Browsing by Subject "SDG 9 - Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure"

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  • Grant, David B.; Banomyong, Ruth; Gibson, Brian J. (2021-10-04)
    This perspective paper considers the current state of retail and retail logistics and supply chain management to discuss what the future may hold for it through four important issues: changing consumer expectations, the impact of e-commerce, and the relationship with the natural environment all of which are influenced by the economic environment. These issues apply to retailing globally and have been exacerbated by events such as the global COVID-19 pandemic, and examples are provided from various retail markets to illustrate them. Retailers will need to think strategically how to adapt their business models to address these issues by recognising the needs of new consumer segments, focussing on niche service and products to avoid direct clashes with larger physical store and Internet retailers, embracing more fully opportunities in e-commerce, and ensuring their activities are sustainable economically, socially and ecologically.
  • Harpring, Russell; Maghsoudi, Amin; Fikar, Christian; Piotrowicz, Wojciech; Heaslip, Graham (2021-03-03)
    Purpose: This research describes compounding factors in a complex emergency which exacerbate a cholera epidemic among vulnerable populations due to supply chain disruptions. Basic needs such as food, medicine, water, sanitation, and hygiene commodities, are critical to reduce the incidence rate of cholera and control the spread of infection. Conflicts cause damage to infrastructure, displace vulnerable populations, and restrict the flow of goods from both commercial and humanitarian organizations. This work assesses the underlying internal and external factors which either aggravate or mitigate the risk of a cholera outbreak in such settings, using Yemen as a case study. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study adopts a system dynamics methodology to analyze factors which influence cholera outbreaks in the context of the Yemeni Civil War. A causal loop diagram with multiple components was constructed to represent the complexities of humanitarian situations which require critical decision-making. The model was built using data from humanitarian organizations, NGOs, and practitioners, along with literature from academic sources. Variables in the model were confirmed through semistructured interviews with a field expert. Findings: Compounding factors which influenced the cholera outbreak in Yemen are visualized in a causal loop diagram, which can improve understanding of relationships where numerous uncertainties exist. A strong link exists between humanitarian response and the level of infrastructure development in country. Supply chains are affected by constraints deriving from the Yemeni conflict, further inhibiting the use of infrastructure, which limits access to basic goods and services. Aligning long-term development objectives with short-term humanitarian response efforts can create more flexible modes of assistance to prevent and control future outbreaks. Research limitations/implications: The model focuses on the qualitative aspects of system dynamics to visualize the logistics and supply chain-related constraints that impact cholera prevention, treatment, and control through humanitarian interventions. The resulting causal loop diagram is bounded by the Yemen context, thus an extension of the model adapted for other contexts is recommended for further study. Practical implications: This research presents a systematic view of dynamic factors existing in complex emergencies which have cause and effect relationships. Several models of cholera outbreaks have been used in previous studies, primarily focusing on the modes and mechanisms of transmission throughout a population. However, such models typically do not include other internal and external factors which influence the population and context at the site of an outbreak. This model incorporates those factors from a logistics perspective to address the distribution of in-kind goods and cash and voucher assistance. Social implications: This research has been aligned with six of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, using their associated targets in the model as variables which influence the cholera incidence rate. Recognizing that the SDGs are interlinked, as are the dynamic factors in complex humanitarian emergencies, we have chosen to take an interdisciplinary approach to consider social, economic, and environmental factors which may be impacted by this research. Originality/Value: This paper provides an insight into the underlying interrelations of internal and external factors present in the context of a cholera outbreak in a complex emergency. Supply chains for food, WASH, and health commodities are crucial to help prevent, control, and treat an outbreak. The model exposes vulnerabilities in the supply chain which may offer guidance for decision makers to improve resilience, reduce disruptions, and decrease the severity of cholera outbreaks. Keywords: Humanitarian logistics, complex emergency, cash and voucher assistance, epidemics, in-kind assistance, system dynamics, resilience, cholera outbreak, disruptions, casual loop diagram
  • Ittonen, Kim; Myllymäki, Emma-Riikka; Tronnes, Per Christen (2019-07-01)
    Purpose This paper focuses on bankaudit committees and examines whether audit committee members who are formerauditors are associated with the acquisition of audit and non-audit servicesfrom their former employers.   Design/methodology/approach The study empirically examinesa sample of large banks that are included in the S&P Composite 1500.   Findings The paper reportssignificantly lower audit fees and a higher proportion of non-audit fees tototal fees when the audit committee chair is an alumnus of the incumbent auditfirm. Moreover, additional analysis reveals that these findings are strongerfor banks with more earnings management.   Researchlimitations/implications Overall, the findings indicatethat audit firms might consider banks using their alumni as audit committeechairs to be less risky or easier to audit, thus requiring relatively lesseffort from the auditors. The reduced effort required to audit clients withaudit firm alumni on their audit committees then has the effect of reducing theaudit fees charged. Alternatively, their auditing experience and cognitiveproximity might influence the assessment of the need for auditing or theability to negotiate lower audit fees on the part of audit firm alumni.   Originality/value This paper provides empiricalevidence of the association between audit firm alumni in influential positionson an audit committee and fees paid to those audit firms in the bankingindustry. The findings contribute to the literature by suggesting that bankswith affiliated former auditors chairing their audit committees not only havesignificantly lower audit fees but also a higher proportion is spent onnon-audit services.
  • Hilken, Tim; Heller, Jonas; Keeling, Debbie I.; Chylinski, Mathew; Mahr, Dominik; de Ruyter, Ko (2022-04-13)
    Many firms use augmented reality (AR) that projects lifelike product holograms into the physical environment to assist customers in bridging so-called “imagination gaps,” which can arise on their path to purchase. However, research has not yet studied whether and how AR might help customers address two pertinent sources of such imagination gaps: (1) increased cognitive load when evaluating multiple products together (e.g., in a bundle) and (2) extended physical distance to the point-of-sale (e.g., out-of-store, at home). Building on mental imagery theorizing, we explain how AR supports customers in bridging these gaps, and, through a series of field and experimental studies, we evidence effects on customer purchase intentions and behavior. Specifically, we show that AR-generated imagery of bundled (versus individual) products enhances intended and actual purchases at the point-of-sale. Furthermore, when deployed at distant points in the purchase funnel (out-of-store, at-home), AR increases purchases through improved self-projection, which we describe as the psychological mechanism customers use to mentally bridge distance to the point-of-sale. We qualify this mediating mechanism through an important moderating process, where the effect of AR-generated imagery on self-projection is suppressed for customers with a holistic (versus analytic) thinking style.
  • Schauman, Sebastian; Heinonen, Kristina; Holmlund, Maria (2021)
    The recent resurgence of the vinyl record and the proliferation of so-called craft and artisanal products offer unique opportunities to observe ongoing shifts in the contemporary consumer’s values and attitudes. In this article, we explore such thought-provoking market developments and their implications by contrasting them with the conventional understanding of markets and consumers. This understanding can lead to marketing myopia as it works from the utility-oriented assumption that what ultimately matters for both the company and the customer is cost efficiency and convenience. Against this backdrop, in this article, we discuss how market developments representing the contemporary consumer’s mindset prove valuable in creating customer insight that highlights aspects often obscured by an exaggerated focus on cost efficiency and convenience. We provide an alternative approach to evaluating markets and consumers that encourages companies to build their customer-centric market strategies around questions of context, authenticity, story, and resonance. This will help them narrow the gap between their market offerings and the actual wants and needs of their customer, and consequently allow them to revitalize their market.
  • Holmlund, Maria; Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; Ciuchita, Robert; Ravald, Annika; Sarantopoulos, Panagiotis; Villarroel Ordenes, Francisco; Zaki, Mohamed (2020-02-06)
    Customer experience (CX) has emerged as a sustainable source of competitive differentiation. Recent developments in big data analytics (BDA) have exposed possibilities to unlock customer insights for customer experience management (CXM). Research at the intersection of these two fields is scarce and there is a need for conceptual work that (1) provides an overview of opportunities to use BDA for CXM and (2) guides management practice and future research. The purpose of this paper is therefore to develop a strategic framework for CXM based on CX insights resulting from BDA. Our conceptualisation is comprehensive and is particularly relevant for researchers and practitioners who are less familiar with the potential of BDA for CXM. For managers, we provide a step-by-step guide on how to kick-start or implement our strategic framework. For researchers, we propose some opportunities for future studies in this promising research area.
  • Nguyen, Hang Thanh; Grant, David; Bovis, Christopher; Nguyen, Thuy Thi Le; Mac, Yen Thi Hai (2022-02-09)
    This paper investigates how customs officials perceive the implementation of e-customs will influence business performance in Vietnam, a developing country with a lower technological environment. A survey of customs officials was conducted, and data were analyzed by structural equation modelling. The outcomes discover two significant enablers related to relative advantages and the new exploring factor Culture while Finance & Human Resources and Legislation as the inhibitors. Additionally, the study also emphasized that e-customs implementation had a positive influence on firm performance in Vietnam. In addition, the study provides different viewpoints of cultural dimensions in case study of applying e-customs in Vietnam in comparison with previous studies. Culture with attributions related to uncertain acceptance and individualism encourage innovation in other literature reviews, however, the study indicates uncertainty avoidance and collectivism as Vietnam also promotes e-customs deployment. Vietnam with high power distance and short-term orientation became old themes. This emerging country switched to low distance and long-term orientation in terms of e-customs innovation. In contrast to previous studies related to constraints from technology in emerging economies, technological factors are not an obstacle for Vietnam. Furthermore, previous literature reviews inflected legislation and regulations of government as one of the limitations that should be examined in further and this research carried-out this investigation in one of emerging economies. The results of the paper support policy makers who can have essential solutions to enhance e-customs implementation as well as enterprises’ managers set-up strategy to adapt with the modernization environment.
  • Lähteenmäki, Ilkka; Nätti, Satu; Saraniemi, Saila (2022-04-06)
    Digitalization and related transformation in services is disrupting existing businesses and changing the positions and roles of incumbent and new players in the industry, as well as customers. This study aims to create an understanding of how digitalization has driven change in customer value creation, and how companies can enhance customers’ digital value creation in the present situation. For this purpose, we conduct a qualitative inquiry and use inductive logic with rich data from the represented industry – the financial sector – which enables us to detect the evolution of value creation during the last thirty years from an executive perspective. Our contribution is based on defining change processes involved in the evolution of customer value creation due to digitalization and revealing its microfoundations.
  • Baker, Jonathan J.; Kearney, Treasa; Laud, Guarangi; Holmlund, Maria (2021-05-10)
    Purpose This conceptual study explicates the dynamic, interlinked relationship between two of the most popular theories in marketing today: psychological ownership (PO) and engagement. The study is set in the sharing economy (SE), where platform business success depends on high levels of engagement by users, both individuals and collectives. The study argues individual PO (iPO) acts as the antecedent to engagement within a dyad of brand and user, and collective PO (cPO) as the antecedent to collective engagement by communities of users. Design/methodology/approach This conceptual study synthesizes PO theory and engagement theory to produce a PO–engagement framework. The authors adopt a dual-level perspective encompassing individual- and group-level phenomena in the SE and employ examples from practice to illustrate their arguments. Findings PO acts as the antecedent to the positively valenced disposition and engagement activities of actors in the SE. iPO manifests as engagement within a dyad of brand and user. Outcomes include brand love and contributions to brand reputation and service offerings. Collective PO manifests as engagement within a community or collective. Outcomes include community-oriented peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing for the benefit of others. Originality/value This study offers a dynamic framework of PO and engagement in the SE, the PO–engagement framework. The authors contribute to PO and engagement literature studies in marketing by illustrating how a platform user's attachment to targets in the SE motivates emergence of PO, and how different types of engagement manifest from different types of PO.
  • Allen, Samuel D.; Zhu, Qingyun; Sarkis, Joseph (2021-10-12)
    Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) has been developed for decades as a solution for multi-level social and environmental improvement. Circular economy (CE) also has many perspectives and generally has been introduced for investigating sustainability at multiple levels. Organizations are informed and encouraged by management theories to build their supply chain strategies at the SSCM-CE nexus, including stakeholder theory, institutional theory, nature resource-based view, amongst others. As the scholarly and practical interests in SSCM and CE increase, there is a need to expand the current conceptual understanding and theoretical boundaries. Theory development for broader issues at the SSCM-CE nexus is limited, leaving managers, policy makers, civil society activists, and other stakeholders with insufficient grounding for important decisions and direction. In this paper, we explore some promising emerging theories which may provide additional conceptual lenses for SSCM and CE, inlcuding organizational learning, social innovation, and social learning. We develop a dynamic sustainable supply chain-circular economy management framework as a conceptual map over which theoretical boundaries from the existing and emergent theories are overlaid. Future research directions are also provided and discussed to conclude this paper.
  • Vu, Thao Phuong; Grant, David B.; Menachof, David (2019-12-26)
    Paper explores different stakeholder perceptions of logistics service quality in Hai Phong, Vietnam, one of the country’s most important port complexes and largest logistics hubs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with customers, logistics service providers and port operators. Fourteen important variables were found with delivery time and shipment condition perceived by all groups as most important. Variables related to human factors were considered important by customers but not by logistics service providers. The paper contributes to our knowledge of what logistics service quality entails in a developing country that is lower on a logistics maturity scale, such as Vietnam, and provides managers with insights on what logistics service quality factors to address to enhance customers’ perceptions regarding their expectations.
  • Baharmand, Hossein; Maghsoudi, Amin; Coppi, Giulio (2021-07-20)
    Purpose Some studies and reports have recently suggested using blockchain technology to improve transparency and trust in humanitarian supply chains (HSCs). However, evidence-based studies to display the utility and applicability of blockchains in HSCs are missing in the literature. This paper aims to investigate the key drivers and barriers of blockchain application to HSCs and explore whether evidence could support that the application of blockchain improves transparency and trust in HSCs. Design/methodology/approach This paper puts forward a two-stage approach to explore the blockchain application in HSCs: an initial exploration of humanitarian practitioners and academicians interested in blockchain through focus group discussions; semi-structured interviews with practitioners involved at the UK Department for International Development's Humanitarian Supply Blockchain pilot project. Findings First, we found that main drivers include accountability, visibility, traceability, trust, collaboration, time efficiency, reducing administrative work and cross-sector partnership. Main barriers, however, are composed of engagement issues, lack of technical skills and training, lack of resources, privacy concerns, regulatory problems, pilot scalability issues and governance challenges. Second, evidence from our case study revealed the blockchain application could have added value to improve visibility and traceability, thus contributing to improve transparency. Concerning trust, evidence supports that blockchain could enhance both commitment and swift trust in the pilot study. Practical implications Our study contributes to a more understanding of added values and challenges of blockchain application to HSCs and creates a perspective for humanitarian decision-makers. Originality/value This study provides the first evidence from the actual application of blockchain technology in HSCs. The study discovered that it is still less evident in many humanitarian organizations, including medium- and small-sized nongovernmental organizations, that they engage in a direct deployment of in-house or customized blockchain-based HSC. Instead, these actors are more likely to indirectly use blockchain in HSCs through a private commercial partner.
  • Rahman, Arafat; Björk, Peter; Ravald, Annika (2020-05-28)
    This paper aims to explore the effects of a service provider’s organizational support and organizational empowerment on employee well-being in the healthcare service context. It also investigates if employee engagement has an effect on employee well-being. An empirical study among the employees (n = 153) of a therapeutic and rehabilitation service provider in Dhaka, Bangladesh reveals that both organizational support and organizational empowerment have positive influences on employee well-being. Although organizational support has the largest effect on employee engagement, the influence of organizational empowerment on employee engagement is not a significant factor. However, employee engagement influences their well-being. The study findings provide insights by explaining the roles that a service provider can play to enhance employee well-being and the strategies that managers can take to realize the positive effects of organizational support and empowerment on well-being.
  • Hassan, Sandy; Creazza, Alessandro; Shaw, Sarah; Grant, David B. (CILT UK - The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport in the UK, 2018-09-07)
  • Nguyen, Hang Thanh; Grant, David B.; Bovis, Christopher; Nguyen, Thuy Thi Le; Mac, Yen Thi Hai (2021-02-28)
    The paper identifies the enablers (drivers) and inhibitors (barriers) influencing e-customs implementation in Vietnam (known as a developing country with a lower technological environment) along with determining the impact of e-customs on firm performance. The survey was conducted with the representatives (managers) of firms in five cities and provinces dominating Vietnam’s international trade. The data was analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings show two significant drivers (enablers) - relative advantages and national culture, while compatibility and ease of use are the barriers. Previous studies showed that cultural dimensions related to ‘uncertainty acceptance’ and ‘individualism’ encourage innovation; however, this paper demonstrates that ‘uncertainty avoidance’ and ‘collectivism’ promote e-customs deployment in Vietnam. Previously, Vietnamese culture was known for scoring high on cultural dimensions related to ‘power distance’ and ‘short-term orientation’. However, today, as an emerging country, Vietnamese has switched to ‘low distance’ and ‘long-term orientation’, especially in terms of e-customs innovation. Additionally, the paper also emphasized that e-customs implementation had a positive influence on firm performance in Vietnam. Based on the results of the paper, policy-makers can devise essential solutions to enhance e-customs implementation as well as managers of firms can set-up strategies to adapt to the modernized environment.
  • Grandval, Samuel; Nimtrakool, Kanyarat; Grant, David B. (2019-06-20)
    This paper investigates adoption factors governing the emergence of urban consolidation centres (UCCs), i.e. before UCC adoption, by various stakeholders and whether a UCC is thus an Inter-organisational innovation (IOI). The paper’s objective, using a diffusion of innovations (DOI) theory is to understand antecedent factors for UCC adoption (or not). Data collection consisted of observation of the Bristol-Bath UCC operation and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders. Findings supported the proposition that a UCC represents an IOI and increases stakeholder performance in both urban and operational contexts. Contributions include combining aspects of IOI and DOI theory to broaden understanding of stakeholder expectations of adoption factors and determining seven factors that play a key role for stakeholders to adopt this form of innovation and in understanding IOI dropouts: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, adoption risk, trialability, partner trust, and partner power/government influence.
  • Liewendahl, Helena; Heinonen, Kristina (2020-02-13)
    Purpose: Customer value creation is dependent on a firm’s capacity to fulfil its brand promises and value propositions. The purpose of this paper is to explore frontline employees’ motivation to align with value propositions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explores frontline employees’ motivation to align with a firm’s value propositions as operationalised brand promises. A longitudinal, three-phase case study was conducted on a B2B company in the building and technical trade sector. Findings: This study reveals factors that foster and weaken employees’ motivation to align with a firm’s brand promises and value propositions. The findings show that co-activity and authentic, practice-driven promises and value propositions foster frontline employees’ motivation to uphold brand promises and value propositions, whereas an objectifying stance and power struggle weaken this motivation. Practical Implications: The study indicates that a bottom-up approach to strategising is needed and that frontline employees are to be engaged in traditional managerial domains, such as in developing value propositions. By creating space and agency for frontline employees in the strategising process, their motivation to align with value propositions is fostered. Four motivational modes are suggested to support bottom-up strategising. Originality/value: The paper is unique in its focus on frontline employees’ motivation. Developing value propositions traditionally falls within the domain of management strategising, while employees are ascribed the role of enactment. Contrary to the established norm, this paper highlights employees’ active role in strategising and developing value propositions.
  • Annala Tesfaye, Linda; Fougère, Martin (2021-07-05)
    In this paper we investigate how different discourses on frugal innovation are articulated, and how the dynamics between these different discourses have led to a certain dominant understanding of frugal innovation today. We analyse the dynamic interactions between three discourses on frugal innovation: (1) innovations for the poor, (2) grassroots innovations by the poor, and more recently (3) co-creating frugal innovations with the poor. We argue that this latter discourse is articulated as a hegemonic project as it is designed to accommodate demands from both business and poor communities. We draw on Laclau and Mouffe’s concepts of ‘chain of difference’, ‘empty signifier’ and ‘floating signifier’ to explain the advent of the hegemonic discourse on co-creating innovations with the poor. We show how a floating signifier with radical potential, frugal innovation, has been hijacked and co-opted in a hegemonic project that has leveraged powerful ambiguous signifiers, with co-creation acting as an empty signifier. To clarify what is problematic in this hegemonic intervention, we expose how contemporary frugal innovation discourse contributes to a project of governing and exploiting rather than helping the poor, in ways that benefit formal economic actors while further worsening global inequalities.
  • Ihamuotila, Maria; Liljeblom, Eva; Maury, Benjamin (2021-11-30)
    We study whether experience matters for acquirers in non-tech sectors when conducting acquisitions of high-tech targets. The topic is motivated by the rapid development of advanced and digital technologies that has fuelled tech-related M&A volumes, where companies seek high-tech targets to substitute or complement their own R&D and to stay competitive. Studying 1146 tech-oriented deals announced by European acquirers during the period of 2006-2019, we find the acquirer investors to be clearly optimistic about such takeovers, with positive and significant two-day cumulative abnormal returns of 0,82%. We also find that industrial acquirers seem to gain substantially. Lastly, one-time buyers were found to experience significantly higher cumulative abnormal returns than frequent buyers, and frequent buyers to exhibit a weak declining return pattern in subsequent deals. This implies that companies get rewarded for acquiring digital technology, and especially so in their first initiative to digitalize their business.
  • Beltrami, Mirjam; Orzes, Guido; Sarkis, Joseph; Sartor, Marco (2021-08)
    Both Industry 4.0 and sustainability have gained momentum in the academic, managerial and policy debate. Despite the relevance of the topics, the relation between Industry 4.0 and sustainability – revealed by many authors – is still unclear; literature is fragmented. This paper seeks to overcome this limit by developing a systematic literature review of 117 peer-reviewed journal articles. After descriptive and content analyses, the work presents a conceptualization and theoretical framework. The paper contributes to both theory and practice by advancing current understanding of Industry 4.0 and sustainability, especially the impact of Industry 4.0 technologies on sustainability practices and performance.