Entrepreneurship and Management


Recent Submissions

  • Fredström, Ashkan; Peltonen, Juhana; Wincent, Joakim (2020-02-21)
    Developing the concept of institutional incongruence and employing panel data from 60 countries, we outline an alternative view of the informal economy and the effects of regulative institutions on entrepreneurship productivity. We find evidence that the informal economy's size is, largely, negatively associated with entrepreneurship productivity, and that in the presence of a large informal economy, governmental efforts to improve governance quality can be counterproductive. Our results suggest policy interventions aimed at changing institutions to practice formal entrepreneurship should be implemented cautiously to avoid inducing institutional incongruence.
  • van Gelderen, Marco; Kibler, Ewald; Kautonen, Teemu; Munoz, Pablo; Wincent, Joakim (2020-01-04)
    Mindfulness, meaning a receptive attention to and awareness of present events and experience, is reported to have a wide range of benefits, but it has been suggested that it could prove costly in terms of task performance. This article analyzes how dispositional mindfulness relates to taking entrepreneurial action. Based on two waves of survey data, we find that mindful individuals are less likely to engage in entrepreneurial action than less mindful individuals, but when they do start to act, they take as many actions as individuals who score low on trait mindfulness, and even more if they have entrepreneurial experience.
  • Tukiainen, Taina; Burström, Thommie; Lindell, Martin (2019-06-26)
    Technology startups build strategies in order to survive within the framework of business ecosystems. However, the knowledge required to make such strategies effective is scarce. This article poses the question: “How do small technology startups strategize within and between business ecosystems?” Based on an explorative qualitative study, this article defines and presents a dynamic strategic framework of three strategies employed by technology startups. Some startups choose to act within one defined business ecosystem, most startups use a multi-ecosystem strategy to act between and draw benefits from many business ecosystems, and the rest act as ecosystem creators that challenge the logics of existing ecosystems.
  • Karlsson, Charlie; Rickardsson, Jonna; Wincent, Joakim (2019-10-24)
    In this paper, we review and comment upon the development of the literature on diversity, innovation, and entrepreneurship. In an overview of previous studies and various strands of literatures, we outline and argue that to better understand the intricate dynamic relationships between diversity, innovation, entrepreneurship, and regional development there is a strong need to further develop “the economics of spatial diversity.” We further argue that this development may benefit from combining various literatures based upon sound economic micro-foundations, to develop a more absolute understanding of diversity and fulfill the need of more clear mechanisms for future empirical testing. Obviously, this is important both from a research point of view and in order to provide policymakers with a powerful set of analytical tools. We call for more analytical work and more high-quality empirical studies. With a set of papers, we believe this special issue to provide a contribution in this direction.
  • Johansson, Jeaneth; Malmström, Malin; Wincent, Joakim; Parida, Vinit (2019-10-26)
    This paper explores how government venture capitalists approve or reject financing applications. Based on longitudinal observations, complemented by interviews, documentation, and secondary data, the findings show the limited influence of the regulative and normative logics (e.g., formal guidelines and accepted behavior) on government venture capitalists’ decisions. Instead, individual decisions are observed to be largely overshadowed by cognitions and heuristics, which dominate formal regulations and socially constructed group-level norms. Although official decision communications state that regulations have been followed, the evidence suggests that the cognitive logic dominates the funding decision-making process through a set of overshadowing forces that restrict the influence of the normative and regulative logics on funding decisions. This research has implications for venture financing and highlights the importance of cognitions in shaping venture capital decisions.
  • Anokhin, Sergey; Wincent, Joakim; Parida, Vinit; Chistyakova, Natalya; Oghazi, Pejvak (2018-10-25)
    For a sample of all 88 counties in the State of Ohio over a 5-year period, this study documents the effect of flagship enterprises and concentrated industrial clusters on regional innovation. Consistent with the agglomeration arguments and the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship, both appear to affect regional innovation positively. Additionally, regional educational attainment positively moderates the effect of industrial clusters on innovation. At the same time, flagship enterprises primarily affect regional innovation in regions with low education levels. Results are obtained with the help of conservative econometric techniques and are robust to the choice of alternative dependent variables and estimators. The findings have major policy implications and provide insights into alternative routes to encouraging regional innovation.
  • Parida, Vinit; Wincent, Joakim (2019-03-15)
    This article reviews and discusses how to compete with sustainability by reviewing the literature about sustainability, business models, innovation, and networks. It is an introduction to the special issue on “innovative inter-organizational networks and sustainable economy: current trends and future opportunities” and a call for more research where we examine and outline ideas for how the new and rapidly spreading trends of digitalization, the circular economy, and servitization are force firms to develop new types of competitive advantages. We elaborate upon the transformation needs at firm-level capabilities and business models, as well as network-level changes through the formation of new ecosystems and new ways of engaging in co-creation with partners. These firm and network level transformation discussions are complimented with specific list potential areas for future academic research.
  • Cenamor, Javier; Parida, Vinit; Wincent, Joakim (2019-04-03)
    Digitalization offers unprecedented opportunities for entrepreneurial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). However, many entrepreneurial SMEs lack resources and capabilities or suffer from inertia, which hampers these opportunities. This study investigates how entrepreneurial SMEs can enhance performance through digital platforms. Specifically, the study examines the effect of digital platform capability and network capability on entrepreneurial SMEs’ financial performance. The study also examines how exploitation and exploration orientations moderate this relationship. Based on analysis of 230 entrepreneurial SMEs, the results indicate that digital platform capability has a positive indirect effect on entrepreneurial SMEs’ performance via network capability. The study also shows that exploitation and exploration orientations negatively and positively moderate this effect, respectively. The results suggest that entrepreneurial SMEs can enhance their performance through digital platform capability by aligning this capability with their orientation. These findings thereby enrich the literature on entrepreneurial SMEs and capabilities.
  • Stroe, Silvia; Sirén, Charlotta; Shepherd, Dean; Wincent, Joakim (2019-07-19)
    Across two studies, we theorize and empirically investigate passion as a moderator of the negative affective consequences of fear of failure in early-stage entrepreneurship. We test our hypotheses in two field studies of naturally occurring affective events—namely, pitching competitions—and we complement self-reported measures of negative affect with physio-psychological measures obtained from analyzing entrepreneurs' facial expressions. The results confirm that in failure-relevant situations, dispositional fear of failure may lead to higher negative affect depending on the dualistic regulatory effect of passion—harmonious passion dampens the influence of fear of failure on negative affect (Studies 1 and 2), while obsessive passion magnifies this effect in Study 1 but dampens it in Study 2, thus showing mixed evidence. Our work is one of the first to investigate how early-stage entrepreneurs experience negative affect during typical entrepreneurial events as a result of their dispositional traits and their type and level of passion.
  • Saarikko, Ted; Jonsson, Katrin; Burström, Thommie (2018)
    Purpose Faced with environments rife with technological uncertainties, software platforms have gained interest as enablers of innovative businesses and development processes. While extant research has focused on mature platforms, the authors know less about the early phases in a platform’s life cycle. Drawing inspiration from the effectual perspective on entrepreneurship, the purpose of this paper is to further the understanding of how software platforms are established. Design/methodology/approach The authors develop a framework that describes four types of entrepreneurial awareness and then apply it to a qualitative case study of a platform that has emerged from the initial “creation” phase and is now in a period of rapid growth. Findings The study indicates that successful establishment of a software platform depends upon the provider’s ability to integrate business acumen with technical proficiency and leverage these combined skills to ensure short-term viability and long-term relevance in the market. Research limitations/implications This paper contributes to literature on platform strategy, which has previously focused on mature platforms, by addressing entrepreneurial behavior during a software platform’s establishment. As it is based on a single qualitative study, additional studies of different platforms are needed to verify the results. Originality/value The paper highlights the dependence of software platform establishment on the ability to enact both explorative and exploitative activity patterns, and embrace both strategic foresight and systemic insight cognitive patterns. The combined patterns of activity and cognition form four types of awareness, pertaining to markets, resources, technology and contexts.
  • Kostanek, Edyta; Khoreva, Violetta (Springer, 2018)
    Talent recruitment and retention research has traditionally looked at such characteristics as age, gender, ethnicity, tenure, and more. There is however an increasing demand to add multigenerational diversity to this list. The current multi-generational workforce of Silent Generation, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and the Millennials generates a need for organizations to manage a highly diverse set of employees whose work habits and expectations vary widely. A generic approach to attracting and managing this multi-generational type of workforce is unlikely to work, mostly due to markedly distinct needs and wants by each generation. To keep up with multi-generational workforce, organizations need to respond to these varying needs and develop innovative ways to attract, manage, and retain talents. This chapter will give insight into the most effective talent management and retention practices per each generation and contextualize them in relation to stability of work environments.
  • Sirén, Charlotta; Patel, Pankaj C.; Örtqvist, Daniel; Wincent, Joakim (2018-05-23)
    Despite the possibility of burnout resulting from dynamics in firms' upper echelons, little if any work has focused on chief executive officer's (CEO's) burnout and firm performance. Drawing on managerial discretion theory, this article analyzes the influence of CEO burnout on firm performance and the moderating roles of the individual (CEO locus of control), structural power (CEO duality and CEO tenure), and organizational characteristics (size, age, and resource availability) related to managerial discretion. Using a sample of 156 CEOs in Swedish firms, we find a negative association between CEOs who report higher burnout and firm performance. Our results confirm that CEO duality and resource availability ameliorate and firm size exacerbates the negative association between CEO burnout and firm performance. Contrary to our expectations, CEO locus of control, CEO tenure, and firm age do not influence this relationship. We discuss the implications of our research for upper echelons theory and strategic leadership theory.
  • Kibler, Ewald; Wincent, Joakim; Kautonen, Teemu; Cacciotti, Gabriella; Obschonka, Martin (2018-10-22)
    Entrepreneurship research on prosocial motivation has outlined its positive impact on well-being, but still little is known about its power, which may have deleterious personal consequences under certain conditions. In this study, we ask whether prosocial motivation can harm entrepreneurs' subjective well-being when they run a commercial venture. Embedded within a contingency perspective informed by self-determination theory, we build on longitudinal survey data to explain the effect of prosocial motivation on entrepreneurs' overall life satisfaction. Our analysis demonstrates that prosocial motivation has a negative effect on entrepreneurs' life satisfaction due to increased levels of stress. However, our findings show that the negative effect of prosocial motivation dissipates when perceived autonomy at work is high compared to when it is low. Overall, our research raises questions on the role of prosocial motivation for entrepreneurs' subjective well-being and, in particular, discusses its potential “dark side” in the context of commercial entrepreneurship.
  • Shir, Nadav; Nikolaev, Boris N.; Wincent, Joakim (2018-11-01)
    Drawing upon the self-determination theory, we develop a two-stage multi-path mediation model in which psychological autonomy mediates the relationship between active engagement in entrepreneurship and well-being partially through its effect on psychological competence and relatedness. We test this model on a representative sample of 1837 working individuals (251 early-stage entrepreneurs) from Sweden. We find active engagement in entrepreneurial work tasks to be strongly associated with well-being relative to non-entrepreneurial work. Thus, we highlight the importance of individual self-organization—with autonomy at its core—which makes entrepreneurial work more beneficial in terms of basic psychological needs compared to other work alternatives.
  • Florén, Henrik; Frishammar, Johan; Parida, Vinit; Wincent, Joakim (2017-07-05)
    The literature on the front end in the New Product Development (NPD) literature is fragmented with respect to the identification and analysis of the factors that are critical to successful product development. The article has a two-fold purpose. First, it describes, analyses, and synthesizes those factors through a literature review of the research on the front end in NPD. Second, it conceptualizes a framework that features two types of success factors: foundational success factors (common to all the firm’s projects) and project-specific success factors (appropriate for the firm’s individual projects). The article makes recommendations for the management of this important phase of product development, discusses limitations of relevant previous research, and offers suggestions for future research. The article makes a theoretical contribution with its analysis and synthesis of the reasons for success in front-end activities and a practical contribution with its conceptual framework that can be used as an analytical tool by firms and their product managers.
  • Lahti, Tom; Halko, Marja-Liisa; Karagozoglu, Necmi; Wincent, Joakim (2018-05-24)
    This paper investigates why and how founding entrepreneurs bond with their ventures. We develop and test theoretical arguments about the nature of bonding in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 42 subjects (21 entrepreneurs and 21 parents). We find that entrepreneurs and parents show similar signs of affective bonding, that self-confidence plays a role in bonding style, and that the degree to which entrepreneurs include their ventures in the self and to which parents include their child in the self influences their ability to make critical assessments. Our findings suggest that bonding is similar for entrepreneurs and parents and that venture stimuli influence reward systems, self-regulatory functions, and mental factors that are associated with judgment.
  • Dahl, Johanna Eva Christina; Kock, Sören; Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena (2016-02-06)
    This study uses a strategy-as-practice approach to define coopetition strategy. Coopetition strategy forms, arguably, through the intersection of the organization’s internal and external value networks, giving rise to simultaneous cooperative and competitive activities of a more or less intended nature. Four scenarios encompassing propositions are put forth to explain how coopetition strategy as a deliberate and emergent activity is manifested in the organization. By approaching coopetition from the strategy-as-practice perspective, current conceptualizations of its deliberate and emergent nature are unified under a common framework. The practice approach advances existing understandings of coopetition by shedding light on strategic actors and their actions at multiple levels, the social embedding of the strategic activities, and the dynamic nature of the strategy.
  • Malmström, Malin; Voitkane, Aija; Johansson, Jeaneth; Wincent, Joakim (2018-06-01)
    Although often discussed, there has been limited effort to match venture capitalists’ construction of gender notions with specific facts about the entrepreneurs’ venturing activities. This study shows how stereotypical gender notions of both men and women entrepreneurs are embedded in venture capitalists’ assessments and analyses as well as explores whether or not these notions have substance based on actual performance. Drawing on interview data and statistical analysis of objective key performance information from accounting reports, we identify four myths in the evaluations of 126 venture capital applications for governmental capital that do not have any significant empirical substance. We discuss these findings’ implications for the study of myths in women's entrepreneurship.
  • Lenka, Sambit; Parida, Vinit; Sjödin, David Rönnberg; Wincent, Joakim (2018)
    Purpose The dominant-view within servitization literature presupposes a progressive transition from product to service orientation. In reality, however, many manufacturing firms maintain both product and service orientations throughout their servitization journey. Using the theoretical lens of organizational ambivalence, the purpose of this paper is to explore the triggers, manifestation and consequences of these conflicting orientations.Design/methodology/approach A multiple case study method was used to analyze five large manufacturing firms that were engaged in servitization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 respondents across different functions within these firms. Findings Servitizing firms experience organizational ambivalence during servitization because of co-existing product and service orientations. This paper provides a framework that identifies the triggers of this ambivalence, its multi-level manifestation and its consequences. These provide implications for explaining why firms struggle to implement servitization strategies due to co-existing product and services orientations. Understanding organizational ambivalence, provides opportunity to manage related challenges and can be vital to successful servitization. Originality/value Considering the theoretical concept of ambivalence could advance the understanding of the effects and implications of conflicting orientations during servitization in manufacturing firms.
  • Burström, Thommie; Wilson, Timothy L. (2018)
    Purpose The premise of this paper is that tension exists among participants and parties engaged in projects. The uniqueness of development virtually assures this. The purpose of this paper is to propose that tension is a product of the precursors of complexity, uncertainty and equivocality, and an attempt is made to characterize tension as it arises in projects – its genesis and its nature. Design/methodology/approach An in-depth case study was conducted in a manner in which the contextually sensitive empirical researches for which Nordic studies are known. Within discussions on the strategy, decision making, intra- and inter-project interdependencies and managing across development sites associated with a flagship project, 77 statements concerning tension were identified for analysis. Through a literature review, 12 tension-driving factors were identified. These factors were used as base for analysis. Findings These statements were analyzed for content to produce a model associating tension with its precursors and the literature on tension. It is found that due to innovation turbulence, tension-driving factors are cascaded in and around organization(s). Tension is manifested in various ways for different stakeholders and tension management is performed through cognitive and emotional responses. The texture of tension is characterized by fluidity, multiplicity and parallelism. Research limitations/implications Case studies can of course not be generalized; they are valuable, however, in indicating important observations for further studies. Practical implications A contribution is made to management theory where knowledge about project context is seen as essential in order to understand best practices for project execution and effectiveness. Originality/value Although common, even virtually assured in projects, tension tends to be neglected in successful management. This study associates the genesis of tension through the underlying contributions of complexity, uncertainty and equivocality. It is believed to be the first study of its type.

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