Doctoral theses

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  • Sabari Ragavendran Prasanna Venkatesan (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2018-12-07)
    In recent times, there is an increase in the need for longterm aid. Since no actor can handle long-term aid alone, there is an increased need for collaboration between the actors. The actors in the long-term aid possess a variety of organisational cultures. Commercial supply chain literature informs that differences in organisational cultures between the partners in a supply chain lead to a strain in the collaborative relationship. In some instances, the differences result in ceasure of collaboration between partners. This thesis investigates the relationship between organisational culture and humanitarian supply chain collaboration in long-term aid. The aim of the thesis is to examine the influence of organisational culture on buyer-supplier collaboration in long-term aid. The thesis is both timely and relevant for a number of reasons. First, the increasing occurrence of natural and manmade disasters has led to a corresponding increase in long-term aid programmes. Second, longterm aid requires collaboration among multiple actors from differing organisational cultures. Finally, unlike commercial supply chain collaboration, this process has not yet been perfected in HSC contexts. The thesis investigates how differences of organisational culture influence collaboration in long-term HSC aid provision. This thesis takes a qualitative research approach. The findings included a framework that explains how organisational cultural attributes influence supply chain collaboration. The organisational leadership, or antecedent, influences organisational learning and organisational flexibility (organisational cultural elements). These elements influence information sharing (collaborative behaviour) through organisational routines. It can be further argued that there are four mechanisms through which organisational culture develops: organisational routines, organisational practices, organisational flexibility, and organisational learning. These mechanisms influence the mechanisms of supply chain collaboration: information sharing, trust, mutuality, and commitment. The thesis also finds the existence of humanitarian institutional logic as an overarching mechanism that mitigates the influence of organisational cultural differences on collaboration between actors.
  • Schimanski, Caroline (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2018-11-23)
    This doctoral thesis addresses in four articles two broad challenges in the field of development economics. The first two articles aim at providing causal evidence for the existence of systematic profit-shifting by multinational companies (MNCs) with a special focus on shifting out of developing countries as these are claimed to particularly suffer in terms of forgone tax revenue from profit-shifting. The first article re-estimates the results of Dharmapala and Riedel (2013), an influential paper in the literature, using more recent data, expanding its geographic scope and comparing between statutory and effective tax rate incentivized profit-shifting from parent firms to subsidiaries. The second article expands on this by looking into more complex potentially multi-directional profit-shifting flows between any affiliate of the group and other incentivizing factors, apart from lower statutory or effective corporate income tax rates, such as development status, credit rating, corruption and tax haven status of the country. The remaining chapters three and four address labour market challenges in developing countries, whereby the third article still links to the former through the topic of taxation. More specifically, the third article estimates the elasticity of formal work in sub-Saharan Africa, as the transition into formal employment, in economies largely characterized by informal labour markets, is the precondition for domestic resource mobilization from personal income taxes. The fourth article estimates the extent and evolution of race-based labour market segregation and wage inequality in Trinidad and Tobago, in the light of its colonial history characterized by racial segregation.
  • Ström, Eva (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2018-11-24)
    To help companies achieve strategic success, new management tools have been invented and introduced over time. One of the most well-established and popular management tools is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The BSC was first introduced in the 1990s by Kaplan and Norton as a performance measurement tool that supplemented financial measures with non-financial measures, chosen with regard to strategy. It has then evolved into a strategic management system. This thesis examines how the BSC is related to performance. It suggests that the BSC is associated with performance, because it is used as a strategic management system. Furthermore the research investigates how certain chosen contextual variables enable the BSC to be used as a strategic management system. The BSC contextual variables are the chosen strategy, management’s motives for introducing the BSC and management involvement in the implementation phase. The empirical evidence from Finland and Sweden provide evidence that a BSC that is used as a strategic management system is positively related to performance. Furthermore the empirical evidence shows that a certain focus of strategy and management’s role in supporting the strategy - by introducing management accounting techniques and by actively being involved in the process- has a positive association with the extent to which the BSC is used as a strategic management system. This, in turn, associated with performance. Overall the research highlights the importance of the interplay between the use of an accounting technique- such as the BSC- and the contextual factors that support that use (supporting the use with strategy and management’s active role).
  • Ekman, Mats (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2018-10-19)
    In this dissertation, four essays examine various ways in which people make decisions based upon others’ characteristics or actions. Individuals certainly can choose without regard to others and many decisions essentially lack social influences, such as the colour of one’s tie or scarf or car, but oftentimes peers may react to a choice in a way which decision-makers prefer not to disregard. Thus, some smoke or vote for the Greens because others do, or wear a certain haircut because it is the style at the time. Sometimes decisions may be private within some bound, such as choosing any uni-coloured car, but not a hippie-style multi-coloured one. This dissertation seeks to demonstrate the influence of such social elements on choices pertaining to four distinct areas: (1) whether to seek public assistance (the dole); (2) whether to vote or abstain; (3) what to eat when others may observe one’s choice; and (4) whom to marry to avoid some causes of marital disharmony. The treatment is always applied and mainly empirical; only the fourth essay makes use of an exclusively theoretical argument. This essay also differs in reducing the scope of social influences to characteristics of only one’s spouse(s). The article suggests an empirical pattern in which husbands tend to out-earn their wives in order to be able to withhold income from them to reduce the probability of non-paternity, with differences between the sexes declining as total incomes rise. The other three articles proceed in the opposite way, finding empirical patterns and suggesting explanations for them. The first essay finds that welfare offices in buildings with features that enhance the visibility of entry (such as a set of steps before the entrance), tend to approve a greater share of applications than do other welfare offices. The suggested explanation is that only the neediest individuals will accept the risk of being seen to be ‘welfare cases’, eliminating comparatively haphazard applications to raise the approval rate. The second essay looks at data from countries practising multiple concurrent national referenda, finding a pattern in which more concurrent referenda are associated with lower turnout, akin to quantity discounts being associated with fewer sales. This puzzling relationship, too, may be accounted for by peer effects. If groups are affected by referenda outcomes but individuals do not really wish to vote, group pressure may be less effective when several groups care about different referenda, because each group wants to avoid pressuring the non-voter. The article analysing dietary decisions finds that customers at a restaurant in Western Finland consume lighter meals when their body types are bigger than those of their peers. This finding points to a mechanism whereby thinness is prized and people wish to signal conformity to thinness-inducing habits by foregoing a larger meal in exchange for social recognition.
  • Hassan, Lobna (Hanken School of Economics, 2018-10-17)
    For a long time, information systems have been designed to provide organizational utility, efficiency, and cost reduction. As technological advancement took place, information systems grew to further facilitate personal productivity and entertainment. Out of modern systems, games have an extraordinary reach in modern society. That reach eventually became too significant to ignore without systematic study. While many individuals recognize the value of and need for hard work in life, many—perhaps all—do not wish to live in a universe of pure work or passive engagement with their life’s activities. In that light, scholars began investigating game design as a means to attain enjoyment and motivation in mundane life activities, giving birth to the gamification movement as we know it today. As a design and research stream, gamification refers to the design of systems, services, and processes to provide “gameful” experiences—psychological experiences, similar to those provided by games—to positively influence engagement with mundane life activities. While the user benefits reported from implementing gamification showcase its potentially positive impact, the understanding of how to design gamification is still in its infancy. Some gamification designs may be suitable to some users or in certain contexts, but the same designs may not have the same results for different users or in different contexts. Furthermore, current methods to design gamification have been developed in isolation, each reinventing the wheel, and hence struggle to provide comprehensive guidance for the gamification design process. This dissertation employs the goal-setting theory, showcasing how gamification design can suit the preferences of different users. The dissertation additionally investigates contextualized gamification design by employing the deliberation theory and researching design for collective, group engagement such as is seen in the context of civic engagement. Finally, the dissertation contributes a holistic gamification design method that incorporates the design knowledge currently gathered in the gamification fields, as well as lessons learned from the failure of gamification projects. The contributions complement each other and provide a multi-dimensional gamification design knowledge on how gamification should be designed. While this dissertation has theoretically and practically contributed to the knowledge on gamification design, there is more to be researched before gamification design can come close to being perfect. The journey to gamify is merely commencing. Not only is this pursuit of how to gamify essential to understand a phenomenon and the human behavior around it, but it is also essential to create a gameful reality, one not of pure work but of enjoyment, motivation, persistence and flow.
  • Lindeman, Sara (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2018-01-19)
    This thesis studies early-phase market organizing. Contrary to dominant views of markets as neutral backgrounds to economic activity, in this work markets are understood as socio-material systems that are shaped by the actors involved in the organizing process. In affluent settings, such as Europe, market organizing processes have been going on for centuries. To ethnographically study the very early phases of market organizing, the empirical work is performed in subsistence settings, i.e. resource-constrained areas currently served by the informal economy. The empirical data were collected in informal urban settlements and remote rural areas in Tanzania, Brazil, Ethiopia and India. The purpose of this thesis is to study early-phase market organizing in subsistence settings and its implications on capabilities for achieving well-being. Based on the capability approach, the thesis takes a holistic and multi-level approach to well-being. An improved understanding of early-phase market organizing processes, studied in settings not strictly conditioned by the path taken in affluent economies, can open up possibilities to see and encourage alternative and more sustainable ways of market organizing. The research shows that market organizing begins when an augmented discussion starts around trade exchanges. This discussion includes creating rules and norms to discipline exchanges as well as ways of representing the exchanges. Values guide this discussion, and participating in it requires that actors engage in new practices and often also that they form new organizational entities. In addition, early phase market organizing is characterized by a mobilization of various resources that improve market actors’ abilities to act in and shape markets. In the empirical cases, intermediary organizations, such as local NGO’s, were instrumental in empowering subsistence communities so that they could actively take part in the market organizing process. The dominant debate suggests that individuals will benefit from markets by getting employment and access to improved products and services. However, this thesis shows that when local communities organize themselves and are empowered to actively participate in the market organizing process, this results in market arrangements that better deliver capabilities for achieving well-being.
  • Tabaklar, Tunca (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-12-16)
    As disasters are affecting millions of people around the world, humanitarian supply chains are changing to identify needs and to respond to those affected. To achieve successful humanitarian operations, humanitarian supply chains need certain capabilities to anticipate the effects of a disaster, quickly mobilise the necessary resources and provide better services through these capabilities to the people in crisis. In other words, they must be resilient while scaling up quickly to meet unpredictable demands. Thus, the primary aim of this thesis is to explore the concept of scalability and understand how scalability contributes to various outcomes, such as resilience in HSCM, through three essays. The first essay is based on a systematic literature review to deepen the understanding of theoretical approaches and concepts borrowed from other research fields in humanitarian supply chain management. It is entitled ‘Borrowing Theories in Humanitarian Supply Chain Management’. The second essay is ‘Investigating Scalability for Building Supply Chain Resilience’, and the third essay is ‘Supply Chain Scalability: The Role of Supply Chain Integration’. Both the second and the third essays are based on a single case study in a humanitarian setting. A framework of scalability is developed through the dynamic capabilities view, as humanitarian organisations are operating in one of the most turbulent environments. Furthermore, this thesis contributes not only to humanitarian organisations but also organisations that face regular turbulence because the business environment is becoming increasingly turbulent.
  • John, Sofia (Hanken School of Economics, 2017-11-21)
    People are generally considered to be an organization’s most valuable asset, and therefore how organizations influence and manage them is an important issue. Nevertheless, influencing and managing people is not a straightforward matter, not least because individuals respond differently to the same stimulus. Yet the issue of idiosyncrasy in individual’s responses to the organization is often ignored. In order to develop our understanding of why employees respond differently, this thesis takes the employee perspective and delves into two kinds of employees’ cognitive responses to the organization, namely, their perceptions and identification. The thesis builds on the microfoundations literature, which makes explicit that organizational research typically involves multiple levels of analysis. The microfoundations model illustrates that the measures organizations take to enhance performance only do so through the micro level elements (the people) that comprise the macro level phenomenon (the organization). Using multilevel data collected in Nordic multinational corporations, this study analyzes what organizational and individual level factors influence employees’ perceptions and identification. The findings indicate that employees’ perceptions and identification are driven by a complex interplay of factors between different levels of analysis. The primary drivers are the signals employees pick up and their social interaction with other members of the organization. However, these must be considered in the light of the multiple contexts in which the individual is embedded. The individual’s position and responsibilities, as well as the way work is structured and enacted, have important consequences for the individual’s patterns of social interaction and the signals he or she is exposed to. The main contribution of this study is the extension of previous conceptualizations of the microfoundations model. Whilst organizations attempt to influence employees through various means, such as high-commitment HRM practices, the impact these have on employees depends on the context in which this all takes place. Where the individual is positioned within the organization, along with the people he or she interacts with, determine how the individual perceives and relates to the organization.
  • Jalonen, Kari (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-10-25)
    The concept ‘strategy’ has become a ubiquitous part of the Western worldview; it has taken over spheres of life far from its original homes in war and business, and is used to manage a variety of collectives, including churches, the Red Cross, and the Boy Scouts. The rational and apparently simple language of strategic plans as a ‘common direction’ or a ‘shared understanding’ seeks to cut through the complexity of organizational life and the different, often competing perspectives people take as they go about their business. However, such sharedness remains elusive: many or most organizations operate in environments defined by multiple objectives and diffuse power, and the formulations of the management are reinterpreted, challenged and appropriated by a polyphony of other voices. Even in such environments where the maintenance of a shared understanding of goals and direction appears impossible, people find ways of acting as if they were in agreement; they manage to coordinate their actions and understanding of strategic priorities. Building on a strategy-as-practice approach, this study investigates how people achieve such coordination despite unavoidable differences in views and ambiguity of meaning. I draw on a 19-year study of strategy work in a Finnish city organization to study how participants introduced broader institutional perspectives to the strategy work as related but different perspectives on the city and its future and used them as institutional voices in dialogue. This study focuses on the ways in which these institutional voices were used in tandem to craft a collective strategy and how this resultant strategy was interpreted and reinterpreted according to situational needs. My findings describe how participants in the strategy work in Bay City related the pluralist institutions with each other and used them in context, and how participants weaved these institutions into partially shared, flexible practices and meanings, ultimately creating a strategy text which was used to coordinate organizational action in a variety of ways, without complete agreement of its meanings. I describe this meeting of perspectives as an ideational dialogue between locally relevant institutional voices, which enabled the creation of a collective strategy. This account makes three contributions to our understanding of the practice of strategy. First, it elucidates the institutional nature of strategy work by describing the role of local enactments of societal and field-level institutions in strategy work. Second, it introduces the notion of institutional dialogue and institutional voices to advance the conversation on institutional complexity, demonstrating the constructive aspects of institutional complexity for strategy work. Third, it provides a polyphonic account of how a collective strategy is formulated in an ongoing process balancing diverging interests.
  • Vuoristo, Lotta (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-10-17)
    This thesis focuses on customer relationships, a topical issue in contemporary marketing. Contrary to many earlier studies, this study approaches customer relationships from the consumer’s subjective point of view. This perspective is often overlooked in marketing. Yet in order to advance knowledge of customer relationships, an understanding of the subjectivity of motivations is essential. The discoveries are based on an in-depth study of consumers and their customer relationships. A novel combination of the grounded theory method and ethnomethodology was developed in order to conduct the analyses. The theoretical contribution of the thesis is presented in three steps. First, building on self-based theories, a map of multiple selves is constructed. Second, drawing on self-congruity theory, the self-relationship (S-R) congruence concept is introduced. This concept serves to explicate the complex ways in which customer relationships are connected to consumers’ lives and to clarify how subjective meanings and motivation emerge. Third, the thesis develops a process view of how consumers make sense of the many customer relationships they have. The research reveals that it is possible to be a customer, and to have a customer relationship, without being in a customer relationship. In other words, a customer relationship can be meaningful to a consumer without reciprocity. A customer relationship can even remain relevant to the consumer after the company no longer exists. These discoveries are inconsistent with what current customer relationship theories prescribe. Overall, the thesis illuminates several aspects of customer relationships that existing theories have thus far neglected. The conclusions not only contribute to theory development in the customer relationship field, but also have implications for companies that wish to improve relationships with their customers.
  • Larson, Kelli (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-09-15)
    The last fifteen years has witnessed major and dramatic changes in the world of patent law and patent litigation. The impetus for these changes has not only come from the usual sources - the judiciary, legislators, and administrative agencies, and from advances in technology and innovation, but also from actors operating within the patent landscape. One particular type of patent actor operating in the intellectual property (IP) realm that seemingly everyone is talking about are “Non-practicing Entities” (NPEs), or their more pejorative alternate “patent trolls”. NPEs are generally described as entities that create business models focused solely on the exploitation and enforcement of patents to generate revenues. Labelled as the “most significant problem facing the patent system today”, the NPE phenomenon has become a highly polarized debate in academia and on the political stage. Vilified by companies, academics, congresspersons, the U.S. Supreme Court, and even former U.S. President Barack Obama, NPEs are at the center of a contentious patent law and policy debate focused on vexatious patent exploitation and enforcement related to alleged abusive behaviours of patent owners demanding “excessive” patent licensing fees, creating an “explosion” of unwarranted patent litigation, imposing undue burdens on industry, and thereby stifling innovation. However, there is very little empirical evidence to substantiate such claims made about NPE patent enforcement. Even more unfortunate is the fact that it is headline catching terms like “patent troll” that appear to have captured much of the public’s imagination and policymakers’ attention of such pure patent licensing entities. The “patent troll” rhetoric has arguably itself contributed to much of the misunderstanding and disapproving perceptions of such entities operating in the patent marketplace, and to a greater extent, negative perceptions being formed of the patent system overall. This dissertation discusses these issues and provides new insights into the NPE phenomenon by empirically exploring and examining the exploitation and enforcement of patents by NPEs in three major patent jurisdictions, namely the U.S.A., Europe, and China. The dissertation adds to patent literature by providing a more balanced academic discussion on the highly polarized NPE debate, and contributes to the scarce knowledge on the NPE phenomenon through the presentation of its substantial introduction covering four chapters, followed by a compilation of three published research papers. At the core of the dissertation is the proposition that argues despite some of their drawbacks, NPEs effectively contribute to the patent ecosystem and play an integral role in the enforcement of patents, which is a key element in any well-functioning patent system.
  • Gylfe, Philip (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-09-08)
    Orchestra conductors are concerned with the collective emotions of their organization. Conductors influence emotions in a visual, embodied and open way in order to create a common understanding of goals. Zooming out to other organizations we face the question: are there specific techniques through which organizational members, like conductors, manage emotions? More specifically, what is the role of the human body in the emotions experienced during strategy work? If organizational strategies are embodied in managers who have risen to the top while pursuing a particular set of strategic initiatives, then in what way are strategies embodied in these managers? The strategy work of middle managers forms the core empirical context of this thesis. I engaged in intense video shadowing of middle managers at a national public service broadcasting organization. The middle managers faced the challenging situation of acting as ‘linking pins’ between the organizations strategy and the day-to-day workings of the creative media professionals. Through video analysis I study the multimodal (verbal and embodied) practices through which middle managers channel the top-down and bottom-up flows in the strategy process. The findings of this thesis are threefold. First, I highlight that we need to pay increased attention to the affective reactions occurring during strategy work. Second, I argue for an embodied perspective on the creative idea generation process, and propose that we need a multimodal lens to appreciate how groups are energized into committing to novel strategic ideas. Finally, I suggest a methodological tool-kit for analyzing video data and extracting theoretically meaningful patterns.
  • Solja, Eeva (Svenska Handelshögskolan, 2017-09-15)
    Stories are characteristic of humans. They have been embedded in our social and cultural environments in various forms throughout civilizations. Stories come naturally to us because we think in terms of stories and use them to communicate everyday events. Stories reflect the structure in which we make sense of, comprehend, and organize our experiences. Compelling stories persuade, entertain, and engage their audiences. It is therefore not surprising that marketers have become keen to capitalize on the persuasive effects of stories. Indeed, marketers frequently tell brand stories in multiple contexts with the aim to involve and persuade consumers. However, many questions on the effect of stories on consumers in commercial contexts remain. Research shows that companies can purposefully relate stories to brands to elicit positive brand responses. Stories help individuals interpret the meanings of brands and create a bond between a brand and a consumer. Brand stories are told, for instance, on packaging, in promotions, on web sites, in social media, and on price tags. While the influential nature of stories as such has been widely acknowledged and verified in advertising research, many theoretically and managerially relevant issues remain unexplored. Previous studies have looked at stories in print and TV ads, while packaging and price promotions have been overlooked. Packaging and price promotions are key marketing tactics, which differ from ads in several respects, such as the framing and length of the message. This dissertation examines consumer responses to different types of brand stories on packaging, in advertising, and in price promotion messages. Brand stories are examined in terms of short, emotional and mental simulation brand stories. The dissertation reports on six experiments in three separate studies. It offers significant contributions to storytelling, packaging, and pricing literature, as well as to business practice. The findings demonstrate that brand stories on packaging and in price promotions can influence several significant consumer responses positively. The dissertation also shows that the storytelling context acts as a boundary condition to the effectiveness of different types of brand stories. Hence, brand stories should be tailored according to context to reach maximal effectiveness. (The original essays are included only in the printed version.)
  • Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-05-26)
    Organizations frequently partner with actors in their environment in order to increase competitive advantage, at times, even with competitors. During recent decades, researchers have therefore become interested in simultaneous cooperation and competition between organizations, which they refer to as coopetition. Despite the increasing trend of treating strategy as activities performed by individuals, there is limited knowledge concerning how coopetition emerges and becomes shaped by individuals. The articles in this thesis address coopetition from a strategy-as-practice point of view, particularly taking an interest in how actors at different organizational levels make and give sense of emerging coopetition, i.e. coopetition agency creation. A longitudinal case study follows a strategic change process of implementing ongoing cooperation against a background of competition, from formulation to implementation. The case study findings show that coopetition requires modification in established cognitive frames, and that coopetition strategizing becomes complex stemming from the pluralism of views and attitudes across and within actor levels. The findings not only extend the notion of influential strategic actors external and internal to the organization engaged in coopetition, but also problematize the coopetition strategists. It is suggested in the thesis that it is pivotal to understand what enables and hinders individuals’ participation in realizing coopetition strategies, before strategy development and outcomes can fully be understood. Moreover, rather than treating coopetition as a deliberate strategy resulting from pure intentional and rational processes, the findings prove that unintentional influences from multiple levels must also be taken into account. Individual level differences in modifying past practice patterns to fit emerging coopetition are argued to be grounded in who strategists really are; in their backgrounds, histories, and motivations. Looking into the past is vital as the findings show; coopetition strategists across organizational levels hold multiple social identities that influence how sense of the present and future is made and given, and how different action patterns emerge, explaining why certain strategy outcomes are produced. The findings from the articles together emphasize how crucial talk and social interaction in different forms are to how far coopetition is accepted or resisted in organizations. However, different sensemaking patterns and different degrees of modifications in sustained structures and practices tell that accomplishing shared views on coopetition across inter- and intra-organizational levels becomes a challenge, and open future research paths to explore how coopetition frames are enacted over time.
  • Stroe, Ioana Silvia (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-05-26)
    This work is motivated by the desire to gain a deep understanding of affective experiences of entrepreneurs and their outcomes, in theory and practice. Specifically, the aim of this dissertation is to reframe the conceptualization of passion in entrepreneurship. It does so by uncovering the functioning mechanism through which passion exerts its influence in entrepreneurship as well as by considering the dualistic nature of the passion experience in entrepreneurship. As a whole, this work is guided by a general research question: does passion play a role in the new venture emergence process and if so, how does passion influence the new venture emergence process? The thesis addresses this question through a systematic literature review and three empirical studies. The systematic literature review (Paper I) updates the current state of passion research in entrepreneurship, uncovering thereby yet unanswered questions and research gaps, and thereby informing the following papers of this dissertation. The following three papers look at determinants that influence passion (Paper II) and at passion’s cognitive and motivational outcomes (Paper III and Paper IV). Methodologically, this work combines quantitative research (a longitudinal study and a quasi-experimental cross-sectional study) with mixed methods research designs such as qualitative comparative analysis (based on a cross-sectional study). As a whole, the four papers offer a better understanding of passion in nascent entrepreneurship. First, this dissertation demonstrates that passion can influence, but also be influenced by cognition, and clarifies the important two-way interactions between passion and cognition. Moreover, it furthers our understanding of the dynamic relations between affective and cognitive processes involved in new venture emergence. Second, in theoretically and empirically examining two new functions that passion fulfills in the entrepreneurial process—the emotion regulatory function and the decision-making logic coordination function—this dissertation offers additional and complementary explanations for the importance of passion for entrepreneurship. The current work goes over and above previous studies that looked at passion’s outcomes only considering its valence and offers more fine-grained explanations of the mechanisms through which passion exerts its influence on various critical entrepreneurial outcomes. Third, this dissertation extends the scholarly focus from only harmonious passion to both harmonious and obsessive passion, distinguishes the characteristics of these two forms of passion in entrepreneurship, investigates their development and demonstrates that they can have very different effects on the entrepreneurs’ affective, cognitive and motivational functioning. Therefore, it proves that considering passion in only one of its qualities will lead to an incomplete understanding of passion and its outcomes.
  • Dahl, Johanna (Hanken School of Economics, 2017-04-07)
    This thesis focuses on the simultaneous existence of cooperation and competition between firms, and falls under the research area of coopetition. In recent years, coopetition, inherently complex and paradoxical in nature, has attracted increasing attention in both business practice and research. As a result, coopetition is confirmed as a phenomenon of contemporary importance to companies varying in size and industry. Moreover, from a research standpoint, coopetition has been established as a distinct theoretical approach to explain inter-firm relationships and, in particular, cooperation between directly competing firms. Yet, to advance extant knowledge on coopetition, calls have been made for research scrutinizing the interaction process and focusing on the handling of simultaneous cooperation and competition, at multiple levels of analysis starting from the individual. To this end, the overall aim of this article-based thesis is to develop a theoretical understanding of how coopetition is maintained as a process and as a strategy, alongside an empirical understanding of the interplay between cooperation and competition. The thesis answers three interrelated research questions, addressing the dynamics of coopetitive interaction, the deliberate and emergent features of coopetition, and the balancing of cooperation and competition. Article 1 contributes by conceptualizing change in coopetitive interactions through three mechanisms. The outlined mechanisms are inter-organizational learning manifested in cooperation between competitors, intra-organizational learning based on exchanges of contrasting experiences between individuals within the organization, and the development of the external business environment. The article further contributes by developing the notion that the nature of the change process underlying coopetition, in terms of the generative change mechanism and predefined or discontinuous character, depends on the balance and strength of the cooperative and competitive interactions. In Article 2, the theoretical contribution comprises a framework explaining coopetition as a deliberate and/or emergent strategy. By integrating research on strategy-as- practice and, thus, focusing on the social nature of coopetition, the framework delivers four scenarios on how coopetition strategy manifests in an organization. The framework implies that coopetition strategy ought to be explained as an activity occurring across multiple levels in an organization, and at an institutional and inter-organizational level. Furthermore, the framework broadens extant views on individuals who influence strategy and activities that may be consequential for the strategy. Article 3 contributes to discussions on the influence of different levels of strength of the cooperative and competitive interactions on relational outcomes. The contextual contribution lies in the study’s examination of coopetition in relation to the internationalization process and among a group of SMEs operating in a traditional manufacturing industry. Empirical results imply that the continuity, scope, and strategic impact of opportunities gained through coopetition vary with the balance and strength of the cooperative and competitive interactions.
  • Laamanen, Mikko (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2017-02-01)
    The politics of value creation outlined in this dissertation challenges core assumptions of current value creation literature and particularly its service-dominant logic branch. Politics of value creation illustrates the weight that people individually and collectively give to an object or an issue; the social construction of meaning and valuation, its conventions and institutions; the authority afforded through these, and the struggle between different groups to maintain and change the above. This study engages current theory with an alternative conceptual framework and an unorthodox empirical setting. Sociological theories of collective action and strategic action fields are in conceptual dialogue with value-creating actors, their relationships and interaction, practices and outcomes. The collective–conflictual value creation theory developed in this study acknowledges systems of domination and skewedness of power in value creating contexts. The approach builds on the bearing that dominant ideologies are a product of a particular social order and interests that result in a conflict between incumbents and challengers, and have consequences to the wider environment. Rather than marginal and consequential, conflict is not only endemic, but causative when value-creating interactions are based on varying understandings and logics. The empirical study engaged the organised labour in Finland with critical ethnography examining societal macro-relations of the labour market institutions, meso-dynamics of the labour movement, and micro-practices in a trade union organisation. The politics of value creation is, on one hand, a critical analysis of current theory, and on the other, an exploratory study illustrating strategic collective action in value creation. With the collective–conflictual approach, value creation contexts are recast as porous arenas where various interactions, practice and outcomes constantly develop in collaboration and competition illustrating the permanence of dynamic tensions that instigate jockeying, using social skill in framing, and practicing ideologies and politics in an attempt to create and arbitrate value.
  • Alimov, Naufal (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016-11-29)
    Institutional ownership in publicly listed companies has grown rapidly in recent decades. It is claimed that institutional investors are well-suited for active involvement in firms’ corporate governance, because they are managed by professional managers who can utilise information better than lay investors. However, efficient governance may not be in the best interest of asset managers employed by institutional investors. The final role of institutional investors in corporate governance therefore remains an empirical question. In this dissertation, I empirically investigate the role of public pension funds in firms’ governance, using the data from the Swedish pension system, which was reformed at the turn of the millennium. This data was chosen because Swedish public pension funds have the same history and mandates, and are expected to compete with each other. The thesis consists of four essays. In the first two, I investigate whether Swedish pension fund ownership is related to firms’ market valuation and corporate governance quality. In paper three, I analyse whether these funds prefer to impact or exit underperforming firms. In the final paper, I examine whether there are similarities in the composition of the Swedish public pension funds’ domestic equity portfolios, and whether these funds adopt similar strategies in selling and buying shares of Swedish listed companies. I find that there is a contemporaneous positive relationship between firms’ market valuation and public pension fund ownership. The evidence suggests that this relationship is a result of public pension funds’ preference for investing in firms the market values highly. My results show that public pension fund ownership in companies is not associated with better corporate governance. I find no evidence that these funds effect the diversification of boards by increasing the proportion of women, foreigners, or directors of various ages. Furthermore, Swedish public pension funds have not been successful in promoting independent directors, securing the non-re-election of an active CEO to the Board of Directors, and reducing the wedge between cash flow and voting rights in listed firms. The analysis indicates that public pension funds tend to sell their shares of underperforming companies, rather than facilitate the dismissal of the CEO or the Board of Directors. In the final paper, I find that there has been a relatively high degree of similarity in the domestic equity portfolios of the Swedish public pension funds. My analysis also shows that these funds have timed their purchases and sales of company shares in approximately the same way. These findings are probably the result of the constraints of a small and illiquid market for individual shares and the Swedish pension system’s stringent investment rules.
  • Günther, Petteri (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016-11-18)
    Technology has upended the music industry. ‘Digital’ has changed the mechanics of music distribution; first, CDs were replaced by downloads such as mp3 files, and today, the share of access-based distribution such as streaming services of total recorded music sales is growing globally. However, ‘piracy’ still remains perceived as a problem. The technological disruption has given rise to challenges for copyright in an increasingly digital world – the ‘information society’. Copyright law has generally changed in response to external pressures – societal changes such as technological changes. And today copyright law is typically applied to rapidly changing technologies and services facilitated by those technologies. This in turn necessitates taking a broader view to understand how copyright legislation has evolved to respond to those changes affecting music distribution, as well as whether the European copyright framework has managed to support growth in the digital music markets in Europe, and to develop a European digital single-market. Looking at the digital music markets of today, there appears to be an ongoing shift in music consumption habits toward access-based offerings such as streaming services. And while illegal activities remain perceived as a problem, subscription streaming services have shown potential for decreasing piracy. Therefore, with a view to improving the functioning of the digital music markets, focusing on measures that aim to support increasing the demand for legitimately available content might be effective – as suggested by the potential that subscription streaming services have demonstrated. Ultimately, control over content may not alone be sufficient: if online music services do not live up to consumers’ expectations, the level of intellectual property protection alone might prove to be an insufficient answer to the challenges faced by the music industry. Instead, incentivizing consumers to use legitimate offerings by increasing the relative attractiveness of online music services in relation to unauthorized channels should be factored in. Overall, despite for instance the potential that subscription streaming services have shown, reducing infringement on the internet requires also appropriate measures for keeping illegal activities at bay, and understanding that there might be no one-size-fits-all solution to combating piracy. Reducing online piracy, to be effective, might well require different types of anti-piracy measures, like involving intermediaries and using ‘follow the money’ approach to ad-funded sites offering unauthorized copyrighted content. To support growth in the digital music markets in Europe the focus should be on developing a market-oriented approach with a combination of appropriate measures that both target supporting growth of legitimate sales of digital music and decreasing piracy by having available effective online copyright enforcement measures.
  • Cleland Silva, Tricia (Hanken School of Economics, 2016-11-14)
    This monograph is a study on how, from 2007 to 2010, five groups of nurses from the Philippines were recruited and transnationally managed and organised to live and work in Finland for both private elderly care facilities and surgical wards in Finnish municipal hospitals. The thesis is critical of international human resource management (IHRM) as a discipline and practice, and discursively analyses structural and societal issues of control and compliance of the historically gendered and racialised occupation of nursing. Furthermore, the transnational processes and movement of human capital from the Philippines to Finland is discussed in terms of (re)producing managerial practices of nurse work which create barriers to equality in the workplace. The study identifies and maps the interaction of various private and public representatives through the transnational practices of recruitment and placement of Filipino nurses into Finnish nursing institutions. Through the identification of the Finnish representatives and the subsequent construction of their associated social worlds based on work practices and commitments, the maps illustrate the organising of human resources transnationally. Subsequently, structural mechanisms, particularly in terms of institutional, national, and international policy and law regulations, are addressed by highlighting transnational human resource management (THRM) practices and discursive positions dominated by public and private representatives in the packaging of the nurses. As a whole, the study strives to broaden the theoretical and empirical examination of migrating nurses to encompass the transnational management of private and public representatives involved in the recruitment and placement practices at institutionalised, meso-levels of organising.

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