Browsing by Subject "coopetition"

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  • Tidström, Annika (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2006-11-07)
    Most of the existing research within the business network approach is based on companies that are operating on different levels within the same value chain, as a buyer and a supplier. Intercompetitor cooperation, i.e. cooperation between companies occupying the same level within different value chains, has not been studied to the same extent. Moreover scholars within the business network approach have usually described industrial relationships as long term, consisting of mutual commitment and trust. Industrial relationships are not static, but dynamic, and they contain situations of both harmony and conflict. There is consequently a need for more research both concerning intercompetitor cooperation and conflicts. The purpose of this study is to develop our theoretical and empirical understanding of the nature of conflicts in intercompetitor cooperation from a business network perspective. The focus of the study lies on issue and intensity of conflict. The issue of a conflict can be divided into cause and topic, while the intensity comprises the importance and outcome of a conflict. The empirical part of the study is based on two case studies of groups of cooperating competitors from two different industries. The applied research method is interviews. According to the findings of this study causes of conflicts in intercompetitor cooperation can be divided into three groups: focus, awareness and capacity. Topics of conflict can be related to domain, delivery, advertising or cooperation. Moreover the findings show that conflict situations may be grouped into not important, important or very important. Some conflicts may also be of varying importance, meaning that the importance varies from one point of time to another. Based on the findings of the study the outcome or status of a conflict can be analyzed both on a concrete and general level. The findings also indicate that several conflicts are partly hidden, which means that only one or some of the involved actors perceive the conflict. Furthermore several conflict situations can be related to external network actors.
  • Dahl, Johanna (Hanken School of Economics, 2017-04-07)
    This thesis focuses on the simultaneous existence of cooperation and competition between firms, and falls under the research area of coopetition. In recent years, coopetition, inherently complex and paradoxical in nature, has attracted increasing attention in both business practice and research. As a result, coopetition is confirmed as a phenomenon of contemporary importance to companies varying in size and industry. Moreover, from a research standpoint, coopetition has been established as a distinct theoretical approach to explain inter-firm relationships and, in particular, cooperation between directly competing firms. Yet, to advance extant knowledge on coopetition, calls have been made for research scrutinizing the interaction process and focusing on the handling of simultaneous cooperation and competition, at multiple levels of analysis starting from the individual. To this end, the overall aim of this article-based thesis is to develop a theoretical understanding of how coopetition is maintained as a process and as a strategy, alongside an empirical understanding of the interplay between cooperation and competition. The thesis answers three interrelated research questions, addressing the dynamics of coopetitive interaction, the deliberate and emergent features of coopetition, and the balancing of cooperation and competition. Article 1 contributes by conceptualizing change in coopetitive interactions through three mechanisms. The outlined mechanisms are inter-organizational learning manifested in cooperation between competitors, intra-organizational learning based on exchanges of contrasting experiences between individuals within the organization, and the development of the external business environment. The article further contributes by developing the notion that the nature of the change process underlying coopetition, in terms of the generative change mechanism and predefined or discontinuous character, depends on the balance and strength of the cooperative and competitive interactions. In Article 2, the theoretical contribution comprises a framework explaining coopetition as a deliberate and/or emergent strategy. By integrating research on strategy-as- practice and, thus, focusing on the social nature of coopetition, the framework delivers four scenarios on how coopetition strategy manifests in an organization. The framework implies that coopetition strategy ought to be explained as an activity occurring across multiple levels in an organization, and at an institutional and inter-organizational level. Furthermore, the framework broadens extant views on individuals who influence strategy and activities that may be consequential for the strategy. Article 3 contributes to discussions on the influence of different levels of strength of the cooperative and competitive interactions on relational outcomes. The contextual contribution lies in the study’s examination of coopetition in relation to the internationalization process and among a group of SMEs operating in a traditional manufacturing industry. Empirical results imply that the continuity, scope, and strategic impact of opportunities gained through coopetition vary with the balance and strength of the cooperative and competitive interactions.
  • Burström, Tommy; Kock, Sören; Wincent, Joakim (2022-05-02)
    We study how a rivalrous interorganizational relationship transforms into a coopetitive strategy. The study employs a qualitative method and systematic combining approach to examine an evolving coopetitive relationship in the truck industry. We studied a platform project during the concept phase of development. We found that multibrand platform development is characterized by innovation barrier multiplicity and concurrency. The study presents a model where we propose that history-related Initial Conditions Innovation Barriers (ICIB) are blended with project-related Emerging Innovation Barriers (EIB). This research makes a theoretical contribution by proposing that through strategic and operational stretch firms transform from a homogenous competitive relationship to a heterogeneous coopetitive relationship.
  • Virtanen, Henrik (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2015-04-23)
    Att samarbeta med en konkurrent i den internationella verksamheten kan vara ett alternativ för små- och medelstora företag. Parterna stöter på hinder i den internationella verksamheten, vilket ger motiv till samarbete. Det finns olika typer av samarbete mellan konkurrenter. Fokus i denna avhandling är att skilja på vilken eller vilka funktioner i företaget samarbetet omfattar. Parterna kan samarbeta kring gemensamma funktioner (integrerat samarbete) eller kring delade funktioner (sekventiellt samarbete). Förekomsten av olika typer av samarbete, indikerar att man kan anta att samarbetet styrs av den strategiska situation parterna befinner sig i. I samarbetet råder det en spänning mellan samarbete och konkurrens. Man samarbetar för att skapa värde, medan man konkurrerar för att utnyttja värdet. Ett samarbete kan medföra konkurrensfördelar, men samtidigt kan spänningen mellan samarbete och konkurrens skapa problem och risker. Forskningen kring samarbetande konkurrenter har varit mindre omfattande. En kunskapsutveckling är önskvärd. Syftet med denna avhandling är att analysera samarbeten mellan konkurrerande små- och medelstora företag, med avsikten att utveckla den teoretiska och empiriska förståelsen av samarbeten, samt samarbetsmotiven och -förutsättningarna i en internationell kontext. En målsättning är att besvara frågan varför parterna väljer att samarbeta antingen integrerat eller sekventiellt. Ytterligare är målsättningen att klargöra hur parterna hanterar spänningen mellan samarbete och konkurrens, samt utreda vilka problem och risker som finns i samarbetet. Den empiriska delen av avhandlingen utgörs av en kvantitativ kartläggning samt fyra fallstudier. Resultaten visar att indelningen av samarbetstyper inte är helt klar. Man kan identifiera rena integrerade samarbeten, man kan identifiera rena sekventiella samarbeten, samt man kan identifiera hybrider av dessa två, där det finns både integrerade och sekventiella funktioner i samarbetet. En funktion i företagets produktionskedja består av olika aktiviteter som kräver olika insats av resurser och kompetenser. Trots att man samarbetar inom samma funktion (per definition integrerat samarbete), kan man dela aktiviteterna mellan parterna i funktionen (sekventiell logik). Eftersom tanken att dela in samarbeten i två typer är oklar, är det även problematiskt att normativt kunna påvisa klara skillnader mellan dessa vad gäller t.ex. motiv och risker. Varje samarbete är unikt. Ett sätt att mildra spänningen mellan samarbete och konkurrens och riskerna parterna upplever i samarbetet är att separera samarbets- och konkurrensfunktionerna från varandra. I intensiva och betydande samarbeten tenderar parterna, speciellt om det är frågan om små- och medelstora företag, att avveckla den direkta konkurrensen genom att t.ex. specialisera sig på olika kunder och nischer (produkter) eller fokusera på olika marknader. Parterna kan definiera när man har rollen som konkurrent och när som samarbetspartner. Personliga relationer, förtroende, gemensamma normer och förfaringssätt förmildrar spänningen och motverkar parternas intentioner att handla opportunistiskt.
  • Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena; Tidström, Annika (2021-06-29)
    Despite the growing interest in coopetition management strategies, we still lack detailed insights into how the simultaneity of cooperation and competition is cognitively experienced and coped with at the individual level. Based on two case studies, we introduce sensemaking dynamics deeper into the cognitive management ap-proaches of coopetition tensions by demonstrating temporal distancing and integrating as cognitive activities. Temporal distancing captures the perceived difficulties to connect recalled competitive pasts and imagined cooperative futures, whereas referencing re-imagined pasts and futures enables a connection, i.e. temporal integration, informing managerial actions and coopetition decision-making. First, our study extends theoretical insights on how tensions manifest through managerial sensemaking. Second, we contribute to research on in-dividual level coping strategies part of the coopetition capability concept by showing that managerial mindsets encompass continuous re-imaginations of cooperative and competitive pasts, presents and futures. Third, the findings of our study suggest that managers cope with experienced tensions through their capability to not only re-imagine distant competitive and cooperative pasts and futures, but also through enacting these in the present.