Entrepreneurship and Management


Recent Submissions

  • Burström, Tommy; Kock, Sören; Wincent, Joakim (2022-05-02)
    We study how a rivalrous interorganizational relationship transforms into a coopetitive strategy. The study employs a qualitative method and systematic combining approach to examine an evolving coopetitive relationship in the truck industry. We studied a platform project during the concept phase of development. We found that multibrand platform development is characterized by innovation barrier multiplicity and concurrency. The study presents a model where we propose that history-related Initial Conditions Innovation Barriers (ICIB) are blended with project-related Emerging Innovation Barriers (EIB). This research makes a theoretical contribution by proposing that through strategic and operational stretch firms transform from a homogenous competitive relationship to a heterogeneous coopetitive relationship.
  • Palmié, Maximilian; Miehé, Lucas; Oghazi, Pejvak; Parida, Vinit; Wincent, Joakim (2022-01-19)
    As e-commerce has increasingly gained traction in the retail market, many traditional “brick-and-mortar” retailers are innovating their business models and making the transition towards digital business models. While scholars have started to examine the influence of digitalization on various business model elements, they have so far paid little attention to its implications on the external relationships in which firms engage for value creation. Building on a qualitative analysis of seventeen interviews, this study develops a two-stage framework for the transition to digital business models. In Stage 1, retailers collaborate with specialized service providers to implement a digital business model. As firms from the retail ecosystem collaborate with firms from the digital-service ecosystem to create a value proposition for end-customers, a meta-ecosystem emerges. In Stage 2, firms (retailers) seek to differentiate themselves from their competitors in the meta-ecosystem. Physical interactions with the digital service providers, the product suppliers, and the customers are a primary means towards this end. Thus, digitalization does not make physical interactions and close personal ties obsolete. Our study has substantial implications for the academic literature and management practice.
  • Gama, Fábio; Sjödin, David; Parida, Vinit; Frishammar, Johan; Wincent, Joakim (2021-12-03)
    Based on the results of a multiple case study of seven manufacturing firms, a contingency framework for harnessing fuzziness in the front end of innovation is proposed by delineating two discrete capability paths through which new product ideas are developed into corroborated product definitions. The study illustrates that ideas characterized by high levels of fuzziness benefit from following an exploratory path, where the creative potential of fuzziness is embraced by deploying problem-formulation and problem-solving capabilities. In contrast, ideas at low levels of fuzziness benefit from following an exploitative path, where fuzziness is tolerated by drawing upon idea-refinement and process-management capabilities. When the fuzziness level of the idea and the set of capabilities to develop the idea are poorly aligned, the idea-development process is either inefficient or runs the risk of stalling. These findings have theoretical and practical implications for the front end of innovation and new product idea development.
  • Shepherd, Dean; Parida, Vinit; Williams, Trent; Wincent, Joakim (2021-12-23)
    Focusing on the organizing practices by which vulnerable individuals are exploited for their labor, we build a model that depicts how human traffickers systematically target impoverished girls and women and transform their autonomous objection into unquestioned compliance. Drawing from qualitative interviews with women forced into labor in the sex industry, human traffickers, brothel managers, and other sources (e.g., doctors, nongovernment organizations, and police officers fighting human trafficking), we inductively theorize that organizing of vulnerable individuals for human exploitation involves four interrelated practices—(1) deceptive recruiting of the vulnerable, (2) entrapping through isolation, (3) extinguishing alternatives by building barriers, and (4) converting the exploited into exploiters—that together erode and eventually eliminate workers’ autonomy. We conclude by discussing implications of our research for theory—specifically, the literature on human exploitation and loss of worker agency.
  • Wesemann, Henrik; Wincent, Joakim (2021-03-23)
    Female entrepreneurs are subjected to stereotypes that make it difficult to secure funding. Crowdfunding challenges many of the causes of this discrimination but we know little about if and how it changes optimal funding strategies for female entrepreneurs. Using a sample of 3191 crowdfunding campaigns by female entrepreneurs, we draw from signaling theory to develop and test a series of counterintuitive conjectures for female crowdfunding success. Our results contradict advice that may be derived from traditional entrepreneurial finance: women in crowdfunding should use their gender as advertising, use more female-centric language, avoid self-promotion, start businesses in male-dominated sectors, and ask for more money. These findings highlight new theoretical mechanisms in crowdfunding and develop recommendations for female entrepreneurs who want to raise funds.
  • Sjödin, David; Parida, Vinit; Palmié, Maximilian; Wincent, Joakim (2021-06-12)
    Artificial intelligence (AI) is predicted to radically transform the ways manufacturing firms create, deliver, and capture value. However, many manufacturers struggle to successfully assimilate AI capabilities into their business models and operations at scale. In this paper, we explore how manufacturing firms can develop AI capabilities and innovate their business models to scale AI in digital servitization. We present empirical insights from a case study of six leading manufacturers engaged in AI. The findings reveal three sets of critical AI capabilities: data pipeline, algorithm development, and AI democratization. To scale these capabilities, firms need to innovate their business models by focusing on agile customer co-creation, data-driven delivery operations, and scalable ecosystem integration. We combine these insights into a co-evolutionary framework for scaling AI through business model innovation underscoring the mechanisms and feedback loops. We offer insights into how manufacturers can scale AI, with important implications for management.
  • Linde, Lina; Sjödin, David; Parida, Vinit; Wincent, Joakim (2021-02-01)
    Firms are faced with increased dynamism due to rapid technological development, digitalization, and sustainability requirements, creating novel opportunities for ecosystem innovation. This is particularly prevalent in smart city contexts where initiatives concerning, for example, energy efficient buildings and smart energy grids drive new kinds of ecosystem formation. Orchestrating emerging innovation ecosystems can offer a path to sustained competitive advantage for ecosystem leaders. Yet, it calls for the development of new capabilities to sense, seize, and reconfigure digitalization opportunities in a highly dynamic ecosystem environment. Yet, prior research lacks insights into the dynamic capabilities and routines required for ecosystem innovation. Therefore, this study investigates how firms can develop dynamic capabilities to orchestrate ecosystem innovation and, thus, gain from it. Through a multiple case study of smart city initiatives, we offer insights into the specific micro-foundations or sub-routines underlying the ecosystem leader's sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring capabilities, which are necessary to orchestrate ecosystem innovation. We develop a capability-based framework demonstrating three orchestration mechanisms – namely, configuring ecosystem partnerships, value proposition deployment, and governing ecosystem alignment. Our findings carry implications for the literature on innovation ecosystems and dynamic capabilities, as well as for managers.
  • Keinonen, Henrik Markus Alfred (2021)
    This paper examines the relationship between ownership concentration and firm performance within the Nordic corporate governance model. Using data on Finnish publicly listed companies (PLCs) during a period of economic growth and stability, we find that the ownership share of the largest owner is negatively related to Tobin’s Q . We posit that certain blockholders may exchange their active monitoring and control function of the management for the private benefits of control, which is an inherent risk of the Nordic Corporate Governance (NCG) model. We find that state ownership is negatively associated with Tobin’s Q , suggesting that government owners might promote politically desirable goals rather than create long-term value for all shareholders. It is plausible that certain domestic blockholders render PLCs with a concentrated ownership structure less a!ractive to foreign investors.
  • Johansson, Jeaneth; Malmström, Malin; Wincent, Joakim (2021-01-06)
    Researchers question the impact of governmental venture capitalists (GVC) compared to private venture capitalists (PVC), but we know little about why this difference occurs and if this criticism is justified. We observed a group of GVCs and developed a new model that describes the way that GVCs process signals pre- and post-decisions. Certain macro level factors severely undermine micro level performance, causing GVCs to financially underperform with respect to PVCs. This helped us to understand that GVCs do not make investment decisions in the same way as PVCs, and what undermines the performance of GVCs’ decision-making processes. The main goals of GVCs are to promote investments in responsible SMEs, mobilizing societal impact. We discuss that the criticism of GVC needs to be more nuanced, as they have a different role than PVC in the financial system as providers of sustainable investments in responsible SMEs
  • Anokhin, Sergey; Chistyakova, Natalia; Antonova, Irina; Spitsina, Lyubov; Wincent, Joakim; Parida, Vinit (2021-01-23)
    Employing a panel setting of 88 counties in the State of Ohio over the five-year period ending in 2006, this study aims to investigate the applicability of the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship in explaining the relationships between flagship enterprises, entrepreneurial clusters, and business entry rates. The study confirms the overall positive relationship between flagship enterprises and startup rates, and the negative relationship between entrepreneurial clusters and startup rates. It further demonstrates that the effect of clusters is moderated by local unemployment rates so that higher rates of unemployment weaken the negative impact of entrepreneurial clusters on startup rates. Based on the evidence collected, policy makers should increase support for flagship enterprises in their regions, and would-be business owners should consider locating their ventures in proximity to flagship companies.
  • Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena; Kock, Sören (2016-07-22)
    This study approaches coopetition as a strategic change and aims to bridge the gaps in micro level cognition and strategy by exploring how a coopetitive frame is constructed, as well as how individual level differences in this creation can be explained. The empirical case study findings contribute to existing coopetitive research by showing that individuals differ in their ability to create future accounts of engagement in strategic activities, as well as in modifying established frameworks of competition to fit an emerging coopetitive frame. Based on the case study findings, a model of sensemaking is presented, which indicates the influence of attitudes and expectations over time on the development of a coopetitive frame. Managers that were unable to update their expectations from the past accordingly struggled in their sensemaking, whereas the interpretative process was aided by optimism and high expectations of the future. A key contribution of the empirical study lies in the focus on sensemaking differences that sheds light on the complexities inherent in coopetitive strategizing.
  • Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena; Kock, Sören (2016-07-29)
    Coopetition in networks implies the existence of simultaneous cooperation and competition between the same actors. As a paradoxical relationship and strategy, coopetition is assumed to entail tensions for individuals. To date, few studies have approached processes at the individual level underlying coopetitive relational and strategy development. In this paper, we apply a sensemaking lens to coopetition in order to unravel how middle managers deal with implementing coopetition, in particular focusing on coping with emotional tensions, and the subsequent effects on strategy and relational development. Based on a case study of coopetition as a strategic change, we offer insights into how managers differently make sense of cooperation, i.e. create a network picture, which emerges in a strategic group. We contribute to network and coopetition research by presenting a framework for understanding changes in coopetitive dynamics as stemming from interrelated cognition, action, and outcomes, at top and middle managerial levels across intra- as well as inter-organizational levels.
  • Einola, Suvi; Kohtamäki, Marko; Parida, Vinit; Wincent, Joakim (2017)
    To address the increasing relational challenges in international R&D collaboration, the present study develops a framework for understanding retrospective relational sensemaking in R&D offshore relationships. Using a comparative case study methodology, this study analyzes relational data from 56 interviews regarding four R&D offshore relationships between two large Swedish multinational companies and four R&D offshore partners. This study contributes to existing sensemaking theory by constructing a framework for retrospective relational sensemaking, including triggers and the phases of enactment, selection, and retention, to improve relational learning in R&D offshore relationships.
  • Shepherd, Dean A.; Parida, Vinit; Wincent, Joakim (2017)
  • Lindvert, Marta; Patel, Pankaj C.; Wincent, Joakim (2017)
    A crucial aspect of successful venturing is social capital. In contrast to traditional Western-oriented research where social capital is construed positively, we found that in the traditional, patriarchal society of Pakistan, social capital puts high restrictions on women micro entrepreneurs – where social capital prevents or slows venturing efforts. Results also show that although women do get some selective access to resources from family members, they are restricted by limited access to social capital outside of family members. As women entrepreneurs have the potential to play an important role in the development of any society, and especially so in developing countries, based on the insights derived from this qualitative study, we propose suggestions for further research on women micro entrepreneurs in non-Western contexts.
  • Cenamor, Javier; Parida, Vinit; Oghazi, Pejvak; Pesämaa, Ossi; Wincent, Joakim (2017-06-22)
    This study examines how subsidiaries can manage dual embeddedness with both local partners and a multinational enterprise. Specifically, we examine the role of absorptive capacity and appropriability mechanisms on subsidiary performance. We analyse how absorptive capacity and appropriability enable subsidiaries to successfully address knowledge challenges related to internal and external networks. We conducted an empirical analysis on a sample of 165 subsidiaries. Our results suggest that absorptive capacity has a direct, positive effect on subsidiary performance, which is greater in emerging countries. The study also found an indirect effect of absorptive capacity on subsidiary performance, which is mediated through appropriability mechanisms. These findings extend the literature on international networks, dual embeddedness and absorptive capacity.
  • Lenka, Sambit; Parida, Vinit; Rönnberg Sjödin, David; Wincent, Joakim (2017-11-21)
    Servitization research has principally focused on the transition of organizational-level strategy, systems, capabilities, and processes for firms to be able to offer advanced services to their customers. Less is known of the underlying microfoundational dynamics of such transitions at the individual-level. Based on a multiple case study of six large multinational industrial firms engaged in servitization efforts, this paper identifies the tactics (i.e., evangelizing, bootlegging, leveraging, and collaborating) that individuals adopt to overcome organizational resistance to servitization. This study also presents the conditions that are necessary for individual employees to adopt these tactics. The present study provides theoretical and practical implications of the microfoundations of servitization, focusing attention on individual-level actions that affect the outcomes at the organizational-level to drive servitization efforts.
  • Galkina, Tamara; Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena (2017-09-21)
    The present study views coopetition as an entrepreneurial process that involves coping with uncertainty, risk-taking behavior, exploring and exploiting opportunities, and developing innovative solutions. It also shows that coopetition can be not only an intended but also an emergent process with low levels of goal specificity, which enables the incorporation of effectuation theory into coopetition research. The empirical part of the article is based on a longitudinal case study of three media companies from Finland that compete and cooperate simultaneously. Our results demonstrate that coopetitive interactions combine effectuation and causation, and this interplay depends on stages of the coopetition process and on managerial levels. Therefore, the effectuation lens allows to examine coopetition process from a novel micro-perspective of individual decision makers. Our cross-disciplinary study concludes with outlining new avenues for future research in both coopetition and entrepreneurial effectuation.
  • Morgan, Todd; Anokhin, Sergey; Wincent, Joakim (2017-12-08)
    This paper investigates preferences for strategic emphasis in large corporation–small firm relationships and explores how information asymmetry may moderate these preferences. Our findings suggest that information asymmetry plays a crucial role in the development of an equity partnership between large public corporations and small, privately owned, growth-oriented firms. We study 233 instances of equity partnering between large corporations and small firms to investigate the contingency effect of information asymmetry on small firms' choice of equity partner. Our results indicate that when information asymmetry between the partners is low, small firms choose partners with a strategic emphasis on value creation. Conversely, when information asymmetry is high, small firms tend to choose corporate partners that emphasize value appropriation. This finding suggests that information asymmetry makes small firms wary of entering into equity partnerships and makes them unwilling to partner with corporations that potentially have the most to offer in terms of technological expertise.

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