Browsing by Subject "PREM2021_10"

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  • Andersson, Ola; Campos-Mercade, Pol; Meier, Armando N.; Wengström, Erik (2021-09-15)
    We investigate how the anticipation of COVID-19 vaccines affects voluntary social distancing. In a large-scale preregistered survey experiment with a representative sample, we study whether providing information about the safety, effectiveness, and availability of COVID-19 vaccines affects the willingness to comply with public health guidelines. We find that vaccine information reduces peoples’ voluntary social distancing, adherence to hygiene guidelines, and their willingness to stay at home. Getting positive information on COVID-19 vaccines induces people to believe in a swifter return to normal life. The results indicate an important behavioral drawback of successful vaccine development: An increased focus on vaccines can lower compliance with public health guidelines and accelerate the spread of infectious disease. The results imply that, as vaccinations roll out and the end of a pandemic feels closer, policies aimed at increasing social distancing will be less effective, and stricter policies might be required.
  • Aminoff, Anna; Sundqvist-Andberg, Henna (2021-12-09)
    This study aims to systematically go through the various factors that prevent the implementation and diffusion of new closed-loop solutions and, thus, the transformation towards a circular economy. These factors are studied in the context of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) management. WEEE management offers an interesting context to study this, as technologies and political pressures, as well as a business potential for more efficient material recovery, exist. The study follows an embedded single case design based on interviews with actors in the WEEE management system. While the individual constraints may hinder the uptake of advanced recycling solutions, the interactions between these constraints seem to have an enforcing effect and lead to the formation of system-level lock-ins. This study identified three system-level lock-ins, the national extended producer responsibility scheme, techno-economic issues, and tensions in the supply chain, which impede the adoptation of innovations and the consequent transformation of the WEEE management system. Understanding how these constraints interact is essential for any effort to unlock the system and support the circular economy transformation.
  • Andersson, Ola; Ingebretsen Carlson, Jim; Wengström, Erik (2021-04-16)
    Several behavioural models of choice assume that decision makers place more weight on attributes where options differ more, an assumption we test in a set of experiments. We find that subjects are more likely to choose an option when we add options increasing the maximal difference in the original option’s strongest attribute, suggesting that the decision maker’s focus is drawn to attributes with a high spread. Additional experiments corroborate this finding. Still, we document that the focusing effect diminishes when options are presented using numbers instead of graphs or when subjects are forced to wait before submitting their answers.
  • Zhuravleva, Anna; Aminoff, Anna (2021-09-01)
    Purpose The European Union (EU) member states are obligated to implement the separate collection of textile waste by the year 2025. Nowadays, non-profit organizations (NPOs) are the largest collectors of post-use textiles. In support of upcoming changes, this study develops an understanding of barriers and drivers for establishing partnerships between NPOs and companies in reverse textile supply chains. Design/methodology/approach This study adopts the embedded single-case design. The main data source is semi-structured interviews with NPOs, companies and research institutes in Finland, identified through intensity case sampling. The drivers and barriers are categorized into seven categories: environmental, economic, social, institutional, technological and informational, supply chain and organizational categories. Findings This study elaborates on the barriers and drivers in a new context of textile valorization and prioritizes them. The study identifies the alignment of interests and goals, increased transparency and clarity of terminology and other main factors in establishing the partnership. Research limitations/implications Expanding the geographical boundaries of current research will capture the experiences of NPOs and companies in other contextual settings. Practical implications This study contributes to the existing knowledge with a broad picture of different barriers and drivers. The findings intend to support the integration of NPOs in reverse textile supply chains. Social implications The partnership can potentially minimize the export of post-use textiles to developing countries, thus reducing the negative environmental footprint and social impact of the textile industry. Originality/value The study looks at an emerging form of partnership between NPOs and companies in reverse supply chains for enabling valorization of post-use textiles.
  • Galkina, Tamara; Atkova, Irina; Yang, Man (2021-09-23)
    Research Summary This article examines previously neglected tensions between causation and effectuation in the process of new venture creation. We studied 41 episodes of new venture creation by entrepreneurs in Finland and Denmark, who we followed applying the diary method. We reveal tense relations between the respective causation and effectuation principles at multiple levels, and identify the corresponding mechanisms for their resolution, which, in turn, lead to the synergy. This study enriches the effectuation research by offering a dynamic perspective on causation-effectuation interplay and categorizing three modes of their interaction, that is, separation, hybrid synergy, and tensions. Managerial Summary Venture creation is a complex process that involves different decision-making logics. While combining the goal-driven logic of causation and non-goal driven logic of effectuation is essential for the success of a start-up, the road to their synergy can be paved with different tensions. Our study of 41 episodes of new venture creation by entrepreneurs in Finland and Denmark shows that these tensions can occur at the individual, organizational and inter-organizational levels. We also show four different mechanisms of how entrepreneurs can overcome these tensions within their ventures and in relations with other stakeholders.
  • Afzali, Mansoor; Martikainen, Minna (2021-06-03)
    We examine the value relevance of insider trades in Europe and find that both purchases and sales of well-connected insiders are positively associated with long-term abnormal returns. We argue that the market perceives the purchases of networked insiders as more informative, leading to higher returns. For sales of networked insiders, the market decreases their negative information content, leading to lower negative returns. Our results do not support the view that insiders use their informational advantage to extract economic rents in the form of dollar profits. We posit that they use their networks to provide signals to the market when trading.
  • Hajighasemi, Ali; Oghazi, Pejvak (2021-08-04)
    This article examines the economic consequences of migration for the Swedish welfare system. The question of whether the high costs of receiving refugees undermine the sustainability of the universal welfare state has received considerable attention in the political debate. While most studies focus on the fiscal burden of refugee reception and the short-term impacts of migration on welfare arrangements, this article advocates a comprehensive, long-term assessment of the effects of migration flows on public finances. Starting from the priorities of the architects of the welfare system, who designed and expanded social policy, indicators are derived to assess strategic goals and considerations. Reproduction of the workforce by managing its age profile, increasing employment levels and the employability of the surplus workforce, and creating conditions that increase long-term growth in the economy are considered crucial for the sustainability of the system. From a purely utilitarian perspective, migration is considered beneficial to the economy, provided that migrants gain quick entry to, and a high employment rate in, the labour market.
  • Hultman, Magnus; Iveson, Abbie; Oghazi, Pejvak (2021-04-19)
    This research investigates the effect of knowledge on the perception of internationalization barriers and the intention to internationalize among emerging market small/medium enterprise (SME) managers. Drawing from social cognitive theories in entrepreneurship, the study tests a paradoxical effect of knowledge on a sample of 150 managers. The model predicts that the characteristics specific to emerging market SMEs will reverse the traditionally positive relationship of knowledge on internationalization intention commonly found in the literature. Consistent with the hypothesis, the results indicate that knowledge relates negatively to internationalization intention. Additionally, the effect of perceived barriers on intention to internationalize becomes positive when perceived international market knowledge is higher. By clarifying the role of knowledge in the emerging market SME context, the study adds novel understanding to the key concept of internationalization knowledge.
  • Einola, Katja; Alvesson, Mats (2021-03-27)
    In this commentary we lay out what to us appear as perils of authentic leadership theory (ALT) in a modest effort to help weed out one theory that has gone amiss to pave the way for new ideas. We have made a detailed argument against authentic leadership theory elsewhere (Alvesson & Einola, 2019; Gardner, Karam, Alvesson & Einola, 2020; see also Sveningsson & Nyberg, 2014; Tourish, 2019) and are not going to repeat ourselves here. Instead, we focus on developing an argument for why ALT is not only wrong in a harmless manner but it may be outright perilous to leadership scholars, scholarship and those who believe in it. Of course, the consequences of ALT are not devastating in the same way and magnitude as those of a global pandemic or the weakening of democratic institutions, for instance. Still, we claim it is harmful -- but in ways that our community of researchers can collectively counteract. We together can decide where we want to go from here. Even though our focus is on authentic leadership theory, we consider it only as an example, one member of a much larger dysfunctional family of positive leadership theories celebrating good qualities in a leader linked with good outcomes and positive follower 'effects' almost by definition.
  • Lin, Zhilu; Patel, Pankaj; Oghazi, Pejvak (2021-06-19)
    Although inventor CEOs drive firm innovation, widely recognized CEO abilities—general ability or managerial ability—could be central to leveraging CEOs’ invention abilities to drive firm innovation. Using CEO copatentors’ invention ability (defined as CEO patent coauthors’ average number of forward citations over the average number of patents) as an instrument for inventor CEOs, we study the value of CEOs’ general ability and managerial ability in enhancing the influence of inventor CEOs on firm innovation. Firms led by inventor CEOs with higher general abilities spur greater firm innovation. Surprisingly, however, firms led by inventor CEOs with a higher level of managerial ability realized lower firm innovation. Inventor CEOs with greater general abilities also translate firm innovation into better product-market outcomes and spur more firm innovation under better corporate governance. Our findings have implications for the influence of an inventor CEO on firm innovation outcomes.