well-being, the key organizational outcomes and the challenges of successfully implementing it. The study suggests that peer coaching is especially helpful in self-managing firms as it is able to replace some of the key roles that middle management plays in traditional organizations.
  • Tallberg, Linda; García-Rosell, Jose-Carlos; Haanpää, Minni (2021-05-21)
    Stakeholder theory has largely been anthropocentric in its focus on human actors and interests, failing to recognise the impact of nonhumans in business and organisations. This leads to an incomplete understanding of organisational contexts that include key relationships with nonhuman animals. In addition, the limited scholarly attention paid to nonhumans as stakeholders has mostly been conceptual to date. Therefore, we develop a stakeholder theory with animals illustrated through two ethnographic case studies: an animal shelter and Nordic husky businesses. We focus our feminist reading of Driscoll and Starik’s (J Bus Ethics 49:55–73, 2004) stakeholder attributes for nonhumans and extend this to include affective salience built on embodied affectivity and knowledge, memories, action and care. Findings reveal that nonhuman animals are important actors in practice, affecting organisational operations through human–animal care relationships. In addition to confirming animals are stakeholders, we further contribute to stakeholder theory by offering ways to better listen to nontraditional actors.
  • Bae, Hee-Sung; Grant, David B.; Banomyong, Ruth; Varadejsatitwong, Paitoon (2021-05-25)
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate strength of supply chain integration based on social exchange theory and its resultant impact on supply chain cost and responsiveness. The study surveyed Korean export firms and obtained 182 usable responses. Data were analysed using cluster analysis and analysis of variance. Findings confirm that the strength of supply chain integration provides a mechanism for measuring the width of integration for both suppliers and customers. Further, identifiable gaps in cost performance and responsiveness were found based on strength of supply chain integration. This paper contributes through the development and testing of a conceptual model based on social exchange theory and also offers managerial suggestions in the understanding of customer needs and the importance of sharing information with suppliers in achieving improved cost performance and responsiveness in the supply chain.
  • Losbichler, Heimo; Lehner, Othmar M. (2021-01-13)
    Purpose: Looking at the limits of artificial intelligence (AI) and controlling based on complexity and system-theoretical deliberations, the authors aimed to derive a future outlook of the possible applications and provide insights into a future complementary of human–machine information processing. Derived from these examples, the authors propose a research agenda in five areas to further the field. Design/methodology/approach: This article is conceptual in its nature, yet a theoretically informed semi-systematic literature review from various disciplines together with empirically validated future research questions provides the background of the overall narration. Findings: AI is found to be severely limited in its application to controlling and is discussed from the perspectives of complexity and cybernetics. A total of three such limits, namely the Bremermann limit, the problems with a partial detectability and controllability of complex systems and the inherent biases in the complementarity of human and machine information processing, are presented as salient and representative examples. The authors then go on and carefully illustrate how a human–machine collaboration could look like depending on the specifics of the task and the environment. With this, the authors propose different angles on future research that could revolutionise the application of AI in accounting leadership. Research limitations/implications: Future research on the value promises of AI in controlling needs to take into account physical and computational effects and may embrace a complexity lens. Practical implications: AI may have severe limits in its application for accounting and controlling because of the vast amount of information in complex systems. Originality/value: The research agenda consists of five areas that are derived from the previous discussion. These areas are as follows: organisational transformation, human–machine collaboration, regulation, technological innovation and ethical considerations. For each of these areas, the research questions, potential theoretical underpinnings as well as methodological considerations are provided.
  • Butt, Hilal Anwar; Högholm, Kenneth; Sadaqat, Mohsin (2021-03)
    In this study, we document, for a number of emerging markets, that positive returns can be obtained using a short-term reversal strategy. These returns are higher for small and illiquid firms, and highest for more volatile firms. Overall, the reversal strategy-based alphas are significant when accessed through different asset pricing models. Our results provide, however, an important unexplored explanation; the reversal return is higher, irrespective of firm characteristics, when market volatility is high, and pronounced for the stocks that witness higher active investor exits. These findings reconcile with the notion that the reversal returns proxy the expected returns from liquidity provision in adverse times.
  • Hyytinen, Ari (2021-06-05)
    Several scholars have recently conceptualized entrepreneurship as a type of design activity and suggested using design as a novel mode for entrepreneurship research. This paper proposes that by augmenting the design mode of research with the problem-framing and problem-solving approaches from management and entrepreneurship, economics, organizational science and team research, we obtain a solid foundation for identifying, characterizing, framing, and even solving problems in which both entrepreneurs and scholars are interested. The more we can uncover such shared entrepreneurial problems, the more relevant the design mode of research is for entrepreneurship scholars and the more opportunities there are for engaged scholarship. We also discuss policy problems that scholars have studied and that policy-makers responsible for entrepreneurship and innovation policies face.
  • Gummerus, Johanna; O'Loughlin, Deirdre; Kelleher, Carol; Peñaloza, Lisa (2021-08-20)
    Building on previous actor-to-actor perspectives in service systems, this study mapped the dialectic trajectory of actor role and identity transitions in the context of family caregiving. The study employed the theoretical lens of role and identity transitions and drew on in-depth, qualitative interviews with 22 unpaid family caregivers caring for dependent relatives to demonstrate how family caregiver roles and identities co-evolve throughout the caregiving journey. Our findings elucidate three dynamic reconfigurations of role and identity transitions in family caregiving. We evince how such transitions vary in both degree and type, and range from incremental to disruptive, as actors assume and detach from roles and associated identities. Theoretical contributions shed light on the emergent and nuanced nature of role and identity transitions, as roles and identities synchronously and asynchronously co-evolve in a service system in conjunction with changed relations between actors, society, and the service system. The paper concludes with implications for enhancing actor engagement in dynamic service systems.
  • Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena; Tidström, Annika (2021-06-29)
    Despite the growing interest in coopetition management strategies, we still lack detailed insights into how the simultaneity of cooperation and competition is cognitively experienced and coped with at the individual level. Based on two case studies, we introduce sensemaking dynamics deeper into the cognitive management ap-proaches of coopetition tensions by demonstrating temporal distancing and integrating as cognitive activities. Temporal distancing captures the perceived difficulties to connect recalled competitive pasts and imagined cooperative futures, whereas referencing re-imagined pasts and futures enables a connection, i.e. temporal integration, informing managerial actions and coopetition decision-making. First, our study extends theoretical insights on how tensions manifest through managerial sensemaking. Second, we contribute to research on in-dividual level coping strategies part of the coopetition capability concept by showing that managerial mindsets encompass continuous re-imaginations of cooperative and competitive pasts, presents and futures. Third, the findings of our study suggest that managers cope with experienced tensions through their capability to not only re-imagine distant competitive and cooperative pasts and futures, but also through enacting these in the present.