Journal Articles and Conference Papers

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  • Eckerberg, Katarina; Mertz, Ole; Liljeblom, Eva; Helmersson-Bergmark, Karin; Mitchell, Jon; Vestergaard, Niels (Research Council of Norway, 2018-08-30)
    The aim of the evaluation of Social Science research in Norway (SAMEVAL) was to review the present state of social science research in Norway as a basis for recommendations on the future development of research. The evaluation covered six research areas: geography, economics, political science, sociology, social anthropology and the economic-administrative research area. It included 3005 social scientists in total and 42 institutions, both 27 faculties/departments at universities and university colleges, and 15 publicly financed social science research institutes. The evaluation further comprised 136 research groups within those institutions. Based on the six disciplinary evaluation reports, the principal committee finds that a large number of institutions and research groups are performing well across the social sciences, above the Nordic and OECD averages in terms of the bibliometric analysis (Damvad 2017). A high proportion of the research groups evaluated are performing very well. The distribution of scientific grades is rather even among the six evaluated disciplines, and centred around the two grades good and very good, but with Social Anthropology and Economics performing particularly well compared to international standards. Still, there is an opportunity to get much more out of the social science research, to make further international impact, advance theoretical debates and develop critical thinking. The principal committee therefore calls for striking a better balance between basic and applied research. For institutions with high levels of core funding, this might involve directly allocating core funding to basic research. Elsewhere, more funding might be allocated to ‘free research’ in pursuit of more theoretically driven research as formulated by the researchers themselves rather than steered by programmatic topics. All of the panels were struck by the large number of institutions pursuing social science research, spread extensively over the country, with many research units separated even within a particular region. Creating critical mass of disciplinary research in rather small research groups and/or multidisciplinary environments therefore constitutes a considerable challenge. Various forms of national as well as international networking and collaboration within the disciplines is therefore imperative. The situation also calls for more strategic thought both by the Government and by the respective institutions as to who should do what, and how this might be sufficiently funded. In addition, the principal committee suggests that the PhD education could be strengthened by national coordination given the small numbers of disciplinary PhD students in almost all environments except the Oslo region. Interdisciplinary research is a strong feature of the Norwegian research landscape as compared with many other countries. Partly, this could be a reaction to the stronger emphasis on strategic and/or thematic research but it is also likely a response to resolving the issue of many small social science environments. While the strong interdisciplinary research is a considerable asset, there are also associated risks in how to assure sufficient disciplinary depth and methodological innovation in such research. The SAMEVAL evaluation called for assessing societal relevance and impact of social science research. However, a majority of institutions reported largely their dissemination activities, rather than the relevance and impact for different societal actors, suggesting that the methods and application of such assessments need to be further discussed and developed. Overall, however, there is no doubt that Norwegian social science has considerable relevance for a large range of public and private societal actors and activities, and that a large number of ‘good practice’ research impact cases were displayed by the social science institutions.
  • Rafi-Ul-Shan, Piyya Muhammad; Grant, David B.; Perry, Patsy; Ahmed, Shehzad (2018-05-20)
    Purpose Fashion supply chain (FSC) research has identified two important issues of sustainability management and risk management. However, investigation of these issues is relatively sparse and has primarily been independent with little combinatory research, despite their important interrelationships. The purpose of this paper is to address that gap by critically reviewing extant literature to synthesise important sustainability risk issues in FSCs and proposing an empirical research agenda. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses a structured literature review approach and Denyer and Tranfield’s (2009) context, intervention, mechanisms and outcome (CIMO) criteria for critical analysis to enable the development of future empirical research areas. Findings While sustainability and risk are discussed independently in the supply chain literature, combinatory discussions are very limited, despite the interdependence of these concepts. There is little substantial research on sustainability risk in global FSCs and therefore, an empirical research agenda is proposed with the four research directions to address the gap and take forward the notion of supply chain sustainability risk management in FSCs: definition; organisation and management; influence on performance; and development of a conceptual framework. Research limitations/implications This paper provides a critical literature review and thus lacks empirical study. Practical implications This paper highlights important issues in sustainability risk management for FSCs and presents an agenda for future empirical research. Originality/value This paper contributes by providing a combinatory synthesis of sustainability and risk management in FSC literature and an agenda for future empirical research.
  • Lahti, Tom; Halko, Marja-Liisa; Karagozoglu, Necmi; Wincent, Joakim (2018-05-24)
    This paper investigates why and how founding entrepreneurs bond with their ventures. We develop and test theoretical arguments about the nature of bonding in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 42 subjects (21 entrepreneurs and 21 parents). We find that entrepreneurs and parents show similar signs of affective bonding, that self-confidence plays a role in bonding style, and that the degree to which entrepreneurs include their ventures in the self and to which parents include their child in the self influences their ability to make critical assessments. Our findings suggest that bonding is similar for entrepreneurs and parents and that venture stimuli influence reward systems, self-regulatory functions, and mental factors that are associated with judgment.
  • Salin, Denise; Notelaers, Guy (2017-05-26)
    This study analyses the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and turnover intentions. We hypothesised that this relationship is mediated by perceptions of psychological contract violation, and that employee benevolence acts as a moderator. A survey design was employed and data were collected among business professionals (n = 1148). The analyses confirmed that perceived psychological contract violation partially explains the relationship between exposure to bullying and turnover intentions. The mediation process was stronger for those reporting more benevolent behaviour, suggesting that the importance of perceived psychological contract violation is greater among those scoring high on benevolent behaviour. The results also show that highly benevolent employees are more affected by exposure to bullying behaviour, although the effects were equally detrimental, irrespective of benevolent behaviour, when employees were exposed to very high levels of bullying. The study advances understanding of the mechanisms that govern outcomes of exposure to bullying, highlighting in particular the role of perceived psychological contract violation, and examining differences concerning high or low benevolence employees.
  • Laakso, Mikael; Lindman, Juho; Shen, Cenyu; Nyman, Linus; Björk, Bo-Christer (2017-01-10)
    A recent disruption in academic publishing are Academic Social Networks (ASN), i.e. web platforms such as ResearchGate and that have provided new ways for researchers to disseminate, search for, and retrieve research articles. ASNs are still a grey area in terms of implications for involved stakeholders, and research on them has so far been scarce. In an effort to map out factors related to ASN use this article provides a multi-method case study of one business school (Hanken School of Economics, Finland) that incorporates 1) a bibliometric analysis on the full-text availability of research output on ASNs for research published 2012-2014 by Hanken affiliated authors, 2) semi-structured interviews with faculty active in publishing in order to gain insight into motivations for use and use patterns, and 3) a survey distributed to all research-active faculty and doctoral students in order to gain a wider perspective on ASN use. ASNs have for many become the primary way to provide access to one’s research output, outpacing all other types of online locations such as personal websites and repositories. Based on the case study findings, earlier research, and recent industry developments, the article concludes with a discussion about the implications that the current trajectory of ASN use has on major stakeholders in academic publishing.
  • Androdegari, Federico; Saccani, Nicola; Kowalkowski, Christian; Vilo, Jyrki (2017)
    The discussion about business models has gained considerable attention in the last decade. Business model frameworks have been developed in the literature as management methods helping companies to comprehend and analyse their current business logic and guide the deployment of new strategies. In response to calls for a deeper understanding of the application of a business model approach to product-service systems (PSS), this study develops a two-level hierarchical framework that (i) includes a set of components with pertinent, second-order variables to take into account when undergoing the shift from products to solutions; (ii) supports industrial companies, especially SMEs, in designing their future business model and in consistently planning the actions needed to implement it. The framework was applied and refined within real-life settings. The application to KINE – a robot solutions supplier – shows how key challenges faced by servitization firms may be thoroughly addressed through the adoption of a business model perspective.
  • Hua, Fang; Shen, Cenyu; Walsh, Tanya; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen (2017-08-10)
    Objectives Open Access (OA) to the scientific literature, a recent revolution in scientific communication, is now required by an increasing number of funders and institutions. The aims of this narrative review are to raise awareness of OA-related concepts and recent research findings among stakeholders in dentistry and to help them make better use of OA and relevant resources. Data sources Published journal articles and relevant online materials. Study selection/results OA-related definitions and research findings, the approaches to OA, as well as its motivating factors, benefits, ‘citation advantage’, and mandate policies are introduced. Moreover, the phenomenon of predatory publishing and the status quo of OA in dentistry are discussed. Recommendations are made for stakeholders to avoid and address the hazards of predatory publishing, and for dental researchers to make their work OA in an appropriate manner. Conclusions/clinical significance Knowledge about concepts on OA, associated resources and research findings are important for researchers and other users of dental research to make full, appropriate use of OA, and help reduce the avoidable waste caused by inaccessible research. We need more studies into the use and development of OA in dentistry. In addition, joint efforts are required to eliminate the threat of predatory publishing to the dental profession.
  • Björk, Bo-Christer (2017-01-18)
    The Internet has fundamentally changed the publishing of scholarly peer reviewed journals and the way readers find and access articles. Digital access is nowadays the norm, in particular for researchers. The Internet has enabled a totally new business model, Open Access (OA), in which an article is openly available in full text for anyone with Internet access. This article reviews the different options to achieve this, whether by journals changing their revenue structures from subscription to publishing charges, or authors utilizing a number of options for posting OA versions of article manuscripts in repositories. It also discusses the regrettable emergence of “predatory” publishers, which spam academics and make money by promising them rapid publication with only the semblance of peer review. The situation is further discussed from the viewpoints of different stakeholders, including academics as authors and readers, practicing physicians and the general public.
  • Ehrnström-Fuentes, Maria; Kröger, Markus (2016-09-16)
    This article critically examines the usability of the concept of ‘social licence to operate’ (SLO) in the Latin American context as an indicator of the social acceptability granted by local stakeholders to multinational forestry companies. We identify four potential problems (risks of co-optation, structural power imbalances, conflicting worldviews, and the silencing effects of global certification schemes) that emerge when the current practice and literature on SLO is implemented in the context of forestry operations in Global South's rural areas, commonly marked by dynamic and contentious corporate-community relations. Based on empirical material from local communities affected by industrial tree plantations (ITPs) in a setting claimed to have an absence of conflicts (Uruguay) and another where visible conflicts have been present (Chile), we then ask: What does SLO mean to those it is supposed to represent the most, the local communities affected by industrial forestry? The findings illustrate that caution is necessary prior to claiming that a company, investment, or industry has achieved an all-encompassing SLO at the local level. Instead, to understand the dynamic and contentious corporate-community relations we argue for a more nuanced approach to how locals engage with different economic alternatives based on their own place-based capacity to sustain and reproduce life in community.
  • Virkkula, Esa; Bahadur Kunwar, Jagat (2016-12-28)
    This article explains the realisation and impact of tutoring on learning through a new kind of on-the-job learning method in workshops led by professional musicians. The research is a qualitative case study involving 62 upper secondary Finnish vocational music students who participated in 11 workshops. The research data consist of (a) workshop plans and personal learning goals written by the students before the workshops and (b) reflective essays about experiences after the workshops. The data were analysed using theory-oriented content analyses. In the workshop, the guidance-oriented interaction promoting learning starts at the beginning of the workshop with cooperative planning. The interaction between the students and the professional musician influenced the nature of the guidance – the professional musician was more like a colleague rather than a teacher. The students expressed that they had been able to influence the workshop goals in different phases and, thus, their professional competence had increased significantly. In vocational institutes, it is important to observe different ways of realising on-the-job learning and to develop new models of action, like the workshop method, to promote the development of students’ skills and competence.
  • Mollah, Sabur; Liljeblom, Eva (2016-09-24)
    The global financial sector recently suffered from two interrelated crises: the credit crisis and the sovereign debt crisis. A common question is whether the recent experience with the credit crisis has helped in dealing with the sovereign debt crisis. We study more specifically whether banks with powerful CEOs perform better or worse than other banks, and if there is any difference in this relationship between the two crises. Using unique hand-collected data for 378 large global banks, we find that CEO power has a significant positive relation to bank profitability and asset quality, but also to insolvency risk, during the sovereign debt crisis. Thus, strong CEOs do not appear to be detrimental to bank performance. Our results also support the idea that deposit insurance may have contributed to the credit crisis.
  • Been, Wike M.; van der Lippe, Tanja; den Dulk, Laura; Das Dores Horta Guerreiro, Maria; Kanjuo Mrcela, Aleksandra; Niemistö, Charlotta (2017)
    Top managers—defined as CEOs, CFOs and members of boards of directors—decide to what degree their organization offers employees work-life arrangements. This study focuses on the conditions under which they support such arrangements. A factorial survey of 202 top managers in five European countries was conducted in 2012. The analyses are based on 1212 vignettes. Implications are drawn from an integrated framework of neo-institutional theory, business case argumentation and the managerial interpretation approach. The results show that top managers simultaneously consider multiple conditions in deciding upon their support for work-life arrangements (i.e., the costs involved, the return in terms of employee commitment, and the type of arrangement, specifically having a preference for flextime and telecommuting over leave policies and part time hours). Additionally, they favor work-life arrangements designed for all employees above work-life arrangements granted to specific employees. How top managers weigh certain conditions depends on the organizational and national contexts. Their personal characteristics, however, do not seem to explain their support for work-life arrangements.
  • Siekkinen, Jimi Ville-Pekka (2016-06-09)
    This paper examines whether audit quality and auditor independence have an impact on the information quality of fair values. It is assumed that higher audit quality and higher auditor independence decrease the incentives for managerial opportunism, thereby increasing investors' trust in book values. By analysing financial firms from 28 European countries, this study finds evidence that non-audit services have a positive association with the value relevance of Level 3 fair value assets. Furthermore, the more important the client is to the auditor, the lower is the value relevance of fair value estimates (Level 3). The association between a Big 4 auditor and the information quality of fair value estimates depends on the legal traditions in the firm's home country. The association is positive or non-existent in Northern and Western European countries and negative in Southern and Eastern European countries.
  • Badshah, Ihsan; Frijns, Bart; Knif, Johan; Tourani-Rad, Alireza (2016-12)
    This study investigates the asymmetry of the intraday return-volatility relation at different return horizons ranging from 1, 5, 10, 15, up to 60 min and compares the empirical results with results for the daily return horizon. Using data on the S&P 500 (SPX) and the VIX from September 25, 2003 to December 30, 2011 and a Quantile-Regression approach, we observe strong negative return-volatility relation over all return horizons. However, this negative relation is asymmetric in three different aspects. First, the effects of positive and negative returns on volatility are different and more pronounced for negative returns. Second, for both positive and negative returns, the effect is conditional on the distribution of volatility changes. The absolute effect is up to five times larger in the extreme tails of the distribution. Third, at the intraday level, there is evidence of both autocorrelation in volatility changes and cross-autocorrelation with returns. This lead-lag relation with returns is also very asymmetric and more pronounced in the tails of the distribution. These effects are, however, not observed at the daily return horizon.
  • Samuelson, Olov; Björk, Bo-Christer (2014)
    The rapid development of IT technology has in the past three decades created opportunities for faster and more efficient processes as well as innovative new working methods in the building industry. This paper presents the results of a longitudinal survey-based study (the ”IT barometer”) of IT use in the Swedish building industry, conducted at several intervals over the period 1998-2011. The results show a rapid increase in general IT use as well as in the use of sector-specific tools. Improving communication and information sharing is a strong driving force for taking IT into use, for instance technologies such as EDM and EDI, although the adoption of the more complex applications (ie BIM) is slower. Interestingly “demands from employees” has over the years become a very important reason for companies to increase their IT use. Leading areas for planned IT investments include document handling and mobile equipment, with BIM technology rather low on the list.
  • Hartikainen, Saara M.; Jach, Agnieszka; Grané, Aurea; Robson, Thomas Matthew (2018-09-12)
    Forest canopies create dynamic light environments in their understorey, where spectral composition changes among patterns of shade and sunflecks, and through the seasons with canopy phenology and sun angle. Plants use spectral composition as a cue to adjust their growth strategy for optimal resource use. Quantifying the ever‐changing nature of the understorey light environment is technically challenging with respect to data collection. Thus, to capture the simultaneous variation occurring in multiple regions of the solar spectrum, we recorded spectral irradiance from forest understoreys over the wavelength range 300–800 nm using an array spectroradiometer. It is also methodologically challenging to analyze solar spectra because of their multi‐scale nature and multivariate lay‐out. To compare spectra, we therefore used a novel method termed thick pen transform (TPT), which is simple and visually interpretable. This enabled us to show that sunlight position in the forest understorey (i.e., shade, semi‐shade, or sunfleck) was the most important factor in determining shape similarity of spectral irradiance. Likewise, the contributions of stand identity and time of year could be distinguished. Spectra from sunflecks were consistently the most similar, irrespective of differences in global irradiance. On average, the degree of cross‐dependence increased with increasing scale, sometimes shifting from negative (dissimilar) to positive (similar) values. We conclude that the interplay of sunlight position, stand identity, and date cannot be ignored when quantifying and comparing spectral composition in forest understoreys. Technological advances mean that array spectroradiometers, which can record spectra contiguously over very short time intervals, are being widely adopted, not only to measure irradiance under pollution, clouds, atmospheric changes, and in biological systems, but also spectral changes at small scales in the photonics industry. We consider that TPT is an applicable method for spectral analysis in any field and can be a useful tool to analyze large datasets in general.

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