Doctoral theses

Nyligen publicerat

  • Lindeman, Sara (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2018-01-19)
    This thesis studies early-phase market organizing. Contrary to dominant views of markets as neutral backgrounds to economic activity, in this work markets are understood as socio-material systems that are shaped by the actors involved in the organizing process. In affluent settings, such as Europe, market organizing processes have been going on for centuries. To ethnographically study the very early phases of market organizing, the empirical work is performed in subsistence settings, i.e. resource-constrained areas currently served by the informal economy. The empirical data were collected in informal urban settlements and remote rural areas in Tanzania, Brazil, Ethiopia and India. The purpose of this thesis is to study early-phase market organizing in subsistence settings and its implications on capabilities for achieving well-being. Based on the capability approach, the thesis takes a holistic and multi-level approach to well-being. An improved understanding of early-phase market organizing processes, studied in settings not strictly conditioned by the path taken in affluent economies, can open up possibilities to see and encourage alternative and more sustainable ways of market organizing. The research shows that market organizing begins when an augmented discussion starts around trade exchanges. This discussion includes creating rules and norms to discipline exchanges as well as ways of representing the exchanges. Values guide this discussion, and participating in it requires that actors engage in new practices and often also that they form new organizational entities. In addition, early phase market organizing is characterized by a mobilization of various resources that improve market actors’ abilities to act in and shape markets. In the empirical cases, intermediary organizations, such as local NGO’s, were instrumental in empowering subsistence communities so that they could actively take part in the market organizing process. The dominant debate suggests that individuals will benefit from markets by getting employment and access to improved products and services. However, this thesis shows that when local communities organize themselves and are empowered to actively participate in the market organizing process, this results in market arrangements that better deliver capabilities for achieving well-being.
  • Tabaklar, Tunca (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-12-16)
    As disasters are affecting millions of people around the world, humanitarian supply chains are changing to identify needs and to respond to those affected. To achieve successful humanitarian operations, humanitarian supply chains need certain capabilities to anticipate the effects of a disaster, quickly mobilise the necessary resources and provide better services through these capabilities to the people in crisis. In other words, they must be resilient while scaling up quickly to meet unpredictable demands. Thus, the primary aim of this thesis is to explore the concept of scalability and understand how scalability contributes to various outcomes, such as resilience in HSCM, through three essays. The first essay is based on a systematic literature review to deepen the understanding of theoretical approaches and concepts borrowed from other research fields in humanitarian supply chain management. It is entitled ‘Borrowing Theories in Humanitarian Supply Chain Management’. The second essay is ‘Investigating Scalability for Building Supply Chain Resilience’, and the third essay is ‘Supply Chain Scalability: The Role of Supply Chain Integration’. Both the second and the third essays are based on a single case study in a humanitarian setting. A framework of scalability is developed through the dynamic capabilities view, as humanitarian organisations are operating in one of the most turbulent environments. Furthermore, this thesis contributes not only to humanitarian organisations but also organisations that face regular turbulence because the business environment is becoming increasingly turbulent.
  • John, Sofia (Hanken School of Economics, 2017-11-21)
    People are generally considered to be an organization’s most valuable asset, and therefore how organizations influence and manage them is an important issue. Nevertheless, influencing and managing people is not a straightforward matter, not least because individuals respond differently to the same stimulus. Yet the issue of idiosyncrasy in individual’s responses to the organization is often ignored. In order to develop our understanding of why employees respond differently, this thesis takes the employee perspective and delves into two kinds of employees’ cognitive responses to the organization, namely, their perceptions and identification. The thesis builds on the microfoundations literature, which makes explicit that organizational research typically involves multiple levels of analysis. The microfoundations model illustrates that the measures organizations take to enhance performance only do so through the micro level elements (the people) that comprise the macro level phenomenon (the organization). Using multilevel data collected in Nordic multinational corporations, this study analyzes what organizational and individual level factors influence employees’ perceptions and identification. The findings indicate that employees’ perceptions and identification are driven by a complex interplay of factors between different levels of analysis. The primary drivers are the signals employees pick up and their social interaction with other members of the organization. However, these must be considered in the light of the multiple contexts in which the individual is embedded. The individual’s position and responsibilities, as well as the way work is structured and enacted, have important consequences for the individual’s patterns of social interaction and the signals he or she is exposed to. The main contribution of this study is the extension of previous conceptualizations of the microfoundations model. Whilst organizations attempt to influence employees through various means, such as high-commitment HRM practices, the impact these have on employees depends on the context in which this all takes place. Where the individual is positioned within the organization, along with the people he or she interacts with, determine how the individual perceives and relates to the organization.
  • Jalonen, Kari (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-10-25)
    The concept ‘strategy’ has become a ubiquitous part of the Western worldview; it has taken over spheres of life far from its original homes in war and business, and is used to manage a variety of collectives, including churches, the Red Cross, and the Boy Scouts. The rational and apparently simple language of strategic plans as a ‘common direction’ or a ‘shared understanding’ seeks to cut through the complexity of organizational life and the different, often competing perspectives people take as they go about their business. However, such sharedness remains elusive: many or most organizations operate in environments defined by multiple objectives and diffuse power, and the formulations of the management are reinterpreted, challenged and appropriated by a polyphony of other voices. Even in such environments where the maintenance of a shared understanding of goals and direction appears impossible, people find ways of acting as if they were in agreement; they manage to coordinate their actions and understanding of strategic priorities. Building on a strategy-as-practice approach, this study investigates how people achieve such coordination despite unavoidable differences in views and ambiguity of meaning. I draw on a 19-year study of strategy work in a Finnish city organization to study how participants introduced broader institutional perspectives to the strategy work as related but different perspectives on the city and its future and used them as institutional voices in dialogue. This study focuses on the ways in which these institutional voices were used in tandem to craft a collective strategy and how this resultant strategy was interpreted and reinterpreted according to situational needs. My findings describe how participants in the strategy work in Bay City related the pluralist institutions with each other and used them in context, and how participants weaved these institutions into partially shared, flexible practices and meanings, ultimately creating a strategy text which was used to coordinate organizational action in a variety of ways, without complete agreement of its meanings. I describe this meeting of perspectives as an ideational dialogue between locally relevant institutional voices, which enabled the creation of a collective strategy. This account makes three contributions to our understanding of the practice of strategy. First, it elucidates the institutional nature of strategy work by describing the role of local enactments of societal and field-level institutions in strategy work. Second, it introduces the notion of institutional dialogue and institutional voices to advance the conversation on institutional complexity, demonstrating the constructive aspects of institutional complexity for strategy work. Third, it provides a polyphonic account of how a collective strategy is formulated in an ongoing process balancing diverging interests.
  • Vuoristo, Lotta (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-10-17)
    This thesis focuses on customer relationships, a topical issue in contemporary marketing. Contrary to many earlier studies, this study approaches customer relationships from the consumer’s subjective point of view. This perspective is often overlooked in marketing. Yet in order to advance knowledge of customer relationships, an understanding of the subjectivity of motivations is essential. The discoveries are based on an in-depth study of consumers and their customer relationships. A novel combination of the grounded theory method and ethnomethodology was developed in order to conduct the analyses. The theoretical contribution of the thesis is presented in three steps. First, building on self-based theories, a map of multiple selves is constructed. Second, drawing on self-congruity theory, the self-relationship (S-R) congruence concept is introduced. This concept serves to explicate the complex ways in which customer relationships are connected to consumers’ lives and to clarify how subjective meanings and motivation emerge. Third, the thesis develops a process view of how consumers make sense of the many customer relationships they have. The research reveals that it is possible to be a customer, and to have a customer relationship, without being in a customer relationship. In other words, a customer relationship can be meaningful to a consumer without reciprocity. A customer relationship can even remain relevant to the consumer after the company no longer exists. These discoveries are inconsistent with what current customer relationship theories prescribe. Overall, the thesis illuminates several aspects of customer relationships that existing theories have thus far neglected. The conclusions not only contribute to theory development in the customer relationship field, but also have implications for companies that wish to improve relationships with their customers.
  • Larson, Kelli (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-09-15)
    The last fifteen years has witnessed major and dramatic changes in the world of patent law and patent litigation. The impetus for these changes has not only come from the usual sources - the judiciary, legislators, and administrative agencies, and from advances in technology and innovation, but also from actors operating within the patent landscape. One particular type of patent actor operating in the intellectual property (IP) realm that seemingly everyone is talking about are “Non-practicing Entities” (NPEs), or their more pejorative alternate “patent trolls”. NPEs are generally described as entities that create business models focused solely on the exploitation and enforcement of patents to generate revenues. Labelled as the “most significant problem facing the patent system today”, the NPE phenomenon has become a highly polarized debate in academia and on the political stage. Vilified by companies, academics, congresspersons, the U.S. Supreme Court, and even former U.S. President Barack Obama, NPEs are at the center of a contentious patent law and policy debate focused on vexatious patent exploitation and enforcement related to alleged abusive behaviours of patent owners demanding “excessive” patent licensing fees, creating an “explosion” of unwarranted patent litigation, imposing undue burdens on industry, and thereby stifling innovation. However, there is very little empirical evidence to substantiate such claims made about NPE patent enforcement. Even more unfortunate is the fact that it is headline catching terms like “patent troll” that appear to have captured much of the public’s imagination and policymakers’ attention of such pure patent licensing entities. The “patent troll” rhetoric has arguably itself contributed to much of the misunderstanding and disapproving perceptions of such entities operating in the patent marketplace, and to a greater extent, negative perceptions being formed of the patent system overall. This dissertation discusses these issues and provides new insights into the NPE phenomenon by empirically exploring and examining the exploitation and enforcement of patents by NPEs in three major patent jurisdictions, namely the U.S.A., Europe, and China. The dissertation adds to patent literature by providing a more balanced academic discussion on the highly polarized NPE debate, and contributes to the scarce knowledge on the NPE phenomenon through the presentation of its substantial introduction covering four chapters, followed by a compilation of three published research papers. At the core of the dissertation is the proposition that argues despite some of their drawbacks, NPEs effectively contribute to the patent ecosystem and play an integral role in the enforcement of patents, which is a key element in any well-functioning patent system.
  • Gylfe, Philip (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-09-08)
    Orchestra conductors are concerned with the collective emotions of their organization. Conductors influence emotions in a visual, embodied and open way in order to create a common understanding of goals. Zooming out to other organizations we face the question: are there specific techniques through which organizational members, like conductors, manage emotions? More specifically, what is the role of the human body in the emotions experienced during strategy work? If organizational strategies are embodied in managers who have risen to the top while pursuing a particular set of strategic initiatives, then in what way are strategies embodied in these managers? The strategy work of middle managers forms the core empirical context of this thesis. I engaged in intense video shadowing of middle managers at a national public service broadcasting organization. The middle managers faced the challenging situation of acting as ‘linking pins’ between the organizations strategy and the day-to-day workings of the creative media professionals. Through video analysis I study the multimodal (verbal and embodied) practices through which middle managers channel the top-down and bottom-up flows in the strategy process. The findings of this thesis are threefold. First, I highlight that we need to pay increased attention to the affective reactions occurring during strategy work. Second, I argue for an embodied perspective on the creative idea generation process, and propose that we need a multimodal lens to appreciate how groups are energized into committing to novel strategic ideas. Finally, I suggest a methodological tool-kit for analyzing video data and extracting theoretically meaningful patterns.
  • Solja, Eeva (Svenska Handelshögskolan, 2017-09-15)
    Stories are characteristic of humans. They have been embedded in our social and cultural environments in various forms throughout civilizations. Stories come naturally to us because we think in terms of stories and use them to communicate everyday events. Stories reflect the structure in which we make sense of, comprehend, and organize our experiences. Compelling stories persuade, entertain, and engage their audiences. It is therefore not surprising that marketers have become keen to capitalize on the persuasive effects of stories. Indeed, marketers frequently tell brand stories in multiple contexts with the aim to involve and persuade consumers. However, many questions on the effect of stories on consumers in commercial contexts remain. Research shows that companies can purposefully relate stories to brands to elicit positive brand responses. Stories help individuals interpret the meanings of brands and create a bond between a brand and a consumer. Brand stories are told, for instance, on packaging, in promotions, on web sites, in social media, and on price tags. While the influential nature of stories as such has been widely acknowledged and verified in advertising research, many theoretically and managerially relevant issues remain unexplored. Previous studies have looked at stories in print and TV ads, while packaging and price promotions have been overlooked. Packaging and price promotions are key marketing tactics, which differ from ads in several respects, such as the framing and length of the message. This dissertation examines consumer responses to different types of brand stories on packaging, in advertising, and in price promotion messages. Brand stories are examined in terms of short, emotional and mental simulation brand stories. The dissertation reports on six experiments in three separate studies. It offers significant contributions to storytelling, packaging, and pricing literature, as well as to business practice. The findings demonstrate that brand stories on packaging and in price promotions can influence several significant consumer responses positively. The dissertation also shows that the storytelling context acts as a boundary condition to the effectiveness of different types of brand stories. Hence, brand stories should be tailored according to context to reach maximal effectiveness. (The original essays are included only in the printed version.)
  • Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-05-26)
    Organizations frequently partner with actors in their environment in order to increase competitive advantage, at times, even with competitors. During recent decades, researchers have therefore become interested in simultaneous cooperation and competition between organizations, which they refer to as coopetition. Despite the increasing trend of treating strategy as activities performed by individuals, there is limited knowledge concerning how coopetition emerges and becomes shaped by individuals. The articles in this thesis address coopetition from a strategy-as-practice point of view, particularly taking an interest in how actors at different organizational levels make and give sense of emerging coopetition, i.e. coopetition agency creation. A longitudinal case study follows a strategic change process of implementing ongoing cooperation against a background of competition, from formulation to implementation. The case study findings show that coopetition requires modification in established cognitive frames, and that coopetition strategizing becomes complex stemming from the pluralism of views and attitudes across and within actor levels. The findings not only extend the notion of influential strategic actors external and internal to the organization engaged in coopetition, but also problematize the coopetition strategists. It is suggested in the thesis that it is pivotal to understand what enables and hinders individuals’ participation in realizing coopetition strategies, before strategy development and outcomes can fully be understood. Moreover, rather than treating coopetition as a deliberate strategy resulting from pure intentional and rational processes, the findings prove that unintentional influences from multiple levels must also be taken into account. Individual level differences in modifying past practice patterns to fit emerging coopetition are argued to be grounded in who strategists really are; in their backgrounds, histories, and motivations. Looking into the past is vital as the findings show; coopetition strategists across organizational levels hold multiple social identities that influence how sense of the present and future is made and given, and how different action patterns emerge, explaining why certain strategy outcomes are produced. The findings from the articles together emphasize how crucial talk and social interaction in different forms are to how far coopetition is accepted or resisted in organizations. However, different sensemaking patterns and different degrees of modifications in sustained structures and practices tell that accomplishing shared views on coopetition across inter- and intra-organizational levels becomes a challenge, and open future research paths to explore how coopetition frames are enacted over time.
  • Stroe, Ioana Silvia (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-05-26)
    This work is motivated by the desire to gain a deep understanding of affective experiences of entrepreneurs and their outcomes, in theory and practice. Specifically, the aim of this dissertation is to reframe the conceptualization of passion in entrepreneurship. It does so by uncovering the functioning mechanism through which passion exerts its influence in entrepreneurship as well as by considering the dualistic nature of the passion experience in entrepreneurship. As a whole, this work is guided by a general research question: does passion play a role in the new venture emergence process and if so, how does passion influence the new venture emergence process? The thesis addresses this question through a systematic literature review and three empirical studies. The systematic literature review (Paper I) updates the current state of passion research in entrepreneurship, uncovering thereby yet unanswered questions and research gaps, and thereby informing the following papers of this dissertation. The following three papers look at determinants that influence passion (Paper II) and at passion’s cognitive and motivational outcomes (Paper III and Paper IV). Methodologically, this work combines quantitative research (a longitudinal study and a quasi-experimental cross-sectional study) with mixed methods research designs such as qualitative comparative analysis (based on a cross-sectional study). As a whole, the four papers offer a better understanding of passion in nascent entrepreneurship. First, this dissertation demonstrates that passion can influence, but also be influenced by cognition, and clarifies the important two-way interactions between passion and cognition. Moreover, it furthers our understanding of the dynamic relations between affective and cognitive processes involved in new venture emergence. Second, in theoretically and empirically examining two new functions that passion fulfills in the entrepreneurial process—the emotion regulatory function and the decision-making logic coordination function—this dissertation offers additional and complementary explanations for the importance of passion for entrepreneurship. The current work goes over and above previous studies that looked at passion’s outcomes only considering its valence and offers more fine-grained explanations of the mechanisms through which passion exerts its influence on various critical entrepreneurial outcomes. Third, this dissertation extends the scholarly focus from only harmonious passion to both harmonious and obsessive passion, distinguishes the characteristics of these two forms of passion in entrepreneurship, investigates their development and demonstrates that they can have very different effects on the entrepreneurs’ affective, cognitive and motivational functioning. Therefore, it proves that considering passion in only one of its qualities will lead to an incomplete understanding of passion and its outcomes.
  • Dahl, Johanna (Hanken School of Economics, 2017-04-07)
    This thesis focuses on the simultaneous existence of cooperation and competition between firms, and falls under the research area of coopetition. In recent years, coopetition, inherently complex and paradoxical in nature, has attracted increasing attention in both business practice and research. As a result, coopetition is confirmed as a phenomenon of contemporary importance to companies varying in size and industry. Moreover, from a research standpoint, coopetition has been established as a distinct theoretical approach to explain inter-firm relationships and, in particular, cooperation between directly competing firms. Yet, to advance extant knowledge on coopetition, calls have been made for research scrutinizing the interaction process and focusing on the handling of simultaneous cooperation and competition, at multiple levels of analysis starting from the individual. To this end, the overall aim of this article-based thesis is to develop a theoretical understanding of how coopetition is maintained as a process and as a strategy, alongside an empirical understanding of the interplay between cooperation and competition. The thesis answers three interrelated research questions, addressing the dynamics of coopetitive interaction, the deliberate and emergent features of coopetition, and the balancing of cooperation and competition. Article 1 contributes by conceptualizing change in coopetitive interactions through three mechanisms. The outlined mechanisms are inter-organizational learning manifested in cooperation between competitors, intra-organizational learning based on exchanges of contrasting experiences between individuals within the organization, and the development of the external business environment. The article further contributes by developing the notion that the nature of the change process underlying coopetition, in terms of the generative change mechanism and predefined or discontinuous character, depends on the balance and strength of the cooperative and competitive interactions. In Article 2, the theoretical contribution comprises a framework explaining coopetition as a deliberate and/or emergent strategy. By integrating research on strategy-as- practice and, thus, focusing on the social nature of coopetition, the framework delivers four scenarios on how coopetition strategy manifests in an organization. The framework implies that coopetition strategy ought to be explained as an activity occurring across multiple levels in an organization, and at an institutional and inter-organizational level. Furthermore, the framework broadens extant views on individuals who influence strategy and activities that may be consequential for the strategy. Article 3 contributes to discussions on the influence of different levels of strength of the cooperative and competitive interactions on relational outcomes. The contextual contribution lies in the study’s examination of coopetition in relation to the internationalization process and among a group of SMEs operating in a traditional manufacturing industry. Empirical results imply that the continuity, scope, and strategic impact of opportunities gained through coopetition vary with the balance and strength of the cooperative and competitive interactions.
  • Laamanen, Mikko (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-02-01)
    The politics of value creation outlined in this dissertation challenges core assumptions of current value creation literature and particularly its service-dominant logic branch. Politics of value creation illustrates the weight that people individually and collectively give to an object or an issue; the social construction of meaning and valuation, its conventions and institutions; the authority afforded through these, and the struggle between different groups to maintain and change the above. This study engages current theory with an alternative conceptual framework and an unorthodox empirical setting. Sociological theories of collective action and strategic action fields are in conceptual dialogue with value-creating actors, their relationships and interaction, practices and outcomes. The collective–conflictual value creation theory developed in this study acknowledges systems of domination and skewedness of power in value creating contexts. The approach builds on the bearing that dominant ideologies are a product of a particular social order and interests that result in a conflict between incumbents and challengers, and have consequences to the wider environment. Rather than marginal and consequential, conflict is not only endemic, but causative when value-creating interactions are based on varying understandings and logics. The empirical study engaged the organised labour in Finland with critical ethnography examining societal macro-relations of the labour market institutions, meso-dynamics of the labour movement, and micro-practices in a trade union organisation. The politics of value creation is, on one hand, a critical analysis of current theory, and on the other, an exploratory study illustrating strategic collective action in value creation. With the collective–conflictual approach, value creation contexts are recast as porous arenas where various interactions, practice and outcomes constantly develop in collaboration and competition illustrating the permanence of dynamic tensions that instigate jockeying, using social skill in framing, and practicing ideologies and politics in an attempt to create and arbitrate value.
  • Alimov, Naufal (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016-11-29)
    Institutional ownership in publicly listed companies has grown rapidly in recent decades. It is claimed that institutional investors are well-suited for active involvement in firms’ corporate governance, because they are managed by professional managers who can utilise information better than lay investors. However, efficient governance may not be in the best interest of asset managers employed by institutional investors. The final role of institutional investors in corporate governance therefore remains an empirical question. In this dissertation, I empirically investigate the role of public pension funds in firms’ governance, using the data from the Swedish pension system, which was reformed at the turn of the millennium. This data was chosen because Swedish public pension funds have the same history and mandates, and are expected to compete with each other. The thesis consists of four essays. In the first two, I investigate whether Swedish pension fund ownership is related to firms’ market valuation and corporate governance quality. In paper three, I analyse whether these funds prefer to impact or exit underperforming firms. In the final paper, I examine whether there are similarities in the composition of the Swedish public pension funds’ domestic equity portfolios, and whether these funds adopt similar strategies in selling and buying shares of Swedish listed companies. I find that there is a contemporaneous positive relationship between firms’ market valuation and public pension fund ownership. The evidence suggests that this relationship is a result of public pension funds’ preference for investing in firms the market values highly. My results show that public pension fund ownership in companies is not associated with better corporate governance. I find no evidence that these funds effect the diversification of boards by increasing the proportion of women, foreigners, or directors of various ages. Furthermore, Swedish public pension funds have not been successful in promoting independent directors, securing the non-re-election of an active CEO to the Board of Directors, and reducing the wedge between cash flow and voting rights in listed firms. The analysis indicates that public pension funds tend to sell their shares of underperforming companies, rather than facilitate the dismissal of the CEO or the Board of Directors. In the final paper, I find that there has been a relatively high degree of similarity in the domestic equity portfolios of the Swedish public pension funds. My analysis also shows that these funds have timed their purchases and sales of company shares in approximately the same way. These findings are probably the result of the constraints of a small and illiquid market for individual shares and the Swedish pension system’s stringent investment rules.
  • Günther, Petteri (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016-11-18)
    Technology has upended the music industry. ‘Digital’ has changed the mechanics of music distribution; first, CDs were replaced by downloads such as mp3 files, and today, the share of access-based distribution such as streaming services of total recorded music sales is growing globally. However, ‘piracy’ still remains perceived as a problem. The technological disruption has given rise to challenges for copyright in an increasingly digital world – the ‘information society’. Copyright law has generally changed in response to external pressures – societal changes such as technological changes. And today copyright law is typically applied to rapidly changing technologies and services facilitated by those technologies. This in turn necessitates taking a broader view to understand how copyright legislation has evolved to respond to those changes affecting music distribution, as well as whether the European copyright framework has managed to support growth in the digital music markets in Europe, and to develop a European digital single-market. Looking at the digital music markets of today, there appears to be an ongoing shift in music consumption habits toward access-based offerings such as streaming services. And while illegal activities remain perceived as a problem, subscription streaming services have shown potential for decreasing piracy. Therefore, with a view to improving the functioning of the digital music markets, focusing on measures that aim to support increasing the demand for legitimately available content might be effective – as suggested by the potential that subscription streaming services have demonstrated. Ultimately, control over content may not alone be sufficient: if online music services do not live up to consumers’ expectations, the level of intellectual property protection alone might prove to be an insufficient answer to the challenges faced by the music industry. Instead, incentivizing consumers to use legitimate offerings by increasing the relative attractiveness of online music services in relation to unauthorized channels should be factored in. Overall, despite for instance the potential that subscription streaming services have shown, reducing infringement on the internet requires also appropriate measures for keeping illegal activities at bay, and understanding that there might be no one-size-fits-all solution to combating piracy. Reducing online piracy, to be effective, might well require different types of anti-piracy measures, like involving intermediaries and using ‘follow the money’ approach to ad-funded sites offering unauthorized copyrighted content. To support growth in the digital music markets in Europe the focus should be on developing a market-oriented approach with a combination of appropriate measures that both target supporting growth of legitimate sales of digital music and decreasing piracy by having available effective online copyright enforcement measures.
  • Cleland Silva, Tricia (Hanken School of Economics, 2016-11-14)
    This monograph is a study on how, from 2007 to 2010, five groups of nurses from the Philippines were recruited and transnationally managed and organised to live and work in Finland for both private elderly care facilities and surgical wards in Finnish municipal hospitals. The thesis is critical of international human resource management (IHRM) as a discipline and practice, and discursively analyses structural and societal issues of control and compliance of the historically gendered and racialised occupation of nursing. Furthermore, the transnational processes and movement of human capital from the Philippines to Finland is discussed in terms of (re)producing managerial practices of nurse work which create barriers to equality in the workplace. The study identifies and maps the interaction of various private and public representatives through the transnational practices of recruitment and placement of Filipino nurses into Finnish nursing institutions. Through the identification of the Finnish representatives and the subsequent construction of their associated social worlds based on work practices and commitments, the maps illustrate the organising of human resources transnationally. Subsequently, structural mechanisms, particularly in terms of institutional, national, and international policy and law regulations, are addressed by highlighting transnational human resource management (THRM) practices and discursive positions dominated by public and private representatives in the packaging of the nurses. As a whole, the study strives to broaden the theoretical and empirical examination of migrating nurses to encompass the transnational management of private and public representatives involved in the recruitment and placement practices at institutionalised, meso-levels of organising.
  • Koskinen Sandberg, Paula (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016-09-27)
    The gender pay gap is a persistent challenge across different national contexts. Within these contexts, however, the underlying mechanisms that have resulted in the gender pay gap can take different shape. In Finland, the gender pay gap has been resistant to policy measures implemented in order to reduce it. This thesis aims to shed light on some of the central features of Finnish society, its institutional context, central actors, and stakeholders, and how these are linked to the apparent failures of Finnish equal pay policy. This study offers a broad-ranging sociological understanding of Finnish society, its historical development, and the kind of citizenship it has offered to its female citizens. The thesis also discusses the role of central labour market organisations in institutionalising wage relativities between the different industries in the Finnish labour market and protecting their vested interests in policy-making. The empirical part of the thesis consists of three articles, each of which addresses an issue that is critical to Finnish and international equal pay policy: the role of collective agreements in institutionalising gendered valuations in wage setting in the Finnish local government sector, evaluation-based pay systems and the assumption that they inherently promote gender pay equity, and non-decision making in tripartite policy process and the way it affected the drafting of the new Finnish gender equality legislation. The first data set was gathered in a participatory action research project in which 18 Finnish organisations took part. The aim of the project was to promote equal pay through developing pay systems The second data set consists of the official minutes of the meetings of the tripartite working group that drafted the law about equal pay comparisons that are mandatory for organisations to conduct. The thesis mainly uses qualitative research methods, along with quantitative and documentary analysis. Based on the research findings, the following arguments are made. The Finnish welfare state has played an active role in creating a secondary labour market for Finnish women in the reproductive work of the public sector. The central labour market organisations have further strengthened the gendered division of labour and hierarchy between male-dominated and female-dominated sectors and industries by institutionalising the wage relativities between these industries in collective agreements. As central actors and powerful players in Finnish policy-making, the central labour market organisations protect their vested interests and resist changes to equal pay policy and legislation. Instead of directly addressing the most important structural and institutional features of the Finnish labour market, current Finnish equal pay policy focuses on less controversial issues, such as organisational practices. Failure to address the most relevant issues on gender pay equity results in modest advances in policy outcomes.
  • Ehrnström-Fuentes, Maria (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016-09-26)
    This thesis critically analyses corporate-community relations in the forestry industry, with a particular focus on cases in the Latin American context. The key conceptual focus is on the legitimacy of corporate activity from the perspective of local communities in the contested field of sustainability. The concept of legitimacy is critically discussed in the light of a pluriversal approach to reality: Instead of assuming that legitimacy can be derived from a universally socially constructed system of shared norms and believes, legitimacy in the pluriverse signals that the world is not made up of one single history or worldview but many different ways of knowing, sensing, and being; what is perceived as legitimate depends on the place-based social imaginaries of the communities where it emerges. This approach to legitimacy creation, provides a nuanced understanding of the contested nature of forestry-community relations in Latin America. Adapting a pluriversal perspective on legitimacy has consequences for governance and how the corporate world engages with local communities. Instead of promoting consensus-seeking stakeholder dialogues among those do not wish to become stakeholders of the corporate world, there is a need to open up for encounters between worlds through conversations across differences and celebrate conflicts as manifestations of the different worlds within the pluriverse. Rooted governance is introduced as a concept that contrasts with the top-down approach of global governance. Instead, the bottom-up rooted approach recognises local differences, knowledges, and livelihoods as important elements of reproducing and sustaining life in communities. This pluriversal way of conceptualizing and acknowledging different life worlds and social imaginaries opens up opportunities to explore new alternatives for co-existence of communities– one of the most urgent challenges for our and future generations.
  • Sundvik, Dennis (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016-09-21)
    The opportunistic aspects of financial reporting have largely been investigated under the umbrella term of earnings management. However, most research is devoted to capital market settings and listed firms in large economies, including the United States in particular. As a contrast, this dissertation examines earnings management based on tax incentives among private firms in European settings. In particular, the four interrelated essays analyze situations where the statutory corporate tax rate in a country is changed and firms are expected to report lower (higher) earnings while the tax rate is higher (lower) to reduce their total tax burden. While these tax changes are introduced to enhance international tax competitiveness, they also give rise to strong incentives for earnings management. For example, when the tax rate is to be decreased, firms may employ various accruals to defer earnings from high to low tax periods. The first essay of the dissertation contributes to the literature by investigating decomposed measures of earnings management instead of relying on a broad measure that does not provide much insight. Based on Swedish private firms, the analyses clearly show income-decreasing earnings management on the aggregate level before two tax rate cuts. The aggregate results are later observed to be largely driven by unexpected changes in accounts receivable. The second essay uses Finnish data and provides evidence that private firms, under certain circumstances, also change the end of the fiscal year to achieve benefits around tax reforms. Further, the analyses demonstrate that a reform that simultaneously lowers corporate tax and hikes dividend tax creates conflicting incentives to manage earnings. The motivation behind the third essay stems from the debate on the appropriate level of book-tax conformity. The essay documents that higher conformity between accounting and tax reporting in jurisdictions is associated with more earnings management in response to an upcoming change in the tax rate. A contribution of this study is the analysis of a clear incentive for earnings management instead of a sole focus on absolute measures. In the fourth and final essay, private firms that use external help in the financial reporting process are separated from firms that do not. The hypothesis is that firms, that handle their accounting function internally, have greater possibilities to influence their reporting opportunistically. The results also suggest that the minority of smaller private firms who perform the tasks in-house, and have the knowledge and resources needed, are able to manage taxes to a larger extent
  • Zhang, Mo (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016-09-14)
    Along with Chinese economic development, the Chinese stock market is growing rapidly, and is now the second largest stock market in the world. However, despite its size, the Chinese stock market trades like the wildest emerging markets, with huge volatility, big boom and bust cycles, driven by fast-trading individual investors, and heavy involvement from the government. Owing to the peculiarity of the Chinese economic and political system, there are some unique structures within the Chinese stock market. In one sense, this makes the Chinese stock market an interesting laboratory. This dissertation comprises three single-authored essays. The first two analyze a special phenomenon, called B-share discounts in the Chinese stock market, seeking to explain why this phenomenon exists from the perspective of exchange risk. It shows that dual-class stock price disparity in the Chinese stock market can be explained, in a way, by exchange risk, meaning that “to some extent, investors are rational and ask for compensation for taking extra risks”. This is in line with the classical efficient market theory. The second essay uses this phenomenon as a natural experiment to test whether a new reform policy, namely granting permission for short selling, benefits the efficiency of the Chinese stock market. When the Chinese government lift the ban on short selling in the Chinese stock market, mispricing decreases significantly, even though the volume of short selling in the Chinese stock market is trivial relative to total trading volume. Instead of studying a particular set of stocks, the third essay focuses on the mispricing formation mechanism at the general market level. The market results show that both the resale option and inflation illusion hypotheses can explain the level of market mispricing. Only investors’ heterogeneous beliefs affect the volatility of market mispricing, in line with the resale option hypothesis prediction. Additionally, the results show that state-controlled industries tend to be underestimated more, when mispricing is negative, but to be overvalued less, when mispricing is positive.
  • Torkkeli, Anu (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016-06-07)
    This study examines the corporate capital gains taxation in Nordic countries, European Union and Finland. The main perspective is in the corporate income tax law, but because of the multidisciplinary subject of the corporate capital gains taxation, this study also has an economic perspective. Before analyzing the taxation itself, the basic concepts for the study are introduced such as the concept of capital, income and capital gain. Also the tax framework of this study is introduced by describing the most significant features and issues in corporate income taxation and in corporate capital gains taxation. Corporate capital gains taxation is discussed by starting with Nordic countries, continuing with European Union member states and finally ending up with Finland. A rough comparative summary is created at the end of each of these sections. Recent changes having taken place until January 2015 in the corporate capital gains taxation are also included in the study. Taxation is investigated based on the existing tax law literature, and the analysis is fulfilled with the help of the selected case law. After the international tax system analysis, the future options for corporate capital gains taxation are discussed as well as challenges related to the changes in the corporate income taxation such as correct level of harmonization so that individual countries still have their own fiscal policy. This study offers the value-added to the society in a couple of different ways. The study extensively analyzes the international corporate capital gains taxation models. In addition, the study not only discusses the corporate capital gains purely from the legal point of view but also has a strong focus on the underlying features behind the corporate capital gains taxation system: features of the good taxation system, economics and competitiveness, significance and role of the corporate capital gains in the economics. The conclusions of the study are made in a concrete way, because a proposal for the focus of future development of the corporate capital gains taxation at the EU level and the proposal for a future corporate capital gains taxation model in Finland as an individual Nordic country and EU member state is developed.

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