Information Systems Science

 

Recent Submissions

  • Rousi, Antti; Laakso, Mikael (2020-04-19)
    The practices for if and how scholarly journals instruct research data for published research to be shared is an area where a lot of changes have been happening as science policy moves towards facilitating open science, and subject-specific repositories and practices are established. This study provides an analysis of the research data sharing policies of highly-cited journals in the fields of neuroscience, physics, and operations research as of May 2019. For these 120 journals, 40 journals per subject category, a unified policy coding framework was developed to capture the most central elements of each policy, i.e. what, when, and where research data is instructed to be shared. The results affirm that considerable differences between research fields remain when it comes to policy existence, strength, and specificity. The findings revealed that one of the most important factors influencing the dimensions of what, where and when of research data policies was whether the journal's scope included specific data types related to life sciences which have established methods of sharing through community-endorsed public repositories. The findings surface the future research potential of approaching policy analysis on the publisher-level as well as on the journal-level. The collected data and coding framework is provided as open data to facilitate future research and journal policy monitoring.
  • Björk, Bo-Christer; Kanto-Karvonen, Sari; Harviainen, J. Tuomas (2020-03-26)
    Predatory journals are Open Access journals of highly questionable scientific quality. Such journals pretend to use peer review for quality assurance, and spam academics with requests for submissions, in order to collect author payments. In recent years predatory journals have received a lot of negative media. While much has been said about the harm that such journals cause to academic publishing in general, an overlooked aspect is how much articles in such journals are actually read and in particular cited, that is if they have any significant impact on the research in their fields. Other studies have already demonstrated that only some of the articles in predatory journals contain faulty and directly harmful results, while a lot of the articles present mediocre and poorly reported studies. We studied citation statistics over a five-year period in Google Scholar for 250 random articles published in such journals in 2014 and found an average of 2.6 citations per article, and that 56% of the articles had no citations at all. For comparison, a random sample of articles published in the approximately 25,000 peer reviewed journals included in the Scopus index had an average of 18, 1 citations in the same period with only 9% receiving no citations. We conclude that articles published in predatory journals have little scientific impact.
  • Solomon, David; Laakso, Mikael; Björk, Bo-Christer (2013-07)
    The study documents the growth in the number of journals and articles along with the increase in citation normalized citation rates of open access (OA) journals listed in the Scopus bibliographic database between 1999 and 2010. Longitudinal statistics on growth in journals/articles and citation rates are broken down by funding model, discipline, and whether the journal was launched or had converted to OA. The data were retrieved from the web sites of SCIMago Journal and Country Rank (journal /article counts), JournalM3trics (SNIP2 values), Scopus (journal discipline) and Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) (OA and funding status). OA journals/articles have grown much faster than subscription journals but still make up less that 12% of the journals in Scopus. Two-year citation averages for journals funded by article processing charges (APCs) have reached the same level as subscription journals. Citation averages of OA journals funded by other means continue to lag well behind OA journals funded by APCs and subscription journals. We hypothesize this is less an issue of quality than due to the fact that such journals are commonly published in languages other than English and tend to be located outside the four major publishing countries
  • Pölönen, Janne; Guns, Raf; Kulczycki, Emanuel; Laakso, Mikael; Sivertsen, Gunnar (Edizioni Efesto, 2019)
    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive picture of open access publishing in Finland. Data consists of the complete national peer-reviewed output of 48177 articles and books from 14 Finnish universities in 2016-2017 stored in the VIRTA Publication Information Service. Each publication record contains an indication if it is openly available as Gold or Hybrid OA and/or if it is deposited in OA repository. Using this data, we investigate the share of openly available outputs across fields, as well as journal and book publishing, and analyse the open access status of all 10342 publication channels (journal/series and book publishers) used by Finnish researchers. We also examine the utility of international open access information sources, DOAJ and Bielefeld list for OA journals, and Sherpa/Romeo for self-archiving policies, in estimating the potential for open availability of peer-reviewed outputs, as well as the importance of the largest international commercial publishers in light of these comprehensive national data.
  • Guédon, Jean-Claude; Jubb, Michael; Kramer, Bianca; Laakso, Mikael; Schmidt, Birgit; Šimukovič, Elena; Hansen, Jennifer; Kiley, Robert; Kitson, Anne; van der Stelt, Wim; Markram, Kamilla; Patterson, Mark (European Commission, 2019)
    The report proposes a vision for the future of scholarly communication; it examines the current system -with its strengths and weaknesses- and its main actors. It considers the roles of researchers, research institutions, funders and policymakers, publishers and other service providers, as well as citizens and puts forward recommendations addressed to each of them. The report places researchers and their needs at the centre of the scholarly communication of the future, and considers knowledge and understanding created by researchers as public goods. Current developments, enabled primarily by technology, have resulted into a broadening of types of actors involved in scholarly communication and in some cases the disaggregation of the traditional roles in the system. The report views research evaluation as a keystone for scholarly communication, affecting all actors. Researchers, communities and all organisations, in particular funders, have the possibility of improving the current scholarly communication and publishing system: they should start by bringing changes to the research evaluation system. Collaboration between actors is essential for positive change and to enable innovation in the scholarly communication and publishing system in the future.
  • Neylon, Cameron; Belsø, Rene; Bijsterbosch, Magchiel; Cordewener, Bas; Foncel, Jérôme; Friesike, Sascha; Fyfe, Aileen; Jacobs, Neil; Katerbow, Matthias; Laakso, Mikael; Sesink, Laurents (Knowledge Exchange, 2019)
    Many of the challenges in navigating the transition to Open Scholarship are economic, either in the sense of being directly financial, or in the sense of being related to incentives. We therefore focus on the economic arena. Our conclusion is that it is challenging to capture the full details of the economy of Open Scholarship in terms of existing models. Application of economic theory and analysis techniques to Open Scholarship needs further exploration and development. An important aspect of the scholarly landscape and the transition to Open Scholarship is the diversity of actors involved. These can be described as ‘micro’ (individuals such as researchers, or support staff, users of research or employees of service providers), ‘meso’ (groups, communities or organisations such as universities, disciplines, scholarly societies or publishers) and ‘macro’ (‘system-spanning’ actors that provide structure to whole countries or regions, such as funders and governments). Insufficient attention has been paid to the incentives, actions and influences of meso-actors, and therefore a major focus of this book is on meso- actors. We conclude that the key to making progress is to better understand and overcome challenges of collective action.
  • Bailey, John; Laakso, Mikael; Nyman, Linus (2019-12-20)
    Though research into online tracking prevalence as a topic is not new, we still know little about who is tracking and profiling Finnish web users. This study examines tracking on the 500 websites most frequently visited by Finnish users. We also compare trackers on Finnish websites versus non-Finnish websites. We found trackers on 410 of the 500 websites, and a total of 466 unique trackers from 408 different organizations. Similar to most previous studies, Google had the greatest tracker coverage, mostly through Google Analytics and Doubleclick, reaching 75 % of the websites analyzed. The second-most prevalent tracking organization was Facebook, present on 46 % of the websites. After Google and Facebook came a number of organizations with fairly similar tracking coverage, followed by a long tail of others. There were notable differences when comparing Finnish websites to non-Finnish sites, displaying some level of geographical preference in publishers’ choices of advertising platforms and analytical tools.
  • Holmberg, Kim; Hedman, Juha; Bowman, Timothy D.; Didegah, Fereshteh; Laakso, Mikael (2019-11-15)
    Scientific articles available in Open Access (OA) have been found to attract more citations and online attention to the extent that it has become common to speak about OA Altmetrics Advantage. This research investigates how the OA Altmetrics Advantage holds for a specific case of research articles, namely the research outputs from universities in Finland. Furthermore, this research examines disciplinary and platform specific differences in that (dis)advantage. The new methodological approaches developed in this research focus on relative visibility, i.e. how often articles in OA journals receive at least one mention on the investigated online platforms, and relative receptivity, i.e. how frequently articles in OA journals gain mentions in comparison to articles in subscription-based journals. The results show significant disciplinary and platform specific differences in the OA advantage, with articles in OA journals within for instance veterinary sciences, social and economic geography and psychology receiving more citations and attention on social media platforms, while the opposite was found for articles in OA journals within medicine and health sciences. The results strongly support field- and platform-specific considerations when assessing the influence of journal OA status on altmetrics. The new methodological approaches used in this research will serve future comparative research into OA advantage of scientific articles over time and between countries.
  • Jytilä, Riitta; Laakso, Mikael (Tieteellisten Seurain Valtuuskunta, 2019)
    Selvityksen tarkoitus ei ole ulkoapäin määritellä kullekin lehdelle sopivia toimintatapoja tai lisätä julkaisuprosessin byrokraattisuutta. Sen sijaan eetoksena on lisätä ymmärrystä vertaisarvioinnin eri keinoista ja käytännöistä erityisesti suhteessa tieteen avoimuuteen. Avointa julkaisemista on monessa yhteydessä edistetty erilaisilla pakotteilla ja vahvoilla kannustimilla. Päätelmämme kerätyn aineiston pohjalta on, että yksinkertaiset ja hyvin yleisen tason linjaukset eivät sovellu kovinkaan hyvin avoimen vertaisarvioinnin edistämiseen. Parasta olisi, jos kukin lehti ja kustantaja arvioisi itse omista lähtökohdistaan sekä lehden erityisten intressien kannalta, mitkä avoimen vertaisarvioinnin osa-alueista kannattaisi ottaa käyttöön.
  • Björk, Bo-Christer (2019-03-19)
    The number of open access (OA) journals and their share of all scholarly journals are usually estimated based on indexing in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). DOAJ's coverage of OA journals from different regions of the world is, however, far from complete, particularly of journals publishing in languages other than English. Using alternative data sources for identification and manual verification, 437 scholarly OA journals published in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) were identified, and some key characteristics were studied. Of these, only 184 were indexed in DOAJ. A vast majority of the journals was published by scholarly societies or universities. Social sciences and humanities dominated as topics, and few journals charge authors. National or university-specific OJS portals have played a major role in enabling OA publishing. Around a third of the Nordic scholarly journals are currently OA.
  • Björk, Bo-Christer (2019-07-30)
    The acceptance rate of scholarly journals is an important selection criterion for authors choosing where to submit their manuscripts. Unfortunately, information about the acceptance (or rejection rates) of individual journals is seldom avai- lable. This article surveys available systematic information and studies of acceptance rates. The overall global average is around 35-40%. There are significant differences between fields of science, with biomedicine having higher acceptance rates compared to for instance the social sciences. Open access journals usually have higher acceptance rates than subs- cription journals, and this is particularly true for so-called OA mega-journals, which have peer review criteria focusing on sound science only.
  • Matthias, Lisa; Jahn, Najko; Laakso, Mikael (2019-04-03)
    As Open access (OA) is often perceived as the end goal of scholarly publishing, much research has focused on flipping subscription journals to an OA model. Focusing on what can happen after the presumed finish line, this study identifies journals that have converted from OA to a subscription model, and places these “reverse flips” within the greater context of scholarly publishing. In particular, we examine specific journal descriptors, such as access mode, publisher, subject area, society affiliation, article volume, and citation metrics, to deepen our understanding of reverse flips. Our results show that at least 152 actively publishing journals have reverse-flipped since 2005, suggesting that this phenomenon does not constitute merely a few marginal outliers, but instead a common pattern within scholarly publishing. Notably, we found that 62% of reverse flips (N = 95) had not been born-OA journals, but had been founded as subscription journals, and hence have experienced a three-stage transformation from closed to open to closed. We argue that reverse flips present a unique perspective on OA, and that further research would greatly benefit from enhanced data and tools for identifying such cases.
  • Nyman, Linus; Laakso, Mikael (2018-07-11)
    IMSI-catchers, sometimes called cell-site simulators or Stingrays, can eavesdrop on cell phone communications. IMSI-catchers do this by pretending to be a cell tower, thereby tricking nearby cell phones into connecting to them. The SeaGlass IMSI-catcher detector (which we from now on will call “SeaGlass sensor” or just “sensor”) gathers data from surrounding cell towers. Thus, the sensor should also pick up nearby IMSI-catchers. Analyzing SeaGlass sensor data for anomalies can enable identifying IMSI-catchers. The SeaGlass sensor is built using off-the-shelf parts. It is based on a Raspberry Pi and requires no soldering. This guide covers the steps to assemble a SeaGlass sensor, including both hardware and software requirements. The guide also covers the installation of software, on a separate computer, that can be used to analyze data gathered by the SeaGlass sensor.
  • Laakso, Mikael; Jytilä, Riitta; Nykyri, Susanna; Koikkalainen, Riitta (2018-10-29)
  • Jytilä, Riitta; Koikkalainen, Riitta; Laakso, Mikael; Nykyri, Susanna (2018-04-20)
    Avoimen tieteen politiikka suuntaa väistämättä myös vertaisarviointia koskevia käytäntöjä. Tutkimusprosessien avaaminen liittyy keskeisesti avoimeen vertaisarviointiin, jonka mahdollisuuksista ei kuitenkaan vielä ole olemassa juurikaan tietoa saati ohjeistusta. Selvitystyön tavoitteena on saada tietoa avointa vertaisarviointia koskevista asenteista ja suunnitelmista suomalaisen tiedejulkaisemisen kentällä sekä lisätä kentän ymmärrystä aiheesta. Tavoitteena on myös laatia lehdille konkreettisia malleja erilaisista vertaisarvioinnin tavoista. Selvityksen kohderyhmiä ovat lehtien ja kirjankustantajien toimituskunnat, lehteen tai teokseen kirjoittaneet sekä vertaisarvioijat.
  • Hanken, Information Systems Science, Helsinki; Laakso, Mikael; (2018-12-31)
  • Hassan, Lobna; Harviainen, J. Tuomas; Hamari, Juho (Gamification Group, 2018)
    The design of an engaging educational experience is a challenging endeavor. Various attempts have been made to gamify education as means to improve learner engagement and learning outcomes, yet the search for more engaging and effective educational designs continues. This pursuit can borrow inspiration from the fruits of popular media; namely from, e.g. the global, sensational school of magic education: Hogwarts, as described in the Harry Potter novel series by J. K. Rowling. In this paper we investigate the research question: What can we determine about gamified education at Hogwarts and what implications can gamifying education have? We employed a textual analysis method and coded evidence of gamified education in the first novel in the popular media series: Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. We identified overlaps between the design of Hogwarts and the gamification design practices that attempt to cultivate learner engagement through the self-determination theory, competition, collaboration, clear rules, roles, badges and aesthetics. This work hence enriches the discussion of the possible positive and negative consequences of gamification in education. Moreover, this treatise functions as a cultural commentary on the interaction between artefacts of popular media and what we perceive as virtuous in the different walks of life.

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