Doctoral theses

Recent Submissions

  • Kettunen, Jukka (Hanken School of Economics, 2022-11-24)
    Regulation is a tool policymakers use to tackle national and global challenges. Currently, several regulators including the EU are in the process of adopting and issuing new corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure laws. The overarching aim of these laws is to encourage companies to develop a responsible approach to business. Consequently, they are likely to induce fiscal and real effects, some of which may be unintended. This calls for research on the economic consequences of mandatory CSR disclosure. Hence, this dissertation conducts a post-implementation review of CSR disclosure laws using difference-in-differences estimation. Specifically, applying the regulatory cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as a framework this dissertation examines the related adoption costs, benefits, and externalities with three distinct essays. The first essay analyzes the nature and the cross-country variation of the magnitude and stickiness of the adoption costs of mandatory CSR disclosure laws. The results show that the adoption increases administrative, but not production-related costs. The average annual increase in SG&A is 2% after the adoption. The costs as well as cost stickiness vary by country. Adoption costs are more pronounced in shareholder-oriented countries characterized by common law legal origin, high shareholder litigation risk and lenient employment protection. The second essay examines whether mandatory CSR disclosure laws affect audit fees. Given that the environmental, social and governance elements of mandatory CSR disclosures have significant commonalities with the auditors’ risk assessment procedures targeted at obtaining an understanding of the entity and its environment (ISA 315), the results suggest a significant decrease in audit fees after the adoption. The fee-decrease is more pronounced in audit markets prone to price-competition and in companies where regulatory environment is stronger in the parent company headquarter country than in the subsidiary countries. Audit risk and complexity dampen the fee-decrease. The third essay examines whether mandatory CSR disclosure laws have externalities on companies not subject to these laws. The findings indicate that companies in the adopting countries increase capital expenditure and employment relative to companies in non-adopting countries. The presence of regulated firms in the industry moderates these investment and employment activities which are weakly related to growth opportunities. Overall, the findings imply that the spillover effects in non-disclosing firms represent a strategic response to competitive threats. The main contribution of the thesis lies in documenting evidence of the unintended economic consequences of mandatory CSR disclosure. Those consequences can be categorized as adoption costs, benefits, and externalities. First, the results imply that the adoption begins primarily as an administrative rather than productional reform, and the adoption is more expensive in shareholder-oriented countries. Second, while increasing costs, the mandates can bring benefits to the adopting companies in terms of lower audit fees. Third, the results illustrate the importance of spillover effects to preparers of reporting mandates: competitive forces may extend the scope of regulation to unregulated firms.
  • Penttinen, Valeria (Hanken School of Economics, 2022-11-23)
    The rapidly increasing availability of online data and information has led to shifts in information asymmetry experienced by firms and consumers, who now can make more informed decisions than ever before. However, both firms and consumers also experience challenges related to leveraging the available data and information. For firms, these challenges mainly relate to developing analytical capabilities that allow working with data from different sources and using such data in decision making. For consumers, these challenges are primarily associated with navigation through large amounts of online information without experiencing information overload. This dissertation engages in the ongoing discussion about the shifts in the firm-consumer information asymmetry driven by the increasing availability of online data and information. In addition to discussing the opportunities linked to the firm-consumer information asymmetry shifts, it attends to overcoming the associated challenges faced by both stakeholder groups. In doing so, this dissertation relies on three essays. Essay 1 addresses the importance of the development and use of analytical capabilities that extend beyond the boundaries of individual firms. The implications of this essay shed light on how firms can better leverage the available online data in decreasing information asymmetry for themselves as well as partners within their business networks. Essay 2 addresses how parasocial interaction fostered in consumer-to-consumer video reviews influence consumer purchase decisions. This essay provides insights into what kind of video reviews are most likely to help consumers make purchase decisions and how firms can help consumers access such reviews. Finally, Essay 3 examines how firms can leverage sharing brand communications through social media takeovers on their own social media accounts to strengthen relationships with consumers. This essay further elaborates on the importance of relationships formed on social media in helping firms gain unique consumer data and support consumers in accessing relevant and timely information. This dissertation challenges the traditional way of viewing transactions between firms and consumers by considering the use of increasingly available online data and information by both stakeholder groups. The implications of this dissertation further point to the increasing importance for firms to take more active stands in fostering information symmetry in the market.
  • Buttler, Pekka (Hanken School of Economics, 2022-11-23)
    Projects today make up roughly one third of GDP in developed nations. In many industries, the share of projects is even higher. Simultaneously – as we all are aware – projects fail too often for comfort. Project failure has two faces: On the one hand projects may be finished late, and cost more than expected, while the result’s functionality may also leave something to be desired. In short: the project was not done right. On the other hand, projects may turn out to have produced its result exactly to specifications, on time and within budget, only for it to turn out that the result is not what was needed, or that a different solution might have served everyone’s needs better. In short: not the right project was done. The topics of this dissertation – project concepts and project concept design – play a central role in helping private and public organizations do the right project. As is argued in this dissertation, projects are commenced in the hope of making project concepts – the central, founding ideas for a project – come true. Hence, the question of doing the right project is essentially a question of designing the right project concepts. However, understanding the significance of project concept design is not the same as knowing how to design the right project concepts. Given that very little research on this topic exists, the dissertation and its essays set out to offer some fundamental concepts, outlining avenues for further research and tools to aid researchers in pursuing those avenues. This dissertation contributes to the literature of the Study of Projects in several ways. First, it describes what project concepts are, showing that project concepts are both dualities and multiplicities. Second, it highlights the significance of the process and practice of project concept design and identifies five core functions (alignment, meshing, articulation, consideration, evaluation) through which project concept design can contribute to doing the right project. Third, the dissertation concludes that while project concept design primarily supports doing the right project, it also can contribute to doing the project right. Fourth, the dissertation discusses several environmental factors that contribute to or inhibit successful project concept design. Fifth, it discusses the practical difficulties facing endeavours to study project concept design and outlines a practice-oriented research method that it argues could support future research.
  • Tikkanen, Hannu (Hanken School of Economics, 2022-11-08)
    The improvement of well-being has become an increasingly popular phenomenon both in the marketplace and in service research. Companies and researchers alike view technological innovations, such as devices and applications for self-tracking, as important means for consumers to manage and improve their well-being. At the same time, political and societal shifts are driving a responsibilisation of well-being, in which tasks that used to belong to the welfare state become the responsibility of self-governing and agentic individuals. In this shift, structural, social, and political problems become framed as personal issues. This thesis explores the role of smart technology services in the responsibilisation of consumer well-being. Smart technology services are studied empirically in the context of devices and applications for self-tracking. Popular examples of these technologies include activity watches, smart rings, sleep monitors, and smart personal scales. Through three studies, this thesis contributes to Transformative Service Research and to marketing research on smart technologies with an improved understanding of how individual responsibility for well-being is constructed and carried out through consumer agency. The first study uses responsibilisation as a guiding theory in conducting a scoping review of academic articles in the field of Transformative Service Research. Through this review it provides a conceptualization of the different roles that service plays in contributing to consumer well-being. The second study adopts a structurationist perspective in empirically exploring how smart technology services portray well-being capabilities to consumers through their value propositions. Finally, the third study zooms in on how consumers as individuals use smart technology services as resources that shape and support agency for managing personal well-being. Collectively, the findings in this thesis show that smart technology services are used by consumers in structural contexts that influence their well-being. Smart technology services constitute resources with which responsibilized consumers can exert their agency towards different well-being goals. The thesis also discusses the implications of how these service frame problems and solutions relating to well-being in ways that emphasize either the individual or social and structural aspects. This knowledge is helpful for both researchers and managers in considering how service offerings can benefit consumer well-being.
  • Vozian, Katia (Hanken School of Economics, 2022-10-31)
    This dissertation is a collection of four empirical studies in the fields of financial economics. The first and second studies relate to the literature of climate economics and contribute to the policy discussions on climate-related transition risk. The last two studies build upon the literature of market microstructure and contribute to the policy discussions on speed in financial markets. The first study of this dissertation investigates whether and how climate-related transition metrics of European large corporate firms relate to the credit risk of these firms implied by credit default swap for different time horizons. Based on an empirical analysis of firm-specific historical data, I find that firms with higher Scope 1 GHG emissions have higher CDS-implied credit risk. This relationship is reflected even by 30-year CDS, particularly after 2015 when a shift in market awareness of transition risk occurred. Albeit the European CDS market is already pricing to some small extent the effect of emissions at different time horizons, other material climate-related transition metrics do not yet reflected. In the second study, we examine how climate-related transition metrics relate to firms’ credit ratings of corporate firms in advanced economies such as Europe and the USA. We find that high emissions tend to be associated with worse credit ratings. Yet firms that disclose emissions and a forward-looking commitment to cut emissions have lower credit risk, with the effect tending to be stronger for more ambitious targets. We also find that after the Paris agreement in 2015, European firms most exposed to climate transition risks saw their ratings deteriorate. The effect is larger for European than US firms, probably reflecting differential expectations around climate policy. The third study investigates how resilient are modern trading venues in a high-frequency environment with cross-venue fragmented order flow. We build a unique cross-venue dataset with millisecond resolution, covering two major competing stock exchanges, London Stock Exchange and Chi-X. Employing a Hawkes process methodology, we find that the average time for the stock market to return to normal after a shock is below known human response times, which is circa 600 milliseconds, suggesting that a substantial amount of stock market activity is run by trading bots responses. In the fourth study, we turn our attention to high frequency versus low frequency market data. We explore a set of neural network machine learning models on news and financial data to predict shock events in high-frequency and low-frequency market data. We find that the market movement in response to a piece of news may be instantaneous or, most likely, cumulative over time.
  • Schauman, Sebastian (Hanken School of Economics, 2022-09-08)
    Contemporary consumer culture is characterized by unprecedented abundance and the constantly increasing accessibility of consumer goods. However, research suggests that the rationalization of consumption and production underlying these achievements may in some cases undermine consumers’ ability to form meaningful relationships with consumer objects. Although this has provoked discussions on the character of meaningful consumer-object relations, the conceptualization of meaningfulness in marketing and consumer research remains surprisingly underdeveloped. This thesis aims to refine our understanding of meaningful consumer-object relations. With the help of three qualitative studies focused on vinyl and craft beer consumption, it finds that the significance consumers ascribe to consumer objects is contingent on the degree to which their interactions within a context of consumption help them make sense of their environment and their role in it. The first study identifies four engaging characteristics generated by the material culture underlying vinyl consumption. These characteristics strengthen consumers’ sense of having a purpose and something to aim for by facilitating a high degree of consumer engagement. The second study introduces the concept of cultural profile to conceptualize the focal features of craft beer consumption that make it appear relatable to consumers. This relatability helps consumers make sense of their environment as it enables them to contextualize the consumer objects that to a large extent constitute it. The third study discusses the managerial implications of consumers’ desire for engaging and relatable consumption. By exploring consumers’ interactions with consumer objects and the broader contexts in which they are embedded, this thesis reveals that the disposition of a context of consumption toward generating meaning that consumers regard as meaningful is contingent on the material culture and institutional logic underlying the context. This implies that contextual aspects, such as values, norms, social practices, and our material surroundings, mediate consumers’ relationships with their objects of consumption and the significance they ascribe to these objects. This thesis provides the conceptual foundation for a more structured and coherent discussion on the character of meaningful consumer-object relations. It contributes to the marketing and consumer research literature by providing a refined conceptualization of such relations and a comprehensive understanding of how they take shape and how companies can support their formation. Such an understanding helps companies improve their relationships with their customers by enabling them to develop and contextualize their market offerings in ways that encourage consumers to commit to these offerings in the long term.
  • Stevenson, Alexis (Hanken School of Economics, 2022-09-07)
    This dissertation is a collection of three empirical essays in the fields of industrial organization and economics of innovation. The first two essays build on the literature of patent renewal models to develop new methods to estimate the value of patent rights. The third essay provides a counterfactual analysis of an important institutional change in the European patent system, the introduction of the Unitary patent. The first essay measures the private value of patents granted to companies in Finland between 1990 and 2000 using a dynamic stochastic model of patent renewal decisions. In this model, a patent owner decides to renew a patent for each period as long as the expected returns from the patent exceed the renewal costs. The renewal decisions are then used to infer the distribution of private value of patents. This essay contributes to the existing literature by decomposing the private value of patents by technological field and by providing an estimate of the returns to R&D for Finnish companies. The second essay provides estimates of the private value of patents granted in Germany in the field of semiconductors. This essay contributes both to the literature on renewal decision models and the link between patent value and citations. Indeed, the model includes the possibility for patent holders to learn about the value of their invention with citations received across time. This extended framework allows the dynamic link between forward patent citations and patent value to be investigated in a counterfactual exercise. Additionally, patent-level predicted grant probabilities are computed, applying machine learning algorithms on the text of patent abstracts in order to model the pre-grant renewal decisions. The third essay – a joint work with Otto Toivanen and Tuomas Takalo – estimates the private value of European patents in the chemical industry and analyzes the incentive and welfare effects of introducing the Unitary patent. This major institutional change implies that inventors will save on legal and translation costs and will face a single schedule of renewal fees instead of multiple national renewal fee schedules, which is the current situation with European patents. To evaluate the expected effects of the Unitary patent option, we build a three-part model combining: i) A patent renewal model, ii) a patent production function linking the level of R&D to the quality and the private value and (iii) a mapping between private value and consumer surplus. The counterfactual analysis provides key insights on the effect of the Unitary patent on the private value of patents, consumer surplus in Europe as well as on income for national patent offices.
  • Savolainen, Ville (Hanken School of Economics, 2022-04-20)
    This dissertation is a collection of three essays. The first two essays apply game theory, industrial organization economics, and monetary economics to improve our understanding about blockchain based cryptocurrencies, with a specific focus on blockchain security. The main contributions of these two essays are the following: Centralized mining in pools is not harmful for security of Proof-of-Work cryptocurrencies. In Proof-of-Stake cryptocurrencies a high monetary base expansion rate is necessary for security. The third essay is in the field of macro-finance and theoretically proposes that the counter cyclical variation in expected excess returns and volatility can be explained in a neoclassical framework where firms through innovation gain monopoly power and have fixed costs in production. In the first essay we examine pools’ cost of double spending and conclude that the costs are increasing in pool size. This result should help to alleviate the fear of centralization which has been raised in academia and the industry. Our results rely on the fact that because pools’ returns are dependent on the value of the cryptocurrency they would not attack against the cryptocurrency. We come to this conclusion through a game theoretical model where pools collect fees and make economic profits. The second essay, studies under which circumstances the stake holders would follow the longest chain rule instead of attacking in a Proof-of-Stake protocol. The essay discusses monetary base expansion rate in cryptocurrencies and its effects on agents stacking behavior, and cryptocurrencies’ security and market capitalization. The essay has versatile results. The most important is probably that monetary base expansion increases market capitalization and security. The model proposes that annual inflation rate should be 36-1000 % for a Proof-of-Stake cryptocurrency to be safe against double spending attacks. The third essay employs a simplification of the seminal product variety model of Romer (1990). In the model each intermediate goods producer is a monopolist maximizing his profits. These producers collect a constant mark-up over variable costs for producing their intermediary good. In addition to variable costs, each production line has a fixed cost. What is left from the revenues after fixed and variable costs is the profit of the intermediate goods producer. The lower the demand, the lower the profits per unit of intermediate good. Hence, dividend stream, and equity price are more sensitive to shocks during the recession than during booms. The essay illustrates to what extent the proposed model can explain asset pricing fluctuations. The intended contribution of the essay is to demonstrate that deviating from the neoclassical assumptions of perfect competition and decreasing scale returns may explain countercyclical volatility and expected excess returns.
  • Chatterjee, Ira (Hanken School of Economics, 2022-04-05)
    This dissertation emphasizes the social value creation mission of social entrepreneurship, and redirects attention to the pivotal role of social entrepreneurs in tackling grand challenges and resolving societal problems, such as that of gender inequality. Recognizing the urgency of empowering women, this dissertation focuses on social entrepreneurship programs aimed at encouraging women’s entrepreneurship. While previous studies have explored macro level structures and policies related to social change initiatives, this study foregrounds the lived experiences and voices of women entrepreneurs, and examines the drivers and outcomes of initiatives at the micro level. This dissertation comprises three articles that address different stages of the social change process. Article 1 considers the interpretation of the issue from the perspective of the individual embedded in the community. Drawing on the literature on social movements and framing, this conceptual article asks, how do social entrepreneurs frame social change, secure community support, and motivate action? Article 2 explores ways of shifting values in a manner that is non-violent and sensitive to the local culture. Accordingly, the research questions are, how do social enterprises work with and around entrenched cultural values to create positive social change? How can practices shift values without alienating members? Article 3 attempts to understand the effects of social change at the individual level and asks the question, how does entrepreneurship training and venture creation impact the well-being of women entrepreneurs at the BOP? In accordance with the inductive nature of the research and the aim of uncovering strategies and tactics, an inductive, qualitative method was adopted. While article 1 is a conceptual analysis, articles 2 and 3 use the qualitative case study method. Taken together, the three articles in this dissertation. Taken together, the three articles in this dissertation offer creative approaches for social entrepreneurs tackling grand challenges at the community level. The articles reveal strategies of: (1) framing issues in ways that appeal to both emotions and cognitions, thereby garnering commitment for social change; (2) introducing value-laden practices to subtly reorient and augment values; and (3) developing the psychological capacity of women entrepreneurs and supporting their personal well-being needs. Advocating for a more holistic view of social change processes, this dissertation shows that incremental changes and local solutions bode well for scalable and sustainable change efforts, and tend to be less disruptive and violent than radical changes.
  • Sarasvuo, Sonja (Hanken School of Economics, 2022-03-10)
    Brands play an increasingly prevalent role in modern society, as most people come to contact with a wide array of brands daily. Corporate brands characterize companies, and in particular convey meaning for a multitude of stakeholders. This thesis takes specific interest in what companies can learn from the diverse associations, meanings, and perceptions that are socially constructed in the company’s stakeholder environment. Indeed, a given corporate brand may take on a life of its own in stakeholder discourse, well beyond a company’s initial strategies for the brand. The complexity of stakeholder perception brings about both challenges and opportunities to the corporate branding practices and strategies of companies. A traditional notion in corporate branding research and practice is that a corporate identity should follow principles of coherence and consistency. A coherent and consistent corporate identity is assumed to increase unity and alignment across various stakeholders’ perceptions of the company and its corporate brand. However, recent research suggests that companies commonly fail to achieve such unity across stakeholders’ perceptions, and scholars increasingly question whether coherence and consistency are realistic or even necessary principles for corporate branding. The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate the implications of diversity in stakeholders’ perceptions of companies for corporate identity in corporate branding research and practice. Additionally, this thesis investigates the implications of stakeholders’ perceptual diversity in the research contexts of internal branding, brand extensions, and co-creation in branding. Three essays make up this thesis, addressing the purpose of the thesis from different angles: Essay 1, authored by Sonja Sarasvuo, relies on a qualitative methodology to explore the diversity of a B2B service company’s identity from an internal stakeholder perspective. The thesis extends understandings of how individuals’ perceptions of identity diverge due to, for instance, multiple professional and locational identities, and discusses diversity-based approaches to corporate identity management, internal branding and co-creation in branding. Essay 2, authored by Sonja Sarasvuo, Veronica Liljander, and Kari Haahtela, presents a qualitative study conducted in two case companies, exploring business customers’ perceptions of corporate brand extensions in relation to the parent corporate brands. The study shows that perceived brand extension fit may grow over time, and identifies various sources of brand extension attractiveness and purchase barriers. Based on the findings, the essay discusses potential benefits and risks of extending corporate brands under a ‘branded house’ strategy. Essay 3, authored by Sonja Sarasvuo, Anne Rindell, and Marina Kovalchuk, presents a critical literature review of the concept of co-creation in branding research, and proposes a new definition of the concept, suggesting that co-creation is a process of intentional interaction between or among two or more parties that influences a brand.
  • Sandberg, Maria (Hanken School of Economics, 2022-01-13)
    Environmental problems such as climate change and biodiversity loss demand urgent action, with sufficiency increasingly forwarded as a means to halt environmental degradation. As an approach to (environmentally) sustainable consumption, sufficiency posits that reducing environmental footprints requires substantial changes in consumption patterns among high-consuming classes, including reduced consumption levels. Understanding how we can realize these much-needed changes in consumption patterns is essential if change is to happen. This thesis aims to improve our understanding of sufficiency transitions by addressing the following three research questions: 1) What is the normative justification for sufficiency transitions? 2) What consumption changes does sufficiency entail? 3) How can sufficiency transitions be realized? The thesis consists of three articles that together respond to the research questions of the thesis. The thesis uses three complementary research methods: Article 1 is a conceptual analysis of the normative foundations of sufficiency, Article 2 is a literature review of sufficiency research, and Article 3 is an empirical study of sufficiency in the context of downsizing of housing. The thesis provides a normative argument for a focus on sufficiency in transitions toward more sustainable modes of consumption. It identifies the types of consumption changes that sufficiency may entail (absolute reductions, modal shifts, product longevity, and sharing practices) and shows the consumption changes that are required in the consumption categories of housing, nutrition, mobility, and miscellaneous consumption. In addition, the thesis shows sufficiency transitions to require changes along several dimensions, including consumer attitudes and behavior, culture, the economic system, the political system, and the physical environment. In particular, the thesis shows how socio-cultural meanings and norms can be negotiated to realize sufficiency transitions. The thesis also identifies actors that can advance sufficiency transitions, including businesses, policymakers, citizens, NGOs, and educators. The findings of this thesis can be a starting point for practitioners working to realize sufficiency transitions, as well as for future academic research on sufficiency transitions.
  • Keinonen, Henrik (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-12-08)
    The aim of this research is to study agency problems in entrepreneurial ventures and publicly listed companies (PLCs). Agency problems originate from asymmetric information, and can be detrimental to a firm’s investment attractiveness, high-growth ventures’ financial markets, and listed companies’ valuation. The overarching research question is what are the agency problems among entrepreneurial ventures and publicly listed companies, are these problems similar in nature, and can they be prevented or cured? The question is addressed in three different settings. Paper I reflects on business angel networks’ (BANs) value to startup entrepreneurs and their societal context, and provides statistics on BANs in Europe and the US. Paper II empirically investigates the impact of Israeli scaleup entrepreneurs’ criteria when selecting a Venture Capital (VC) firm, inverting the typical research order. Paper III contributes by providing answers to why certain blockholders in Finnish PLCs do not take responsibility for the company’s long-run development, but instead maximise their private utility. The authors employ descriptive statistics and quantitative research: interview data, an ordered logit regression model, longitudinal panel data with cross-sectional and time-series observations, and ordinary least squares regression. Agency problems in startups stem from the transactional process between entrepreneur and angel investor. In this setting, the entrepreneur might provide untruthful information to the investor or abuse the funding. BAN service quality may, however, reduce information asymmetries in entrepreneurial venture quality, and build trust between entrepreneurs and investors. BANs in more mature business angel markets tend to offer better quality services than those in less mature markets. Agency problems in scaleups manifest between VC firms and entrepreneurs, where VC managers may push entrepreneurs to take excessive risks that endanger their personal wealth. Empirically, entrepreneurial experience has a negative relationship with the importance entrepreneurs attach to valuation, which is moderated by the importance they attach to VC networks and reputation. Honest signalling of the parties’ qualities may reduce agency problems in the startup and scaleup phases. Large state ownership and company value are negatively associated, suggesting that government owners may promote political goals rather than long-term value for all shareholders. Liquidating state ownership in non-strategic companies and re-investing the assets through ETF funds would constitute a Pareto improvement. Ultimately, this study shows that agency problems are contextual and differ on the firm’s stage of development, namely startup, scaleup or PLC. But agency problems can be alleviated, which is important to the aggregate economy.
  • Wessman, Canelia (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2021-12-07)
    Jämställdhetslagen innehåller förbud mot diskriminering på grund av kön, bestämmelser som föreskriver främjande av jämställdheten samt bestämmelser om tillsyn över lagen. Vid lagens ikraftträdande uppfattades diskrimineringsförbuden som lagens viktigaste bestämmelser. Dessa regler är viktiga för att garantera den formella jämställdheten. Jämställdhetsmål och faktisk jämställdhet kan dock inte uppnås utan aktiva åtgärder för att utjämna brister i jämställdheten. Därför har tendensen både inom vår nationella lagstiftning och inom internationell rätt varit att man allt mer erkänner den främjande verksamhetens betydelse och definierar olika aktörers skyldighet att verka för ökad jämställdhet. Därför har också arbetsgivarnas skyldighet att utarbeta jämställdhetsplaner under jämställdhetslagens historia utvecklats och blivit allt mer detaljerad. Enligt den gällande jämställdhetslagen ska arbetsgivare som regelbundet har minst 30 anställda minst vartannat år utarbeta en jämställdhetsplan. Men hur väl fungerar jämställdhetsplanen som ett redskap för att främja jämställdheten och för att uppnå jämställdhetslagens mål? Ett centralt syfte med denna avhandling är att utreda hur de på arbetsmarknaden förekommande jämställdhetsproblemen behandlas i jämställdhetsplanerna. I avhandlingen behandlas problem som gäller inkomstnivåskillnader mellan kvinnor och män, vertikal segregation, horisontell segregation, svag arbetsmarknadsposition som beror på kön, diskriminering till följd av graviditet och familjeledigheter, svårigheten att sammanjämka arbete och familj samt trakasserier på grund av kön. Vidare undersöks vilka problem som eventuellt förekommer vid förverkligandet av jämställdhetsplaner med tanke på lagstiftningens krav och målsättningar. Dessutom görs också en jämförande analys av hur jämställdhetsplanerna ser ut i Sverige och hur de skiljer sig från de finländska planerna. Analysens syfte är att svara på frågan hur man i de svenska och finländska jämställdhetsplanerna ser på vad som krävts enligt lagstiftningen, dvs. hur planeringsskyldigheten upplevts. Analysen utmynnar i en diskussion om ”de lege ferenda”, dvs. om och i så fall hur lagen borde ändras för att främja jämställdhetsmålet och för att i praktiken uppfylla de skyldigheter som Finland förbundit sig till.
  • Kunwar, Jagat Bahadur (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-10-18)
    Some individuals face social discrimination due to their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Despite legal successes, social inequalities for sexual and gender minorities (SGM) persists. The aim of the study was to understand: (1) Which social inequalities do SGM face and how are these inequalities reproduced? and (2) How, and to what effect, has collective action subverted these individuals’ experience of oppression? The ongoing SGM movement in Nepal, which started around the year 2001, is used as a case study. The study empirically adopts a multi-level field analysis. Correspondence analysis performed on an existing census of SGM population in Nepal revealed various SGM clusters with their corresponding sociodemographic characteristics and social discrimination experienced. Narratives of SGM revealed how they construct their own identities and interpret the social inequalities faced. In-depth interviews with influential actors explained how gender taxonomies are established and contested in various social fields. Text-mining operations on a media corpus revealed significant ‘discourse clusters’ and helped to understand discursive evolution of the SGM movement in Nepal. A systematic bibliometric survey of sexuality and gender studies helped to contextualize some unique SGM issues in the ‘Global South’. Social construction, self-construction, embodiment, and intersectionality of social categories are important to understand sexuality and gender. Narratives of the lived experiences produce a coherent sense of gender identity. Sexuality and gender can additionally be understood as ‘habitus’/dispositions–inculcated through socialization–and transformed through everyday practices. The bases of social inequalities faced by SGM are social stigma, ‘identity ambiguities’, and an ‘internalized’ form of oppression. Intersecting social identities can further lead to a unique experience of oppression. This study identifies discriminatory gender taxonomies as the root cause producing and perpetuating social inequalities. However, inequalities faced by SGM are not uniform but hierarchical and nested. The severity of the heteronormative domination is mediated by the masculine domination already existing in a society. SGM activism can be viewed as delegitimizing the discriminatory gender taxonomies across various social fields. ‘Gender reflexivity’ arising due to the dialectic of subjective identification towards socially constructed categories is the main force for social activism. Gender reflexivity articulated as personally empowering narratives– when combined with commensurable experiences of oppression faced by various intersectional categories–can develop a collective identity which can be further mobilized through collective organization and symbolic representation. Effective leadership focused on building a common agenda and group consciousness can leverage individual reflexivity into collective action for social justice.
  • Antikainen, Mikko (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-10-18)
    A wave of disruptive technologies, in the form of technologies such as 3D printing technologies, 3D modeling and scanning technologies, and AI technology, are changing the playing field for the creative industries, creators, and right holders. Underlying these technologies, there are two fundamental transformations, whose effects are important for the creative industry and the legal community– namely, the digitalization of physical objects and designs, and the digitalization of human creativity. These two technological shifts are increasingly blurring the line between the physical and digital world. For the proper function of IP law, the law should be able to regulate both worlds. The problem is: How we can fit digital designs and digital creativity into our current regulative framework, which is still in some cases built on the assumption that creation is done by a human being using physical tools and that protected objects exist only in the physical world. This raises the question whether current intellectual property law in the EU, especially copyright and design law, can adequately regulate digital designs as well as properly incentivize and protect digital creativity. To answer this question, the dissertation provides an in-depth analysis of some of the major challenges that the digitalization of design and design process creates, mainly within the European copyright and design law system. It does so by taking a legal dogmatic approach and analyzing the problem against the background of theories regarding law and technology and traditional justifications of IP law. The examination focuses on three specific technologies: 3D printing, AI technologies, and video games. The dissertation argues that, in most cases, EU copyright and design law are able to regulate digital designs and seem to be ready to deal with the challenges caused by the digitalization of design and creativity. This dissertation makes several recommendations towards a more coherent and technologically neutral approach regarding digital designs and digital creativity in the context of EU copyright and design law. In many cases, digital designs depicting purely functional objects and AI generated works should not receive copyright protection due to the lack of originality. However, despite the normative arguments against giving protection, there is a possibility that the technological change in the form of digital designs and creativity will broaden the normal scope of copyright protection, making it overinclusive. The dissertation suggests that if protection is seen as necessary, it should be sought through other means than copyright protection, such as design protection. This avoids fundamentally changing and distorting the concept of originality and the purpose of copyright law to protect human creations.
  • Storsjö, Isabell (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-10-18)
    The public sector is under pressure to do more and better with less. The government and its agencies cannot solve today’s complex problems and challenges (including climate change, pandemics, disasters) alone but need to collaborate with other actors to achieve desired value outcomes for society. Supply chains have been argued to exist everywhere, whether they are managed or not. In recent years, mainstream journals in operations management (OM) and supply chain management (SCM) have shown an increased interest in publishing research on supply chains and the public and non-profit sectors and spheres. Such topics include research in which organisations such as government agencies, NGOs, and social enterprises, with main motivations other than profit maximisation, are viewed as managers of their own supply networks. However, relatively little research has addressed the intersection of supply chains and government through policies, regulation and public agencies and SCM strategy, structure and performance. This thesis explores what a supply chain perspective entails in settings of (more or less) strictly regulated public service settings and processes. The thesis includes publications focusing on legal processes in the justice system and public procurement processes and preparedness in the health care, energy, and water services sectors in Finland. The thesis author applies the pragmatist paradigm and an abductive reasoning process. The empirical studies and the publications were explorative and used qualitative research methods. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews and documents, analysed with qualitative analysis methods such as coding template and general inductive analysis. This thesis uses the “public value framework” originally popularised by Mark Moore to further the discussion of how to integrate SCM with public value and societal outcomes. The framework is intended to focus managerial attention on the elements (and alignment) of public value, the authorising environment, and operational capabilities. For SCM research that intersects with policy and regulation, the public value framework provides building blocks that are necessary for the consideration of societal outcomes such as justice (for maintaining a social equilibrium in society), civil preparedness (for resilience at a societal level), and innovation (for future growth).
  • Huhtamäki, Fredrik (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-09-27)
    A fundamental question in financial research is how individuals make decisions under uncertainty, and how the structure of corporations and cultural aspects affect these choices. Correspondingly, in this thesis, I present three studies related to managerial utility maximization, investigated through the lens of agency theory to shed light on aspects related to managerial behavior. Whereas the theory of expected utility maximization typically focuses on the utility maximization of wealth, this dissertation gives evidence of managerial behavior consistent with the notion that utility is also derived from non-pecuniary factors. The first essay investigates whether powerful CEOs are detrimental to workplace safety and health or whether they are “ethical guardians of the workforce”. The empirical evidence provided in the study shows that corporations led by powerful CEOs have fewer workplace related injuries and illnesses. Powerful CEOs have more influence over corporate decisions related to workplace safety and health and from an agency theory point of view, the CEO will take actions that maximize her utility. Therefore, this study shows that CEOs can derive utility from good workplace safety and health. The second essay investigates the relationship between shared leadership and risk-taking through leverage. The amount of shared leadership within the corporation is difficult to measure directly. However, the second essay overcomes this empirical challenge by using corporations that are led by co-CEOs as a proxy for shared leadership. The study argues that CEOs maximize their utility at lower levels of risk than preferable from a shareholder point of view. The empirical evidence shows that shared leadership is negatively related to leverage, which could indicate that monitoring of more than one CEO is difficult, which enables co-CEOs to derive a private benefit in the form of low risk-taking. Moreover, the study finds a positive relationship between shared leadership and excess cash holdings and that shared leadership is related to higher agency costs. The third essay investigates whether the perception of time and more specifically longterm orientation is related to the choice of earnings management strategy. The study uses a comprehensive global sample and finds that corporations in long-term oriented cultures rely on relatively more accrual-based earnings management while corporations in short-term oriented cultures rely on relatively more real earnings management. Both earnings management strategies are associated with costs. This study shows that the manager chooses such a strategy that minimizes the perceived costs of earnings management, and that the perception of time thus plays a role in managerial utility maximization.
  • Tuomala, Virva (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-09-15)
    This thesis examines urban food security at the intersection of retail supply chain management and development studies. Food security in a multifaceted issue and has previously been framed through agricultural production and the fundamental availability of food. As more than half of the global population currently resides in cities and other urban areas, urban issues are becoming more pressing in the field of development, as well as supply chain management. Urban food security pertains to the availability and accessibility of food, making the food supply chain and grocery retail a central factor in potential solutions. Urban dwellers are almost exclusively reliant on the market for their nourishment. Particularly in a Global South context, economic and spatial constraints play a large role in food security. This thesis focuses on poor urban neighbourhoods and the underlying societal structures that lead to these constraints.Special attention is paid to the multidimensionality of poverty, which goes beyond the economic framing to include aspects such as living standards and health. Empirical work for this thesis was completed in South Africa, (essay 2) and Bangkok, Thailand (essay 3). The data consists of interviews with consumers, representatives of grocery retail, and social workers. The consumers are residents of poor urban neighbourhoods, whose specific needs and grocery dynamics are often marginalised in favour of private sector agendas. The importance of the informal food sector is highlighted in the study, emphasizing the multidimensionality of the urban context. While there is a wave of grocery retail modernisation in the Global South, it is imperative to also consider the more traditional outlets, such as markets and micro retailers, in the solutions for urban food security.
  • Rahman, Arafat (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-08-25)
    The advent of the transformative service research (TSR) paradigm underscores the need for service-providing organizations to play a role inimproving the well-being of individuals, collectives, societies, and ecosystems. Understanding organization-driven well-being is valuable for any country irrespective of its development status. However, this is particularly important for the progress of a developing or least-developed country as it deals with many challenges, especially in crucial areas such as healthcare services. In the discourses of TSR, a healthcare service provider is regarded as a transformative service provider as it has inherent promise to work toward the well-being of healthcare customers and other individuals. Although extant studies in the TSR paradigm address issues related to services and wellbeing, there remains a lack of knowledge on how a healthcare service provider could deploy efforts and initiatives to facilitate the well-being of individuals in a developing country setting. This thesis addresses the gaps by exploring the sources and categories of well-being and empirically examining the influences of organizational efforts and initiatives on healthcare customers’ and employees’ wellbeing. The findings suggest that a service-providing organization can facilitate well-being by integrating facets of support, technology, service environment and design, and internal practices and arrangements. Apart from the organization-driven sources, well-being can be facilitated by individuals, collectives, service systems, and situational factors. The findings contribute to the extant TSR paradigm by positing that a healthcare service provider’s support and socialization efforts directed toward customers can have differential effects on their well-being. An organization’s efforts to socialize healthcare customers through the provision of information can positively influence their beliefs of doing a particular health-related task and expectations about desired outcomes. The thesis further substantiates that a healthcare service provider’s support and empowerment efforts can play a crucial role in facilitating employee well-being in a developing country setting. Such organization-driven support positively influences employees’ well-being through engagement with their job and organization. The thesis argues that managers or practitioners need to devise and implement socialization strategies and practices to enhance healthcare customers’ learning and self-management skills. These are crucial for a developing country where many healthcare customers face challenging life conditions and lack health-related learning opportunities. Similarly, designing employee support and empowerment programs by prioritizing employees’ opinions, goals, and values and allowing them to exercise decision-making freedom in the workplace are crucial issues to consider for healthcare service managers or practitioners in developing country settings.
  • Frig, Meri-Maaria (Hanken School of Economics, 2021-08-04)
    This doctoral thesis examines how social actors, which invest in discourse about the business-sustainability relationship, frame and present sustainability in their public communication. Past studies have examined the framing and presentation of business sustainability and corporate responsibility primarily in newspapers. Recent studies have found that media accentuate ambiguity and polyphony of voices about these topics. However, as the boundaries between strategic communication and journalism are blurring, it is important to understand the variety of ways media and communication construct social and cultural change. This dissertation reports on three empirical studies that examine the framing and presentation of business sustainability in five different owned media publications that are expected to promote sustainability in a business context. Based on a content and textual analysis, the studies examine media and content producers as intermediaries that evaluate, valorize, and negotiate the worth of particular forms of business sustainability. The results of the studies show that the examined intermediaries, each frame business sustainability in specific and strategic ways, with polished accounts and coherent narratives, which are co-constituted by social actors with aligned values and purposes. The thesis extends research on processes of sensemaking and sensegiving in business sustainability communication (including corporate social responsibility communication). The thesis contributes to this strand of research by showing that intermediaries that actively advocate some forms of sustainable business conduct blur the boundaries between previously identified communication tasks. Typical to information intermediaries, they inform stakeholders and audiences about the social and environmental impacts of business activities and present various solutions to common sustainability problems. They also actively involve stakeholders that engage positively with the authors and can add authority and credibility to the voiced claims. The three empirical studies show how social actors also guide their audiences to adopt sustainability-related practices and discourses. For example, firms are expected to serve as public ambassadors and to create public symbols of sustainability. Without a credible media accountability mechanism, speakers can also leave out important questions and information about business sustainability or corporate responsibility. Transparency and trustworthiness can be improved in all communication tasks by adhering to guidelines for responsible journalism.

View more