Browsing by Subject "networks"

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  • Sumelius, Jennie (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2009-09-11)
    Whilst previous research on Human Resource Management (HRM) in subsidiaries of multinational companies (MNCs) has focused extensively on the HRM practices that exist in foreign subsidiaries and the extent to which they resemble MNC home country and/or local host country practices, considerably less attention has been directed at the question of how these practices come to exist. Accordingly, this thesis aims to shed light on the processes that shape HRM practices and capabilities in MNC subsidiaries. The main contribution of the thesis is the focus on how; how HRM practices are integrated in MNC subsidiaries, and how subsidiary HRM capabilities are developed through involvement in social networks. Furthermore, this thesis includes a time aspect which, despite not being purely longitudinal, provides an indication of the ongoing changes in HRM in MNC subsidiaries in China. Data for this study were collected in 2005-2006 through structured face to face interviews with 153 general managers and HR managers in 87 subsidiaries of European MNCs located in China. Five of the six thesis papers build on this questionnaire data and one paper builds on qualitative data collected at the same time. Two papers build on dual data sets, meaning that they in addition to the abovementioned data include quantitative questionnaire data from 1996 and 1999 respectively. The thesis focuses on the following four sub-questions i) To what extent do subsidiary HRM practices resemble parent MNC and host country practices? How has this changed over time and why? ii) How are HRM practices integrated into MNC subsidiaries and why are certain integration mechanisms used? iii) How does involvement in internal and external social networks influence subsidiary HRM capabilities? iv) What factors influence the strategic role of the subsidiary HR department? Regarding the first sub-question the findings indicate that the HRM practices of MNC subsidiaries in China are converging with both local company practices and parent MNC practices. This is interesting in the sense that it suggests that the isomorphic pressures the subsidiary faces from the MNC and from its local host environment are not always in conflict with each other. Concerning the question of how HRM practices are integrated into MNC subsidiaries and why certain integration mechanisms are used, the thesis provides a fine-grained examination of four mechanisms that MNCs use to integrate HRM practices in subsidiaries. The findings suggest that MNCs use a variety of different integration mechanisms as complements rather than as substitutes for each other. Furthermore, it is apparent that different contextual factors in the subsidiary and the subsidiary-headquarters relationship influence why certain mechanisms are or are not used. The most interesting contribution of the thesis in regard to the third question is that it highlights the importance of network involvement for learning about HRM practices in the Chinese context. Networks with other MNCs in China clearly emerged as particularly important contributors to enhanced HRM capabilities. Finally, concerning the fourth sub-question the findings indicate that the role of the HR department in MNC subsidiaries in China had become more strategic between 1999 and 2006.
  • Tomasini Ponce, Rolando Mario (Hanken School of Economics, 2012-12-11)
    Disasters challenge and destroy growth and socio-economic achievements. They are often communicated in the media with heartbreaking images of suffering, destruction and despair. They tend to inspire a wave of generosity and compassion among those who feel vulnerable, concerned, touched. Individuals manifest their solidarity through donations, collections and by sending money, goods, foods, medicines, and other essential items. Like individuals, companies are increasingly moved to act upon their sense of compassion and generosity, and contribute with skills, capacity, and of course money. These initiatives are welcomed by employees who are ready to put their knowledge and expertise to the benefit of the greater good, on behalf of the company. When a natural disaster takes place, humanitarian organizations activate all their response mechanisms to assess and respond as quickly as possible to the rising needs. However, everything is uncertain, and only time can provide the answers as information becomes available about the level of impact, the number of people affected, the resources available and the type and length of aid required. Among the difficulties faced by humanitarian organization is getting access overnight to trained and available staff who could implemented such sophisticated and life-saving logistics. This thesis takes a look at the secondments from different companies to disaster relief operations. It develops a framework for informal learning during secondments which can be used by managers to ensure that the secondment can be a fruitful learning experience for the seconded manager, in which he or she can further their knowledge by applying their skills set in a different context. Through the development of the framework, and the three essays, the thesis addresses three main questions: 1. How do partnerships develop in disaster relief operations? (Essay 1) 2. How do partners interact during a disaster relief operation? (Essay 2) 3. What can seconded managers learn from secondments to disaster relief operations? (Essay 3)
  • Laffont, Jean-Jacques; Marcus, Scott; Rey, Patrick; Tirole, Jean (Hanken School of Economics, 2002-08-08)
    The paper develops a framework for Internet backbone competition. In the absence of direct payments between websites and consumers, the access charge allocates communication costs between websites and consumers and affects the volume of traffic. The paper analyzes the impact of the access charge on competitive strategies in an unregulated retail environment. In a remarkably broad range of environments, operators set prices for their customers as if their customers' traffic were entirely off-net. The paper then compares the socially optimal access charge with the privately desirable one. Finally, when websites charge micropayments, or when websites sell goods and services, the impact of the access charge on welfare is reduced; in particular, the access charge is neutral in a range of cicumstances.
  • Forsman, Maria; Solitander, Nikodemus (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2003)
    Both management scholars and economic geographers have studied knowledge and argued that the ability to transfer knowledge is critical to competitive success. Networks and other forms for cooperation are often the context when analyzing knowledge transfer within management research, while economic geographers focus on the role of the cluster for knowledge transfer and creation. With the common interest in knowledge transfer, few attempts to interdisciplinary research have been made. The aim of this paper is to outline the knowledge transfer concepts in the two strands of literature of management and economic geography (EG). The paper takes an analytical approach to review the existing contributions and seek to identify the benefits of further interaction between the disciplines. Furthermore, it offers an interpretation of the concepts of cluster and network, and suggests a clearer distinction between their respective definitions. The paper posits that studies of internal networks transcending national borders and clusters are not necessarily mutually exclusive when it comes to transfer of knowledge and the learning process of the firm. Our conclusion is that researchers in general seem to increasingly acknowledge the importance of studying both the effect of and the need for geographical proximity and external networks for the knowledge transfer process, but that there exists equivocalness in defining clusters and networks.
  • Antretter, Torben; Sirén, Charlotta; Grichnik, Dietmar; Wincent, Joakim (2020-08-29)
    This paper investigates the performance effects of business angel portfolio industry diversification. Using a unique bi-annual panel dataset of 142 members of a professional angel investment platform and their portfolio returns between 2013 and 2017, we consider the costs and benefits of diversifying investments into various industries. Drawing upon theoretical arguments about distant search, we theorize and find a nonlinear (S-shaped) relationship between portfolio industry diversification and performance. Further, we pay specific attention to a proposed overdiversification effect that takes place at high levels of portfolio industry diversification and show that this effect is moderated by individuals' access to industry knowledge through their co-investment networks. For business angels who have a central position within a diverse network of industry specialists, the overdiversification effect is less pronounced.
  • Eriksson, Päivi; Hearn, Jeff; Jyrkinen, Marjut; Merilainen, Susan; Moisander, Johanna; Niemi, Hertta; Rolin, Kristina; Vanhala, Sinikka; Henttonen, Elina; Hiillos, Minna; Katila, Saija; Tallberg, Teemu (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2005-02-10)
    Viimeaikainen sukupuolta ja organisaatiota käsittelevä tutkimus ja kirjallisuus on saanut paljon (toisinaan epäsuoria) vaikutteita feminismiä ympäröivistä keskusteluista. Lisäksi naisten aseman ja kokemuksien tunnistaminen organisaatioissa ja johtamisessa on vaikuttanut tutkimukseen. Erilaisten kansainvälisesti tutkittujen aiheiden kirjo on laaja: sukupuolisuhteet organisaatioiden ja johtoryhmien kulttuureissa ja kommunikaatiossa; sukupuolittunut työnjako; sukupuolittuneet hierarkiat, valta, auktoriteetti ja johtajuus organisaatioissa ja johtamisessa; sukupuolittuneet markkinat; sukupuolittuneet kuvat, symbolit ja mainokset; sukupuoli ja IT teknologia; seksuaalisuus, häirintä, kiusaaminen ja väkivalta organisaatioissa; työn ja kodin yhteensovittaminen; ja niin edelleen. Myös akateemiset organisaatiot sekä niiden sukupuolittuneet valtasuhteet ja johtaminen kaipaavat kipeästi huomiota. Useimpia mainituista alueista on tutkittu ainakin jonkin verran mutta paljon työtä on vielä myös jäljellä. Tämä kokoelma esittelee ajankohtaista suomalaista tutkimusta seuraavista teemoista: tasa-arvo organisaatioissa, naisjohtajuus, yrittäjyyden sukupuoli, verkostot, sukupuolen representaatio sekä sukupuoli ja uusi teknologia. Kokoelma on työryhmän yhdessä koostama joten se on ennen kaikkea yhteistyön tulos. Recent research and literature on the gendering of organisations has been strongly influenced, though sometimes indirectly, by debates in and around feminism, and on recognising women and women’s situations, experiences and voices in organisations and management. The range of topics and issues that have been studied internationally is vast: gender relations in organizational and management groups, cultures and communication; gender divisions of labour; gender divisions of hierarchy, power, authority and leadership in organizations and management; gendered markets; gender imagery, symbols and advertising; gender and information technology; sexuality, harassment, bullying and violence in organisations; home-work relations; and so on. There are also key issues of gender power relations in academic organizations and management themselves, which need urgent attention. Though most of these areas have been researched to some extent, much remains to be done. This collection brings together current Finnish research on: Equality in Organisations, Women in Management, Gender and Entrepreneurship, Networks, Representation of Gender, Gender and ICTs. The book has been put together by an editorial team and is thus first and foremost a collective effort.
  • Toivonen, Tuukka; Nordbäck, Emma; Takala, Ville (Sitra, 2021)