Browsing by Subject "institutional theory"

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  • Mohamadi, Ashkan (Hanken School of Economics, 2019-11-06)
    The popularity of entrepreneurship as a practice is matched by scholars’ increasing attention to the phenomenon. In the management literature, entrepreneurship has become a field in its own right. Several scholars have argued that the right types of entrepreneurship, such as opportunity entrepreneurship, are an important driver of economic development and growth through employment, innovation, and structural transformation. Thus, it is unsurprising that finding ways to encourage entrepreneurship, especially the preferred types, is of interest to researchers and policymakers alike. In order to do so, they need to understand why the incidence of entrepreneurship is different from one country to another, and in that respect, country-level factors are determining the rate of entrepreneurship. These factors create the environment in which entrepreneurial opportunities and activities can be defined, generated, and also limited. Surprisingly, however, our understanding of the ways in which these national and institutional environments are fertile or fatal for entrepreneurship is limited, and study results on the benefits of various aspects of institutions to entrepreneurship continue to be debated. The overall objective of this thesis and the cases presented herein is to investigate how institutions and institutional factors affect opportunity exploitation at country level. We acknowledge that both institutional settings and the process of opportunity exploitation are complex phenomena. To address the research objective, this thesis builds on two co-authored research articles and one sole-authored. The methodological approach of the current work is nomothetic and quantitative. Moderation analysis at country level is the main approach applied in all the articles. As a result, we examined regression models that include interaction terms. In the articles, we perform fixed effect regression analyses. To be able to do the analyses, we utilize data from Adult Population Surveys of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). Previously a challenge in studying country-level entrepreneurship, institutions, and policymaking has been the lack of data. In recent years, the rise of GEM as harmonized and internationally comparable database on entrepreneurial activities has created the opportunity more effectively to conduct research in those areas. This thesis fills two specific gaps. First, our articles examined under-investigated institutional settings, in order to stimulate future research. This furthered our understanding, recognizing several theoretical concepts such as institutional incongruence. Additionally, we conclude that different aspects of institutions should not be considered and studied in isolation. Second, instead of studying direct impacts on startup rates, we examined how opportunities are discovered and exploited at country level. This is important because opportunity discovery is a major step in the entrepreneurship process, and we learned more about economic development through entrepreneurship, following the research stating that opportunity entrepreneurship is the preferred type of entrepreneurship for that purpose.
  • Ahlvik, Catarina (Hanken School of Economics, 2019-08-12)
    Today, the word mindfulness is so widely used that the profundity of this practice is sometimes overlooked. Furthermore, some articles, mostly in practitioner-oriented journals, have raised the concern of mindfulness practice having a pacifying effect on employees. This concern often stems from the notion of mindfulness having a non-judgmental component and the fear that this component may create complacency in the workplace. This is, however, a misreading of the practice, as non-judgement in this context refers to how to skillfully relate to one’s own experience. A non-judgmental attitude or attitudes such as acceptance and self-compassion are qualities that can facilitate contact with uncomfortable experiences and may thus diminish impulsive or defensive reactions. Thus, a non-judgmental attitude does not refer to complying with potentially disharmonious external conditions; rather, it enables turning towards and experiencing the present circumstances exactly as they are. In this thesis, I tackle this question in detail both theoretically and empirically, and show that mindfulness develops personal resources and may indeed be a powerful trigger for agency. Agency here refers to purposeful engagement with the social context, aiming to alter or maintain that context. Specifically, I argue that mindfulness may trigger what I refer to as institutional awareness, that is the ability to be aware of the emotional and cognitive impact of the institution in which you are embedded. Furthermore, I empirically show that mindfulness supports change-oriented behavior in organizations and that it does so through facilitating autonomous choice. Choices and actions are seen as autonomous when they are congruent with a person’s authentic interests and values. In line with previous research in clinical settings, I also show that mindfulness reduces, stress, burnout and increases the ability to detach from work after working hours. These findings are the result of a large-scale randomized field intervention, where 130 managers from four organizations in Finland participated in an 8-week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course.