Browsing by Subject "SDG 16 - Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions"

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  • Hearn, Jeff (Routledge, 2021)
    #MeToo has also become a long-term, complex, expanding, transnational, and variegated phenomenon, metaphorically marked by different hues that stem from men’s violences and violations. To speak of variegation in this way is to seek to address the dynamic picture across political and spatial shifts, movements and interpretations rather than talking only of diversity or multiplicity. The chapter focuses, first, on what appears distinctive about #MeToo, by way of the metaphor of variegation, in terms of: cyberpolitics, online-/offline; celebrities and the significance of workplaces; the relations of individuals and collectivities; memory, forgetting and surprise; and shifts across sexual harassment, sexual violence, violences. The latter part of the chapter considers the implications of such variegation are for critical analysis, politics, policy and practice of men and masculinities, specifically in terms of: absence-presence; and causes-positionings-responses, that is the differing positionings of men and masculinities before, during and after violences and violations, in relation to #MeToo – before concluding comments on changing men and masculinities.
  • Barthold, Charles; Fougère, Martin (2021-05)
    In this paper we study the strategies through which Emmanuel Macron was able to emerge as a hegemonic leader in French politics in the context of the populist moment. In particular, we analyse (1) Macron’s interventions that contributed to redraw the political map and renew the establishment, as well as (2) how some of those interventions focused on building his digital movement-party LaREM through personalisation. Drawing on Laclau, we emphasise how, for political leaders, politics is about boldly adapting to contingency­ – and we use Machiavelli’s concept of virtù to illuminate how Macron adopted these strategies in his rise to power. We contribute to the power and leadership literature by showing how, through virtù, a leadership practice can emerge and become hegemonic. Relatedly, we contribute to the political organising literature by suggesting how the digital movement-party En Marche! (later La République En Marche) and its alternating opening and closing was used strategically in Macron’s conquest of power. Thus, we illuminate how a movement-party was used instrumentally for a highly personalised conquest of power. Finally, we make a theoretical contribution by suggesting how Machiavelli and Laclau can be combined in order to understand the populist moment: as a political space full of contingency in which Machiavellian insights are relevant to understand how leaders seize opportunities; and from a Laclauian perspective, as a space of opportunity for some of the virtù interventions to make a hegemonic project successful.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Parkin, Wendy (Sage publications, 2021)
    Age at Work explores the myriad ways in which ‘age’ is at ‘work’ across society, organizations and workplaces, with special focus on organizations, their boundaries, and marginalizing processes around age and ageism in and across these spaces. The book examines: • how society operates in and through age, and how this informs the very existence of organizations; • age-organization regimes, age-organization boundaries, and the relationship between organizations and death, and post-death; • the importance of memory, forgetting and rememorizing in re-thinking the authors’ and others’ earlier work; and • tensions between seeing age in terms of later life and seeing age as pervasive social relations. Enriched with insights from the authors’ lived experiences, Age at Work is a major and timely intervention in studies of age, work, care and organizations. Ideal for students of Sociology, Organizations and Management, Social Policy, Gerontology, Health and Social Care, and Social Work.
  • Boly, Amadou; Gillanders, Robert; Miettinen, Topi (2019-06)
    In our framed laboratory experiment, two Public Officials, A and B, make consecutive decisions regarding embezzlement from separate funds. Official B observes Official A’s decisions before making his/her own. We find a contagion effect of embezzlement in that facing a corrupt official A increases the likelihood of embezzlement by Official B. Likewise, deterrence matters in that higher detection probabilities significantly decrease the likelihood of embezzlement. Crucially, when the same deterrence policy applies to both officials, detection is more effective in curbing embezzlement if chosen by an honest public official A rather than a corrupt public official A. This legitimacy effect may help explain why anti-corruption policies can fail in countries where the government itself is believed (or known) to be corrupt.
  • Afzali, Mansoor; Colak, Gonul; Fu, Mengchuan (2021-12-01)
    We study the influence of policy uncertainty on the moral behavior of firms. When facing uncertainty, managers perceive various socioeconomic obstacles as more severe and disruptive to their business. Using data from policy uncertainty spouts in 93 countries, we document that some firms engage in norm-deviant behavior by cheating on taxes and paying more bribes. While private firms prefer to cheat on taxes, public firms choose bribery as a favorite tool to “grease the wheels” during periods of uncertainty. Strong social capital (local trust and religiosity) breaks this link between uncertainty and corruption.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Strid, Sofia; Humbert, Anne Laure; Balkmar, Dag; Delaunay, Marine (2020-09-08)
    What happens when we focus primarily on violence as a central question—either within the gender regime approach or by making violence regime an approach in itself? The article first interrogates gender regimes theoretically and empirically through a focus on violence, and then develops violence regimes as a fruitful approach, conceptualizing violence as inequality in its own right, and a means to deepen the analysis of gender relations, gender domination, and policy. The article is a contribution to ongoing debate, which specifically and critically engages with the gender regime framework.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Hobson, Barbara (Cambridge University Press, 2020)
    The concept of citizenships, in the plural, reflects different research traditions in citizenship theorizing: citizenship as legal status in a sovereign state, as a bearer of rights and obligations; citizenship as participation (civic republicanism); and citizenship as social membership. Each of these enhance the capabilities of individuals to become participants in political, economic and social spheres of life. Citizenships as a concept also embraces practices: how these aspects of citizenship are experienced in everyday encounters and the relationships of power - in families, workplaces, welfare offices, social movements - and their variations in institutional contexts. We focus on how gender has become more salient in theorizing across these citizenship domains, extending the boundaries of social membership and inclusion (Lister 2003; Hobson and Lister 2002). Implicit in the pluralizing of citizenships is the recognition of the need for a dynamic concept that engages with multi-dimensional aspects of gender, citizenships and social memberships within, below and beyond the state. This approach allows us to capture both the diversity in locations and situations of individuals and groups and the multi-scalar structures of governance: by national and transnational institutions and actors, as well as the opportunities and constraints for social movements to transform them. Finally, this chapter engages with the theoretical terrain on intersectionalities, viewing gender through the lens of complex inequalities across age, citizenship/migrant status, class, ethnicity/race, region, and their intersections. Throughout we engage with the dilemmas and challenges in theorizing gender, citizenships and social memberships: if and how gender matters in the framing of citizenship and what processes shape social divisions and citizenship identities.
  • Afzali, Mansoor; Martikainen, Minna (2021-06-03)
    We examine the value relevance of insider trades in Europe and find that both purchases and sales of well-connected insiders are positively associated with long-term abnormal returns. We argue that the market perceives the purchases of networked insiders as more informative, leading to higher returns. For sales of networked insiders, the market decreases their negative information content, leading to lower negative returns. Our results do not support the view that insiders use their informational advantage to extract economic rents in the form of dollar profits. We posit that they use their networks to provide signals to the market when trading.
  • Fougère, Martin; Barthold, Charles (2020-03-13)
    This speaking out article argues that populism is not only a phenomenon that characterizes extremist figures such as Farage, Trump or Le Pen. Drawing on Laclau’s conceptualization of populism, we show how French President Emmanuel Macron developed in 2017 a form of anti-extreme electoral populism relying upon (1) the creation of a new political frontier between ‘progressive reformers’ and ‘backward-looking conservatives’, and (2) a number of key empty signifiers, such as ‘Revolution’, ‘(The Republic) onwards’ and ‘and at the same time’. These discursive levers allowed Macron’s campaigns to incarnate a gradually larger plurality of demands, modulating the openness of equivalential chains over three successful electoral steps: the presidential first round, the presidential second round and the parliamentary elections. In parallel, his movement gradually moved from emergent organizing through a partial organization to a bureaucratized and hierarchized party. Thus, our analysis illuminates how Macron organized his own populism, based on a completely new movement: Macron’s electoral populism exploited the middle space left vacant by all other candidates, it relied on its own anti-establishment discourse, and in doing so it succeeded in unifying much more demands than other populisms, leading to a landslide win in the French parliamentary elections.
  • Ehrnström-Fuentes, Maria (2020-10-29)
    The aim of this paper is to examine how territorial movements, as distinct forms of place-based social movements, organise in defence of life against the threat of resource extraction on their land. Based on the experiences of Indigenous Lafkenche-Mapuche members of a protracted struggle against a pulp mill in southern Chile, the study seeks to address the following research questions: (1) How do territorial movements emerge and organise the defence of their threatened lives? and (2) How do diverging (Indigenous and non-Indigenous) territorial relations shape the dynamics of the struggle? Combining insights from Enrique Dussel’s ‘ethics of liberation’ with that of Indigenous ontologies, this study suggests that territorial movements emerge out of the awakening of a critical consciousness of the threat of death and the collective ‘desire to live’ that define the dynamics of the struggle. The findings demonstrate how the diverging territorial relations, the societally embedded ‘coloniality of power’, and the state and corporate induced violence shape the movement dynamics. Changes in the movement dynamics also occur as a result of the struggle itself, as the movement actors’ unified desire to live continuously transforms the people and shapes the territory they inhabit.
  • Alvesson, Mats; Einola, Katja; Schaefer, Stephan (2021-01-06)
    In this essay, we discuss basic orientations and ways of being among us, the academics, especially in the context of research. Using German poet, scholar and author Friedrich Schiller’s distinction between ‘der philosophische Kopf’ (‘philosophical mind’) and ‘Brotgelehrte’ (‘bread-fed scholar’), we contrast ideal-typical figures in academia. We find these forgotten 18th century characters inspirational to help us understand some troublesome contemporary developments of academics and academia and to remind us of the perhaps perennial nature of the ongoing controversies and debates. We further develop and nuance these figures and bring them to the 21st century. Like Schiller in his time, we want to highlight the importance of each of us in shaping what academia is and what it becomes. The contrast may help us think through who we are, what is driving us in our work, and how we can (re)construct ourselves in the light of dominant normalizations and templates for being in contemporary academia.
  • Grant, David B.; Kovacs, Gyöngyi; Spens, Karen (2018)
    Purpose This paper is a viewpoint and its objective is to discuss questionable research practices in business research, particularly in the logistics and supply chain management discipline, in light of antecedents influenced by the current academic environment and the consequences for academic rigour and relevance in order to stimulate thinking and debate among the academic community. Design/methodology/approach A literature review and autoethnographic approach were used to examine these issues based on over sixty years’ collective academic experience of the authors. Data was collected from discussions among the paper’s authors as well as recounting open discussions with other academics and journal editors to collate their observations. Findings Evidence is provided of issues the authors have seen first-hand where antecedents in the academic environment influences questionable research practices, which then detrimentally affect research rigour and relevance, integrity and proper contributions to ground-breaking research and knowledge advancement. Research limitations/implications This paper is based on personal observations and experiences of the three authors as well as open-ended discussions with others in the academic community. Suggestions are provided for various academic stakeholders to address these issues. Practical implications Practical implications are only provided for academics in their roles as authors, journal editors and reviewers. Social implications Encouraging the academic community to eliminate questionable research practices to improve the rigour, relevance and quality of research will provide more credibility and integrity resulting in better impact and outcomes for society at large. Originality/value The value of this paper is in stimulating thinking and debate amongst academics to return to core issues and values in academia opposed to focusing on narrow university goals focussed on other antecedents of questionable research practices.
  • Heaslip, Graham; Kovacs, Gyöngyi; Grant, David B. (2018)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review and conceptual consideration of servitization in humanitarian logistics (HL) and provide a research agenda for HL scholars and insight for practitioners and by doing so will fill a gap in existing research and practice. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses a literature-based approach that extends concepts usually applied in a commercial context to the area of HL. Findings The paper initiates a discourse on the importance of taking into account servitization in developing and managing effective emergency relief chains. This paper argues that a broader servitization paradigm needs to be integrated for international humanitarian organisations (IHOs) to maintain a competitive advantage. Originality/value The authors investigate servitization as a management innovation in IHOs and plot a research agenda for scholars.
  • Abiková, Jana; Piotrowicz, Wojciech (2021-02-09)
    In 2015–16, Europe witnessed the biggest refugee crisis since the Second World War. Over a million people moved via different migration routes. The key route was the Balkan corridor running from Turkey, via Greece, to Central, Western and Northern Europe. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and changes in the route and provide an analysis of transit via Balkan countries, looking at factors that influenced the shape of the corridor. This refugee crisis was challenging for European countries and the whole European Union (EU). This corridor was unique, being de facto formalized semi‐legal territory, which the EU had never faced before. An official reaction to the crisis was necessary due to the substantial number of people who were on the move, seeking to cross the Balkan countries in the fastest manner possible. Therefore, the response was focused on arranging transport and providing only short‐term accommodation. This paper uses the PESTLE framework to examine the key political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental aspects that influenced the Balkan corridor, as well as changes in the route over time and responses to them. The role of the media in shaping the corridor is also acknowledged, thus resulting in a PESTLE‐M framework. Findings from the research are important, as it is likely that the EU will face a similar crisis in the near future. Therefore, there is a need to prepare and develop a plan in case such a situation arises.
  • Strid, Sofia; Humbert, Anne Laure; Hearn, Jeff; Balkmar, Dag (2021-04-15)
    The aim of the article is to examine if and how the welfare state regime typology translates into a violence regime typology in a European context. It builds on the concept of violence regimes (Strid et al. 2017; Hearn et al. 2020) to empirically examine whether the production of interpersonal violence constitutes distinct regimes, and how these correspond (or not) with welfare regimes, gender regimes, and with other comparative metrics on violence, gender equality and feminist mobilisation and transnational actors. Its main contribution is to operationalise the concept of violence regimes, thereby moving from theory to a first empirical measurement. By first constructing a new composite measure of violence, a Violence Regimes Index, based on secondary administrative and survey data covering the then 28 EU member states, countries are clustered along two axes of violence: ‘deadly’ violence and ‘damaging’ gender-based violence. This serves to examine if, and how, the production of gendered violence in different states constitutes distinct regimes, analogous to welfare state regimes, as well as to enable future research and further comparisons and contrasts, specifically related to violence and the welfare state. By providing an empirical measurement of violence regimes in the EU, the article then contributes further to the debates on welfare, welfare regimes, and violence. It specifically contributes with discussions on the extent to which there are different violence regimes, comparable to welfare regimes, and with discussions on the relevance of moving from thinking about violence as an institution within other inequality regimes, to thinking about violence as a macro-regime, a way of governing and ruling in its own right. The article concludes that the exclusion of violence from mainstream social theory and research has produced results that may not be valid, and offers an alternative classification using the concept of violence regimes, thereby demonstrating the usefulness of the concept.
  • Mollah, Sabur; Skully, Michael; Liljeblom, Eva (2021-04-29)
    This paper examines whether variations in strong boards explain the differences between risk-taking in Islamic and conventional banks. From an analysis of a pooled sample of Islamic and conventional banks, we find that strong boards in general serve their shareholders through engaging in higher risk-taking activities across both types of banks. In Islamic banks, however, the Shari’ah supervisory board (SSB) is found to mitigate risk-taking when integrated with a strong board, as religiosity restrains risk-taking. We recommend that Islamic bank regulators improve the SSB’s monitoring abilities, and thus facilitate its interaction with the board of directors.
  • Lewis, Ruth; Hall, Matthew; Hearn, Jeff (www.parliament.uk, 2020-06-03)
  • Silvola, Hanna; Vinnari, Eija (2020-09-02)
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to enrich extant understanding of the role of both agency and context in the uptake of sustainability assurance. To this end, the authors examine auditors' attempts to promote sustainability assurance and establish it as a practice requiring the professional involvement of auditors. Design/methodology/approach: Applying institutional work (Lawrence and Suddaby, 2006) and institutional logics (Thornton, 2002; Thornton et al., 2012) as the method theories, the authors examine interview data and a variety of documentary evidence collected in Finland, a small society characterized by social and environmental values, beliefs in functioning institutions and public trust in companies behaving responsibly. Findings: With this study, the authors make two main contributions to extant literature. First, the authors illustrate the limits that society-level logics related to corporate social responsibility, together with the undermining or rejected institutional work of other agents, place especially on the political and cultural work undertaken by auditors. Second, the study responds to Power's (2003) call for country-specific studies by exploring a rather unique context, Finland, where societal trust in companies is arguably stronger than in many other countries and this trust appears to affect how actors perceive the need for sustainability assurance. Originality/value: This is one of the few accounting studies that combines institutional logics and institutional work to study the uptake of a management fashion, in this case sustainability assurance.
  • Humbert, Anne Laure; Strid, Sofia; Hearn, Jeff; Balkmar, Dag (2021-05-05)
    Measuring violence against women raises methodological questions, as well as the wider question of how to understand violence and locate it in relation to a societal context. This is all the more relevant given that measurement of violence against women in the EU has made an interesting phenomenon apparent, the so-called ‘Nordic Paradox’, whereby prevalence is higher in more gender equal countries. This article examines this phenomenon by exploring a range of factors—methodological, demographic and societal—to contextualise disclosed levels of violence. The analysis makes use of a multilevel analytic approach to take into account how macro and micro levels contribute to the prevalence of violence. The intercepts are then used to illustrate how taking these into account might provide an alternative ranking of levels of violence against women in EU countries. The results show that the ‘Nordic Paradox’ disappears—and can be undone—when factors at individual and country levels are considered. We conclude that the ‘Nordic Paradox’ cannot be understood independently from a wider pattern of violence in society, and should be seen as connected and co-constituted in specific formations, domains or regimes of violence. Our results show that the use of multi-level models can provide new insights into the factors that may be related to disclosed prevalence of violence against women. This can generate a better understanding of how violence against women functions as a system, and in turn inform better policy responses.