Management and Organisation

 

Recent Submissions

  • Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena; Kock, Sören (2016-07-22)
    This study approaches coopetition as a strategic change and aims to bridge the gaps in micro level cognition and strategy by exploring how a coopetitive frame is constructed, as well as how individual level differences in this creation can be explained. The empirical case study findings contribute to existing coopetitive research by showing that individuals differ in their ability to create future accounts of engagement in strategic activities, as well as in modifying established frameworks of competition to fit an emerging coopetitive frame. Based on the case study findings, a model of sensemaking is presented, which indicates the influence of attitudes and expectations over time on the development of a coopetitive frame. Managers that were unable to update their expectations from the past accordingly struggled in their sensemaking, whereas the interpretative process was aided by optimism and high expectations of the future. A key contribution of the empirical study lies in the focus on sensemaking differences that sheds light on the complexities inherent in coopetitive strategizing.
  • Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena; Kock, Sören (2016-07-29)
    Coopetition in networks implies the existence of simultaneous cooperation and competition between the same actors. As a paradoxical relationship and strategy, coopetition is assumed to entail tensions for individuals. To date, few studies have approached processes at the individual level underlying coopetitive relational and strategy development. In this paper, we apply a sensemaking lens to coopetition in order to unravel how middle managers deal with implementing coopetition, in particular focusing on coping with emotional tensions, and the subsequent effects on strategy and relational development. Based on a case study of coopetition as a strategic change, we offer insights into how managers differently make sense of cooperation, i.e. create a network picture, which emerges in a strategic group. We contribute to network and coopetition research by presenting a framework for understanding changes in coopetitive dynamics as stemming from interrelated cognition, action, and outcomes, at top and middle managerial levels across intra- as well as inter-organizational levels.
  • Koskinen Sandberg, Paula Hannele (2016-10-10)
    This article analyses the intertwining inequalities in wage determination and the gender-neutral legitimacy that pay systems provide by masking these inequalities. Job evaluation and performance-related pay were originally designed for purposes other than promoting equal pay, namely as managerial tools for determining wage levels. Typically, the main objective of a pay system is not to promote equal pay. Still, as a tool for assessing the value of work, job evaluation is regarded as a central method in promoting equal pay. The use of job evaluation is recommended by the European Commission and the International Labour Organization, and often features in gender-equality policy and legislation. In contrast with the status of job evaluation, little research exists on performance-related pay and gender pay equity. The findings show that the wages determined by pay systems reflect gendered cultural valuations of jobs and occupations. Pay systems provide gender-neutral legitimacy for gender-based wage disparities.
  • Einola, Suvi; Kohtamäki, Marko; Parida, Vinit; Wincent, Joakim (2017)
    To address the increasing relational challenges in international R&D collaboration, the present study develops a framework for understanding retrospective relational sensemaking in R&D offshore relationships. Using a comparative case study methodology, this study analyzes relational data from 56 interviews regarding four R&D offshore relationships between two large Swedish multinational companies and four R&D offshore partners. This study contributes to existing sensemaking theory by constructing a framework for retrospective relational sensemaking, including triggers and the phases of enactment, selection, and retention, to improve relational learning in R&D offshore relationships.
  • Shepherd, Dean A.; Parida, Vinit; Wincent, Joakim (2017)
  • Lindvert, Marta; Patel, Pankaj C.; Wincent, Joakim (2017)
    A crucial aspect of successful venturing is social capital. In contrast to traditional Western-oriented research where social capital is construed positively, we found that in the traditional, patriarchal society of Pakistan, social capital puts high restrictions on women micro entrepreneurs – where social capital prevents or slows venturing efforts. Results also show that although women do get some selective access to resources from family members, they are restricted by limited access to social capital outside of family members. As women entrepreneurs have the potential to play an important role in the development of any society, and especially so in developing countries, based on the insights derived from this qualitative study, we propose suggestions for further research on women micro entrepreneurs in non-Western contexts.
  • Melero, Remedios; Laakso, Mikael; Navas-Fernández, Miguel (2017-01-13)
    Metrics on open access (OA) availability of content published in scholarly journals (i.e. content licences, copyright ownership, and publisher-stipulated self-archiving permissions) are still scarce. This study implements the four core variables of the recently published Open Access Spectrum (OAS) (reader rights, reuse rights, copyright, and author posting rights) to measure the level of openness in all 1,728 Spanish scholarly journals listed in the Spanish national DULCINEA database at the end of 2015. Data exported from the database and used as variables for the analysis were: journal research area, type of publisher, type of access, self-archiving and reuse policy, and type of Creative Commons (CC) licence used. Out of the total number of journals (1,728), 1,285 (74.5%) published their articles OA immediately after initial publication and thus received the maximum OAS score for reader rights; 37.5% of all journals used CC licences, and 79.5% allowed self-archiving in some form. In 72% of journals, authors retained or publishers granted broad rights, which included author reuse and authorization rights (for others to reuse), whilst 13.5% did not specify any terms for copyright transfer. Similar studies could be carried out on other countries as this would enable comparisons of the general adoption and form of openness in different parts of the world.
  • Cenamor, Javier; Parida, Vinit; Oghazi, Pejvak; Pesämaa, Ossi; Wincent, Joakim (2017-06-22)
    This study examines how subsidiaries can manage dual embeddedness with both local partners and a multinational enterprise. Specifically, we examine the role of absorptive capacity and appropriability mechanisms on subsidiary performance. We analyse how absorptive capacity and appropriability enable subsidiaries to successfully address knowledge challenges related to internal and external networks. We conducted an empirical analysis on a sample of 165 subsidiaries. Our results suggest that absorptive capacity has a direct, positive effect on subsidiary performance, which is greater in emerging countries. The study also found an indirect effect of absorptive capacity on subsidiary performance, which is mediated through appropriability mechanisms. These findings extend the literature on international networks, dual embeddedness and absorptive capacity.
  • Primmer, Eeva; Termansen, Mette; Bredin, Yennie; Blicharska, Malgorzata; García Llorente, Marina; Berry, Pam; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Bela, Györgyi; Fabok, Veronika; Geamana, Nicoleta; Harrison, Paula A.; Haslett, John R.; Cosor, Georgia Lavinia; Andersen, Anne H. K. (2017-07)
    Individual decision‐makers at different governance levels operate in social contexts, which means that they sometimes need to compromise their personal values. Yet, this dissonance is rarely the direct target of empirical analyses of environmental decision‐making. We undertake a Q‐analysis of decision‐makers' personal perspectives and the perspectives they perceive to dominate in their decision‐making contexts. Our empirical analysis addresses biodiversity conservation, which has traditionally been justified with intrinsic value‐ and science‐based arguments. The arguments have recently been broadened with the concept of ecosystem services, highlighting human benefits and values. This evolving context is interesting because of the new rise of anthropocentric values, which can lead to decision‐makers experiencing dissonance. Our analysis of interviews with 43 biodiversity conservation decision‐makers from nine European countries reveals four personally held perspectives that highlight different, yet partly overlapping, values – intrinsic, human benefit, conservation and connection – as well as three perspectives perceived to dominate in decision‐making – utilitarian, insurance and knowledge values. The comparison of personally held and perceived dominant perspectives points to one major conflict: those decision‐makers who personally associate with intrinsic values and perceive utilitarian values to dominate in decision‐making experience dissonance. By contrast, personally held human benefit values are accommodated well in decision‐making contexts and decision‐makers who perceive insurance values to dominate experience the least conflict with personally held values. These findings demonstrate the potential of arguments stressing long‐term benefits for easing tension and conflicts in conservation decision‐making, and the usefulness of empirically testing of the coincidence of individual and social values.
  • Lenka, Sambit; Parida, Vinit; Rönnberg Sjödin, David; Wincent, Joakim (2017-11-21)
    Servitization research has principally focused on the transition of organizational-level strategy, systems, capabilities, and processes for firms to be able to offer advanced services to their customers. Less is known of the underlying microfoundational dynamics of such transitions at the individual-level. Based on a multiple case study of six large multinational industrial firms engaged in servitization efforts, this paper identifies the tactics (i.e., evangelizing, bootlegging, leveraging, and collaborating) that individuals adopt to overcome organizational resistance to servitization. This study also presents the conditions that are necessary for individual employees to adopt these tactics. The present study provides theoretical and practical implications of the microfoundations of servitization, focusing attention on individual-level actions that affect the outcomes at the organizational-level to drive servitization efforts.
  • Forrester, Amy; Björk, Bo-Christer; Tenopir, Carol (2017-08-03)
    The motivations for an author to choose a journal to submit to are complex and include factors relating to impact and prestige, service quality, and publication costs and policies. Authors require information about multiple characteristics of journals that may be difficult to obtain. This article compares and contrasts the new author-oriented journal comparison tools and services that have emerged to assist researchers in this important step of the scholarly publishing process. Many of these tools combine factors to provide full web-based manuscript submission decision tools, however all have limitations that reduce their usefulness.
  • Galkina, Tamara; Lundgren-Henriksson, Eva-Lena (2017-09-21)
    The present study views coopetition as an entrepreneurial process that involves coping with uncertainty, risk-taking behavior, exploring and exploiting opportunities, and developing innovative solutions. It also shows that coopetition can be not only an intended but also an emergent process with low levels of goal specificity, which enables the incorporation of effectuation theory into coopetition research. The empirical part of the article is based on a longitudinal case study of three media companies from Finland that compete and cooperate simultaneously. Our results demonstrate that coopetitive interactions combine effectuation and causation, and this interplay depends on stages of the coopetition process and on managerial levels. Therefore, the effectuation lens allows to examine coopetition process from a novel micro-perspective of individual decision makers. Our cross-disciplinary study concludes with outlining new avenues for future research in both coopetition and entrepreneurial effectuation.
  • Sorsa, Virpi; Merkkiniemi, Heini; Endrissat, Nada; Islam, Gazi (2017-10-24)
    While interest in art-based interventions is growing rapidly, little is known about the aesthetic, material, and interpersonal mechanisms by which art interventions, and musical interventions in particular, operate. We address this gap by drawing from an in-depth case study of a musical intervention in a professional ice-hockey team in Finland. At the time of the study, the organization faced a serious crisis, having lost 11 sequential games, leading its managers to search for “alternative” means for promoting social cohesion, and subsequently engaging in an arts-based musical intervention. Our findings examine how material objects and collective synchronization rhythms grounded the interpersonal interactions of team members and mediated members’ attempts to transform personal subjective experiences into collective collaboration. We draw out the conceptual implications of our findings for understanding, on the one hand, the collective nature of aesthetic processes, and on the other hand, the materially mediated processes of communication. In terms of practical implication, we contribute to understanding the social dynamics and transformative organizational possibilities of artistic interventions that generate value for the organization and its members.
  • Morschheuser, Benedikt; Hassan, Lobna; Werder, Karl; Hamari, Juho (2017-10-28)
    Context Since its inception around 2010, gamification has become one of the top technology and software trends. However, gamification has also been regarded as one of the most challenging areas of software engineering. Beyond traditional software design requirements, designing gamification requires the command of disciplines such as (motivational/behavioral) psychology, game design, and narratology, making the development of gamified software a challenge for traditional software developers. Gamification software inhabits a finely tuned niche of software engineering that seeks for both high functionality and engagement; beyond technical flawlessness, gamification has to motivate and affect users. Consequently, it has also been projected that most gamified software is doomed to fail. Objective This paper seeks to advance the understanding of designing gamification and to provide a comprehensive method for developing gamified software. Method We approach the research problem via a design science research approach; firstly, by synthesizing the current body of literature on gamification design methods and by interviewing 25 gamification experts, producing a comprehensive list of design principles for developing gamified software. Secondly, and more importantly, we develop a detailed method for engineering of gamified software based on the gathered knowledge and design principles. Finally, we conduct an evaluation of the artifacts via interviews of ten gamification experts and implementation of the engineering method in a gamification project. Results As results of the study, we present the method and key design principles for engineering gamified software. Based on the empirical and expert evaluation, the developed method was deemed as comprehensive, implementable, complete, and useful. We deliver a comprehensive overview of gamification guidelines and shed novel insights into the nature of gamification development and design discourse. Conclusion This paper takes first steps towards a comprehensive method for gamified software engineering.
  • Morgan, Todd; Anokhin, Sergey; Wincent, Joakim (2017-12-08)
    This paper investigates preferences for strategic emphasis in large corporation–small firm relationships and explores how information asymmetry may moderate these preferences. Our findings suggest that information asymmetry plays a crucial role in the development of an equity partnership between large public corporations and small, privately owned, growth-oriented firms. We study 233 instances of equity partnering between large corporations and small firms to investigate the contingency effect of information asymmetry on small firms' choice of equity partner. Our results indicate that when information asymmetry between the partners is low, small firms choose partners with a strategic emphasis on value creation. Conversely, when information asymmetry is high, small firms tend to choose corporate partners that emphasize value appropriation. This finding suggests that information asymmetry makes small firms wary of entering into equity partnerships and makes them unwilling to partner with corporations that potentially have the most to offer in terms of technological expertise.
  • Vesa, Mikko; den Hond, Frank; Harviainen, J. Tuomas (2018)
    In terms of reversal theory, both dominant and alternative explanations of the initiation of organizational wrongdoing assume that its perpetrators act in a telic state of mind. This leaves us with explanations that are insufficiently appreciative of the agent’s experience. The human mind can be creative and imaginative, too, and people can fully immerse in their activity. We suggest that the paratelic state of mind is relevant for the phenomenological understanding of the initiation of original, creative, daring courses of action, and that the paratelic state of mind may originate courses of action that social control agents, at a later moment in time, may label as organizational wrongdoing. Our proposal is especially relevant when organizational agents are on a course of exploration, facing uncertainty, complexity, and unavailability of information.
  • Salin, Denise; Cowan, Renee L.; Adewumi, Oluwakemi; Apospori, Eleni; Bochantin, Jaime; D'Cruz, Premilla; Djurkovic, Nikola; Durniat, Katarzyna; Escartín, Jordi; Guo, Jing; Isik, Idil; Koeszegi, Sabine T.; McCormack, Darcy; Monserrat, Silvia Inés; Olivas-Luján, Miguel R.; Zedlacher, Eva (2018)
    The aim of this study was to analyze Human Resource Professionals’ reflections on the prevention of and intervention in workplace bullying across different countries. More specifically, the study sought to identify what actions were, in the experience of human resource professionals, best to prevent and intervene in bullying and uncover organizations’ motives for engaging in such work. The study was conducted through semi-structured interviews (n = 214) in 14 different countries/regions, representing all continents and all GLOBE cultural clusters. Qualitative content analysis was performed to analyze the material. The findings indicate that bullying was largely conceptualized as a productivity and cost issue, and that was largely driving efforts to counter bullying. Training and policies were highlighted as preferred means to prevent bullying across countries. In contrast, there were large national differences in terms of preferences for either disciplinary or reconciliatory approaches to intervene in bullying. This study advances our understanding of what human resource professionals consider preferred ways of managing workplace bullying, and adds to our understanding of cross-national differences and similarities in views of this phenomenon. As such, the results are of relevance to both practitioners and scholars.
  • Hall, Matthew; Hearn, Jeff (2018)
    Revenge pornography (hereafter, revenge porn) is the online, sometimes offline, non-consensual distribution, or sharing, of explicit images of someone else by ex-partners, partners, others, or hackers seeking revenge or entertainment – also referred to as non-consensual pornography. The vast majority of revenge porn is committed by men on women ex-partners. In this paper we discursively analyze men’s electronic texts accompanying their posting of explicit images on arguably the most popular revenge porn specific website MyEx.com. Situating our analysis as a contemporary form of online gendered violence and abuse, we show the complex ways in which manhood acts are invoked by men to account for their practices. The impacts on victims/survivors and possible interventions are also discussed.
  • Parida, Vinit; George, Nerine Mary; Wincent, Joakim (2018)
    Both the strategic management and entrepreneurship literatures provide limited guidance on strategic diagnosis in the commercialization stage when the information processing structures of ventures are gestating. This study focuses on how founders engage in strategic diagnosis in lower development stages of venture information processing structures. A procedure using archival sales data from 90 entrepreneurs who founded their firms in 2012, serves to assess sales achievement in the first three years of the venture. Using logistic regression with robust standard errors for the analysis, this study shows that more developed information processing structures increase the likelihood of realizing sales. Labeling strategic challenges as controllable instead of uncontrollable or as lower positive-gain increases the likelihood of sales after founding.

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