Browsing by Subject "Yes"

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  • Salin, Denise (2020-02-24)
    The aim of this article is to analyze the possible persistence of gender bias in the evaluation of leaders in Finland. Findings are based on two different studies. The first study confirmed that the perceived effectiveness and likeability ratings of fictive leaders (n = 358) varied as a function of leader gender. The second study, based on qualitative content analysis of subordinates’ descriptions (n = 119) of good and poor leaders, pointed to gendered differences in the dimensions that subordinates paid attention: female leaders were both more likely than men to be praised for having, and criticized for not having, communal traits, whereas men were more likely than women to be judged on their expertise. As Finland has consistently been rated one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, these findings can be seen as particularly strong evidence of the persistence of gender bias in evaluations and of ongoing gendering of leadership.
  • Fredström, Ashkan; Peltonen, Juhana; Wincent, Joakim (2020-02-21)
    Developing the concept of institutional incongruence and employing panel data from 60 countries, we outline an alternative view of the informal economy and the effects of regulative institutions on entrepreneurship productivity. We find evidence that the informal economy's size is, largely, negatively associated with entrepreneurship productivity, and that in the presence of a large informal economy, governmental efforts to improve governance quality can be counterproductive. Our results suggest policy interventions aimed at changing institutions to practice formal entrepreneurship should be implemented cautiously to avoid inducing institutional incongruence.
  • Ehrnrooth, Mats; Barner-Rasmussen, Wilhelm; Koveshnikov, Alexei; Törnroos, Maria (2020-07-15)
    Even while attempting to explain the same outcomes, research on leadership and on human resource management (HRM) have largely progressed on parallel trajectories. We extend recent efforts to bring these fields closer together by testing how employee perceptions of a high-performance work system (HPWS) and transformational leadership (TL), independently and jointly, influence four important employee attitudes. Analyses of 308 subordinates of 76 managers in five multinational companies suggest that a HPWS substitutes for much of the independent influence of TL and constitutes an important boundary condition for some of this influence. Implications for future research on HRM and leadership are discussed.
  • Björk, Bo-Christer (2019-07-30)
    The acceptance rate of scholarly journals is an important selection criterion for authors choosing where to submit their manuscripts. Unfortunately, information about the acceptance (or rejection rates) of individual journals is seldom avai- lable. This article surveys available systematic information and studies of acceptance rates. The overall global average is around 35-40%. There are significant differences between fields of science, with biomedicine having higher acceptance rates compared to for instance the social sciences. Open access journals usually have higher acceptance rates than subs- cription journals, and this is particularly true for so-called OA mega-journals, which have peer review criteria focusing on sound science only.
  • Vesa, Mikko; Tienari, Janne (2020-10-22)
    In this Connexions essay, we focus on intelligent agent programs that are cutting-edge solutions of contemporary artificial intelligence (AI). We explore how these programs become objects of desire that contain a radical promise to change organizing and organizations. We make sense of this condition and its implications through the idea of “rationalized unaccountability” that is an ideological state in which power and control are exerted algorithmically. While populist uses of new technologies receive growing attention in critical organization and management studies, we argue that rationalized unaccountability is the hidden end of a spectrum of populism affecting societies across the world. Rather than populism of the masses, this is a populism of elites. This essay lays out some premises for critical scholars to expose the workings of intelligent agent programs and to call into question the problematic ideological assumptions that they are grounded in.
  • Meriläinen, Eija Susanna; Mäkinen, Jukka; Solitander, Nikodemus (2020-12-10)
    The influence of private actors, such as non-profit organizations (NPOs) and firms, has been increasing in disaster governance. Previous literature has interrogated the responsibilities of states towards citizens in disasters, but the roles of private actors have been insufficiently challenged. The article politicizes the entangled relations between NPOs, states,and disaster-affected people. It proposes the Rawlsian division of moral labor as a useful, normative framework for interrogating the justice of disaster governance arrangements in which ‘liberal’ states are involved. Liberal states have two types of responsibilities in disasters: humanitarian and political. The humanitarian responsibilities imply provision of basic resources needed for the capacity to make autonomous choices (domestically and abroad), while the political responsibilities imply provision of the institutions needed for the liberal democratic citizenship (domestically). Through this analytical lens and building on the wealth of existing scholarship, we illustrate the disaster governance role of the American Red Cross in the United States (a 2005 hurricane) and in Haiti (the 2010 earthquake). Where, in Rawlsian terms, United States is interpreted as a ‘liberal’ society, Haiti is framed as a ‘burdened’ society. The article proposes five points to consider in analyzing disaster governance arrangements under neoliberal regimes, structured around the division of humanitarian and political responsibilities.The article illustrates how NPOS are instrumental in blurring the boundaries between humanitarian and political responsibilities. This might result ultimately in actual vulnerabilities remaining unaddressed. While the Rawlsian approach challenges the privatization and lack of coordination in disaster governance, it is limited in analyzing the political construction of ‘burdened’ societies.
  • Ehrnström-Fuentes, Maria; Leipämaa-Leskinen, Hanna (2019-07-31)
    Self-organization is a term that is increasingly used to describe how engaged citizens come together to create sustainable food systems at the local community level. Yet, there is a lack of understanding of what this self-organizing activity actually means. While previous literature has addressed self-organization as an outcome of building consensus and a collective intentionality shared by the members of a group, we focus on the complex social processes involved when people with a diverse set of interests and motivations interact in the food network. In this study, we analyze what kinds of boundary negotiations emerge when grassroots-led food networks scale up. Our embedded single case study focuses on a REKO (‘REjäl KOnsumtion’, meaning ‘fair consumption’ in English) network in Finland comprising distributed local food groups and three types of actors: consumers, producers, and local administrators. We examine a conflict that arose within the REKO network in May–June 2016 when a small group of actors demanded that all local groups should implement similar rules, principles, and ethical standards. Our findings illustrate how moral, geographic, market, and power boundaries emerge in a self-organized grassroots-led food network. We further explicate the challenges that may appear within a self-organized grassroots-led food network, as it grows in scale and scope.
  • Maghsoudi, Amin; Moshtari, Mohammad (2020-12-25)
    This paper identifies the challenges during a recent disaster relief operation in a developing country where the humanitarian response is dominated by national actors, with international actors having a minor role. A case study design is used; the main data sources are semi-structured interviews with 43 informants involved in the 2017 Kermanshah earthquake relief operation. The findings suggest that humanitarian practitioners deal with multiple challenges during disaster relief operations. One group of challenges relates to humanitarian logistics (HL) like needs assessment, procurement, warehousing, transportation, and distribution, all widely discussed in the literature. Another involves the growing use of social media, legitimacy regulations, and the engagement of new humanitarian actors (HAs) like social media activists and celebrities. These factors have not been extensively studied in the literature; given their growing influence, they require more scholarly attention. The findings will help humanitarian practitioners and policymakers better understand the challenges involved in disaster relief operations conducted by multiple actors and thus help them improve their practices, including the creation of proper regulations, policies, and logistics strategies. The study uses primary data on a recent disaster to assess and extend the findings of previous studies regarding HL challenges. It also elaborates on the critical non-logistical challenges that influence aid delivery in emergency responses, including the growth of social media, regulations, and the engagement of new HAs. The results may motivate future empirical and modelling studies to investigate the identified challenges and identify practices to mitigate them.
  • Schauman, Sebastian; Heinonen, Kristina; Holmlund, Maria (2021)
    The recent resurgence of the vinyl record and the proliferation of so-called craft and artisanal products offer unique opportunities to observe ongoing shifts in the contemporary consumer’s values and attitudes. In this article, we explore such thought-provoking market developments and their implications by contrasting them with the conventional understanding of markets and consumers. This understanding can lead to marketing myopia as it works from the utility-oriented assumption that what ultimately matters for both the company and the customer is cost efficiency and convenience. Against this backdrop, in this article, we discuss how market developments representing the contemporary consumer’s mindset prove valuable in creating customer insight that highlights aspects often obscured by an exaggerated focus on cost efficiency and convenience. We provide an alternative approach to evaluating markets and consumers that encourages companies to build their customer-centric market strategies around questions of context, authenticity, story, and resonance. This will help them narrow the gap between their market offerings and the actual wants and needs of their customer, and consequently allow them to revitalize their market.
  • Blomkvist, Magnus; Löflund, Anders; Vyas, Hitesh (2020-05-24)
    Credit ratings display an inverse U-shaped relation over the corporate life-cycle. Firms’ likelihood to obtain a rating initially increases over the life-cycle as reputation increases and asymmetric information is reduced. As investment opportunities diminish during the shakeout and decline phases the benefit of having a rating decreases. The economic effect is substantial: transitioning from the introduction to the growth phase increases the rating likelihood from 6.7% to 30%.
  • Holmlund, Maria; Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; Ciuchita, Robert; Ravald, Annika; Sarantopoulos, Panagiotis; Villarroel Ordenes, Francisco; Zaki, Mohamed (2020-02-06)
    Customer experience (CX) has emerged as a sustainable source of competitive differentiation. Recent developments in big data analytics (BDA) have exposed possibilities to unlock customer insights for customer experience management (CXM). Research at the intersection of these two fields is scarce and there is a need for conceptual work that (1) provides an overview of opportunities to use BDA for CXM and (2) guides management practice and future research. The purpose of this paper is therefore to develop a strategic framework for CXM based on CX insights resulting from BDA. Our conceptualisation is comprehensive and is particularly relevant for researchers and practitioners who are less familiar with the potential of BDA for CXM. For managers, we provide a step-by-step guide on how to kick-start or implement our strategic framework. For researchers, we propose some opportunities for future studies in this promising research area.
  • Fougère, Martin; Solitander, Nikodemus (2019-12-23)
    Multi-stakeholder initiatives involve actors from several spheres of society (market, civil society and state) in collaborative arrangements to reach objectives typically related to sustainable development. In political CSR literature, these arrangements have been framed as improvements to transnational governance and as being somehow democratic. We draw on Mouffe’s works on agonistic pluralism to problematize the notion that consensus-led multi-stakeholder initiatives bring more democratic control on corporate power. We examine two initiatives which address two very different issue areas: the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and the Bangladesh Accord on Fire and Building Safety (The Accord). We map the different kinds of adversarial relations involved in connection with the issues meant to be governed by the two initiatives, and find those adversarial relations to take six main shapes, affecting the initiatives in different ways: (1) competing regulatory initiatives; (2) pressure-response relations within multi-stakeholder initiatives; (3) pressure-response relations between NGOs and states through multi-stakeholder initiatives; (4) collaboration and competition between multi-stakeholder initiatives and states; (5) pressure-response relations between civil society actors and multi-stakeholder initiatives; and (6) counter-hegemonic movements against multi-stakeholder initiatives as hegemonic projects. We conclude that multi-stakeholder initiatives cannot be democratic by themselves, and we argue that business and society researchers should not look at democracy or politics only internally to these initiatives, but rather study how issue areas are regulated through interactions between a variety of actors—both within and without the multi-stakeholder initiatives—who get to have a legitimate voice in this regulation.
  • Peltonen, Juhana; Johansson, Edvard; Wincent, Joakim (2020-06-22)
    Attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly inheritable condition with a rather stable prevalence over time and geography, and it is associated with a broad range of negative life outcomes. Increasing knowledge on the condition has led to a growing trend of dampening ADHD symptoms through medication. Although this development has led to many positive outcomes, the broader societal implications are still poorly understood. In particular, person‐level studies suggest that ADHD‐like behavior may possess some advantages for engaging in entrepreneurship and the initiation of new businesses, which is considered a key activity for economic development. Using recent panel data from 11 countries and one special administrative region (SAR), we investigate if the increasing use of ADHD medication in adults is associated with an unintended outcome of reducing entrepreneurship. We find that a roughly one unit increase in the prevalence of adult ADHD medication is associated with a one unit decrease in limited liability company registrations per working age population. In practical terms, the effect of a one within‐country/SAR standard deviation increase of adult ADHD medication prevalence corresponds to a decrease in new business formation of 20% of its mean in the sample.
  • Haga, Jesper; Huhtamäki, Fredrik; Sundvik, Dennis (2021-02-13)
    In this study, we examine the relationship between employee effort within the firm and earnings management, using data on working hours and discretionary accruals. With higher employee effort, we find less earnings management among U.S. firms. This result is stronger when earnings are more predictable and persists after we control for endogeneity. We also find smaller earnings discontinuities with higher employee effort. Our domestic results remain the same with a global sample. Our results suggest that earnings management enables benchmark beating with greater precision than can high employee effort alone, but also that high-effort firms may be misclassified as earnings manipulators.
  • Rahman, Arafat; Björk, Peter; Ravald, Annika (2020-05-28)
    This paper aims to explore the effects of a service provider’s organizational support and organizational empowerment on employee well-being in the healthcare service context. It also investigates if employee engagement has an effect on employee well-being. An empirical study among the employees (n = 153) of a therapeutic and rehabilitation service provider in Dhaka, Bangladesh reveals that both organizational support and organizational empowerment have positive influences on employee well-being. Although organizational support has the largest effect on employee engagement, the influence of organizational empowerment on employee engagement is not a significant factor. However, employee engagement influences their well-being. The study findings provide insights by explaining the roles that a service provider can play to enhance employee well-being and the strategies that managers can take to realize the positive effects of organizational support and empowerment on well-being.
  • Beletskiy, Anton; Fey, Carl (2020-10-08)
    This article examines the relationship between the capabilities of HR departments and the level of adoption of corporate HRM practices in MNC subsidiaries. To explain this relationship, we leverage paradox theorizing, still rare but gaining increas- ing attention in HRM research, and integrate the studies of practice transfer, organi- zational ambidexterity, and absorptive capacity. First, we establish the conceptual linkages between the implementation and internalization dimensions of practice adoption and the potential and realized absorptive capacities of HR departments. Second, we re-define the operational and strategic activities of HR departments in terms of the learning paradox of exploitation and exploration. Third, we introduce the concept of HR ambidexterity to describe HR departments that possess high levels of capabilities in both operational (exploitative) and strategic (explorative) task- domains. Finally, we hypothesize that ambidextrous HR departments are more adept at adopting corporate HRM practices. An analysis of the survey data from 105 foreign subsidiaries of 12 MNCs supports this single hypothesis. The main contribution of this research is in leveraging paradox theorizing to explain the nature of HRM capabilities and their role in the adoption of HRM practices.
  • Korkeamäki, Timo; Virk, Nader; Wang, Haizhi; Wang, Peng (2019-07-01)
    We analyze preferences of foreign institutional investors in the Chinese stock market in a sample that covers 2003 to 2014. We find that foreign investors changed their investment behavior during the sample period from generic patterns found in much of the world to China-specific patterns. The results suggest that foreign institutions learned to adjust their investment behavior to account for unique features of the Chinese market. Rather than following the diversified portfolio approach, they follow investment strategies that focus on a limited number of firm features.
  • Penttilä, Kaisa Riikka; Ravald, Annika; Dahl, Johanna; Björk, Peter (2020-09-22)
    Disclosing the root cause of managerial action in environments undergoing change, is intrinsically linked to understanding how managers perceive both themselves, and their focal network including the broader surrounding environment. Despite an increased research interest into the interlink between sensemaking and strategizing, empirical evidence on how different limitations manifest in the sensemaking of individual managers in specific contexts is scarce. This study focuses on individual level sensemaking in a transforming business ecosystem as a microfoundation of strategizing. It explores the diverseness of managerial sensemaking by comparing noticed cues, moderating frames and sensemaking outcomes as reflected in different strategizing options. The empirical data derive from 52 semi-structured interviews with top managers in a local business ecosystem. Based on our analysis, we develop an empirically grounded model that unwraps the frames that influence how managers perceive and interpret the changing environment and the implications for their business. Our study provides important empirical corroboration to extant research on the cognitive microfoundations of strategizing in networked environments and adds detail to the underlying sensemaking mechanisms at play. The results highlight the local context and the identity embeddedness of focal actors herein, as factors that significantly influence managerial sensemaking in transforming business ecosystem contexts.
  • Björk, Bo-Christer (2019-03-19)
    The number of open access (OA) journals and their share of all scholarly journals are usually estimated based on indexing in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). DOAJ's coverage of OA journals from different regions of the world is, however, far from complete, particularly of journals publishing in languages other than English. Using alternative data sources for identification and manual verification, 437 scholarly OA journals published in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) were identified, and some key characteristics were studied. Of these, only 184 were indexed in DOAJ. A vast majority of the journals was published by scholarly societies or universities. Social sciences and humanities dominated as topics, and few journals charge authors. National or university-specific OJS portals have played a major role in enabling OA publishing. Around a third of the Nordic scholarly journals are currently OA.
  • Kovacs, Gyöngyi; Kuula, Markku; Seuring, Stefan; Blome, Constantin (2020-12-01)
    Purpose The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of operations management in society. The article detects trends, raises critical questions to operations management research and articulates a research agenda to increase the value of such research in addressing societal problems. Design/methodology/approach This paper evaluates the papers presented at the EurOMA 2019 conference to detect trends and discuss the contributions of operations management research to society. It further goes to identify gaps in the research agenda. Findings The article finds several important streams of research in operations management: sustainable operations and supply chains, health care and humanitarian operations, innovation, digitalisation and 4.0, risk and resilience. It highlights new trends such as circular economy research and problematises when to stop implementing innovation and how to address and report their potential failure. Importantly, it shows how it is not just a question of offshoring vs reshoring but of constant change in manufacturing that operations management addresses. Originality/value The article highlights not just novel research areas but also gaps in the research agenda where operations management seeks to add value to society.