Management and Organisation

 

Recent Submissions

  • Tallberg, Linda; Välikangas, Liisa; Hamilton, Lindsay (2021-10-01)
    This article explores a practical approach to teaching animal ethics in food systems as part of a business course. We argue that tackling such complex and emotionally charged topics is vital to shifting unsustainable and hurtful behaviours towards more positive futures. Our teaching example outlines a pedagogy of courageously witnessing, inquiring with empathy and prompting positive action; an activist approach we term fierce compassion. These three layers blend positive and critical perspectives in a classroom to address contentious issues of large-scale industrial animal production hitherto largely neglected in a traditional business curriculum. While acknowledging that academic activism is controversial, we argue that fierce compassion – noticing the suffering that is remote and often systemically hidden – can inform and structure education towards more post-anthropocentric and just futures for all living beings – human and nonhuman alike.
  • Hearn, Jeff (Routledge, 2021)
    #MeToo has also become a long-term, complex, expanding, transnational, and variegated phenomenon, metaphorically marked by different hues that stem from men’s violences and violations. To speak of variegation in this way is to seek to address the dynamic picture across political and spatial shifts, movements and interpretations rather than talking only of diversity or multiplicity. The chapter focuses, first, on what appears distinctive about #MeToo, by way of the metaphor of variegation, in terms of: cyberpolitics, online-/offline; celebrities and the significance of workplaces; the relations of individuals and collectivities; memory, forgetting and surprise; and shifts across sexual harassment, sexual violence, violences. The latter part of the chapter considers the implications of such variegation are for critical analysis, politics, policy and practice of men and masculinities, specifically in terms of: absence-presence; and causes-positionings-responses, that is the differing positionings of men and masculinities before, during and after violences and violations, in relation to #MeToo – before concluding comments on changing men and masculinities.
  • Hakonen, Marko; Tienari, Janne (2021)
    Vastaamme tässä artikkelissa kysymykseen siitä, miten akateemisten työntekijöiden paikkaan ja sosiaalisiin ryhmiin kiinnittyneet identiteetit rakentuvat organisaation toimintojen keskittämiseen tähtäävässä muutossa, joka on osa yliopistojen fuusiota. Tämä on monimutkainen prosessi, jota avaamme Aalto-yliopiston toimintojen keskittämisen ja Aallon kauppakorkeakoulun Etu-Töölöstä Otaniemen kampukselle tapahtuneen muuton kautta. Aikaisempi tutkimus on kuvannut paikkaidentiteetin ja sosiaalisen identiteetin yhteyksiä ja vuorovaikutusta muuttuvassa – tässä fuusioprosessin ja kampusmuuton kokeneessa – organisaatiossa varsin rajoittuneesti. Tuomme ”näköalan” käsitteen avulla esiin identiteettien kerrostumisen ulottuvuuksia muutostilanteissa. Ydinlöydöksemme on, että paikka- ja ryhmäsidonnaiset identiteetit kietoutuvat toisiinsa ja kerrostuvat monimutkaisemmin kuin aikaisempi tutkimus on esittänyt. Väitämme, että ”näköala” eli ihmisten kontekstisidonnainen henkilöhistoria auttaa ymmärtämään näitä yhteyksiä. Tämä tuo uusia ulottuvuuksia akateemisten identiteettien tutkimukseen.
  • Dziuba, Anna; Tienari, Janne; Välikangas, Liisa (2021-09-08)
    Purpose The three authors of this paper are intrigued by ideas and how they are created. The purpose of this paper is to explore idea creation and work by means of remote collaborative autoethnography. Design/methodology/approach During the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020, the authors sent texts to each other, followed up on each other's thoughts and discussed them in online meetings. They shared, analyzed and eventually theorized their lived experiences in order to understand creating ideas as social and cultural experience. Findings The authors develop the notions of “shelter” and “crutch” to make sense of the complexity of creating ideas together; theorize how emotions and identities are entangled in idea work; and discuss how time, space and power relations condition it. Originality/value The authors contribute to understanding idea work in a remote collaborative autoethnography by highlighting its emotional, identity-related and power-laden nature.
  • Harviainen, J. Tuomas; Lehtonen, Miikka J.; Kock, Sören (2021-09-30)
    Purpose This article aims to examine instances of timeliness and temporality in information sharing conducted by members of the Finnish game design community. By doing so, it provides new knowledge into the ways in which organizational information practices may take place on an individual and interpersonal level, and the ways in which timeliness impact information sharing. Design/methodology/approach The article is based on three sets of interviews, gathered in 2012–2014, 2017–2018 and 2018–2020. Findings The authors identify six themes of information sharing and show that time is strongly tied to the ways in which people in the Finnish game development industry share information outside of their own companies. Originality/value This type of information sharing has not been previously researched. This study brings forth new knowledge on how timeliness influence information sharing within creative industries.
  • Lin, Zhilu; Patel, Pankaj; Oghazi, Pejvak (2021-06-19)
    Although inventor CEOs drive firm innovation, widely recognized CEO abilities—general ability or managerial ability—could be central to leveraging CEOs’ invention abilities to drive firm innovation. Using CEO copatentors’ invention ability (defined as CEO patent coauthors’ average number of forward citations over the average number of patents) as an instrument for inventor CEOs, we study the value of CEOs’ general ability and managerial ability in enhancing the influence of inventor CEOs on firm innovation. Firms led by inventor CEOs with higher general abilities spur greater firm innovation. Surprisingly, however, firms led by inventor CEOs with a higher level of managerial ability realized lower firm innovation. Inventor CEOs with greater general abilities also translate firm innovation into better product-market outcomes and spur more firm innovation under better corporate governance. Our findings have implications for the influence of an inventor CEO on firm innovation outcomes.
  • Fougère, Martin; Solitander, Nikodemus (2019-12-23)
    Multi-stakeholder initiatives involve actors from several spheres of society (market, civil society and state) in collaborative arrangements to reach objectives typically related to sustainable development. In political CSR literature, these arrangements have been framed as improvements to transnational governance and as being somehow democratic. We draw on Mouffe’s works on agonistic pluralism to problematize the notion that consensus-led multi-stakeholder initiatives bring more democratic control on corporate power. We examine two initiatives which address two very different issue areas: the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and the Bangladesh Accord on Fire and Building Safety (The Accord). We map the different kinds of adversarial relations involved in connection with the issues meant to be governed by the two initiatives, and find those adversarial relations to take six main shapes, affecting the initiatives in different ways: (1) competing regulatory initiatives; (2) pressure-response relations within multi-stakeholder initiatives; (3) pressure-response relations between NGOs and states through multi-stakeholder initiatives; (4) collaboration and competition between multi-stakeholder initiatives and states; (5) pressure-response relations between civil society actors and multi-stakeholder initiatives; and (6) counter-hegemonic movements against multi-stakeholder initiatives as hegemonic projects. We conclude that multi-stakeholder initiatives cannot be democratic by themselves, and we argue that business and society researchers should not look at democracy or politics only internally to these initiatives, but rather study how issue areas are regulated through interactions between a variety of actors—both within and without the multi-stakeholder initiatives—who get to have a legitimate voice in this regulation.
  • Fougère, Martin; Solitander, Nikodemus; Maheshwari, Sanchi (2019-11-28)
    Through its focus on deep and experiential learning, service-learning (SL) has become increasingly popular within the business school curriculum. While a reciprocal dimension has been foundational to SL, the reciprocality that is emphasized in business ethics literature is often on the relationship between the service experience and the academic content, rather than reciprocal learning of the service providers (students) and the recipients (organizations and their managers), let alone other stakeholders. Drawing on the notion of enriched reciprocal learning and on Aristotle’s typology of modes of knowing, we (1) revisit reciprocal learning by illustrating what kinds of learning occur for server and served in four SL projects from a project course in CSR, and (2) emphasize the role of boundary spanners from the project organizations in making this reciprocal learning happen and translating the various types of student learning in ways that are useful for their organizations. We find that when boundary spanners are particularly engaged at making the projects impactful, they contribute to making the learning experiences of students, managers (including themselves) and sometimes other stakeholders useful, multidimensional, and ultimately rewarding.
  • Sorsa, Ville-Pekka; Fougère, Martin (2020-05-01)
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been recently conceptualized and studied as a political phenomenon. Most debates in this scholarship have thus far focused on normative issues. Less attention has been paid to the explanatory potential of CSR research grounded in political theory and philosophy. In this article, we conduct a pragmatist reading of political scholarship on CSR and seek to deploy existing knowledge for research pursuing political explanation. We argue that the political ontologies that underlie scholarship on CSR can be used to transform normative and descriptive research also for explanatory uses. We show how ontologies vary in terms of potential research objects and scopes of political explanation, and argue that the main types of political-ontological stances adopted in scholarship on CSR, foundational and post-foundational stances, offer explanatory analysis of different schematic guidelines. Our pragmatist reading of previous research and an empirical case illustration of political explanation of change in corporate responsibility in the biofuel industry demonstrate the opportunities, limitations, and challenges different political-ontological commitments provide for political explanation.
  • Barthold, Charles; Fougère, Martin (2021-05)
    In this paper we study the strategies through which Emmanuel Macron was able to emerge as a hegemonic leader in French politics in the context of the populist moment. In particular, we analyse (1) Macron’s interventions that contributed to redraw the political map and renew the establishment, as well as (2) how some of those interventions focused on building his digital movement-party LaREM through personalisation. Drawing on Laclau, we emphasise how, for political leaders, politics is about boldly adapting to contingency­ – and we use Machiavelli’s concept of virtù to illuminate how Macron adopted these strategies in his rise to power. We contribute to the power and leadership literature by showing how, through virtù, a leadership practice can emerge and become hegemonic. Relatedly, we contribute to the political organising literature by suggesting how the digital movement-party En Marche! (later La République En Marche) and its alternating opening and closing was used strategically in Macron’s conquest of power. Thus, we illuminate how a movement-party was used instrumentally for a highly personalised conquest of power. Finally, we make a theoretical contribution by suggesting how Machiavelli and Laclau can be combined in order to understand the populist moment: as a political space full of contingency in which Machiavellian insights are relevant to understand how leaders seize opportunities; and from a Laclauian perspective, as a space of opportunity for some of the virtù interventions to make a hegemonic project successful.
  • Björk, Bo-Christer (2021-04-13)
    For more than thirty years the spiralling costs of scholarly journal subscriptions (“the serials crises”) has been a hotly debated topic. Academics and librarians have pointed out the high profit levels of the major commercial publishers, despite the fact that the content is provided by unpaid authors and reviewers, which the publishers then resell to the universities of these same authors and reviewers. Publishers have attempted to justify their prices by cost increases, their IT-investments and the value they add. A useful framework for understanding the prevailing situation is Michael Porter’s five forces framework for explaining the competitive situation in any given industry. Despite claims to the contrary the degree of market concentration in scholarly publishing is not higher than in many other industries, and not the main cause of the problem. But the fact that the big deals of different publishers are complements rather than substitutes, means that essentially the leading companies don’t compete for customers, in contrast to other industries like mobile phones or automobiles. The high barriers to new entrants, partly due to journal ranking lists and impact factors, as well as the low bargaining power of suppliers and customers, explain why this industry has been so well protected from the disruptive forces of the Internet. The protected competitive position and high profitability is also the major reason why the big subscription publishers have been rather slow in adopting the open access business model.
  • Djurkovic, Nikola; McCormack, Darcy; Hoel, Helge; Salin, Denise (2021-03-09)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the perspectives of human resource professionals (HRPs) and employee representatives (ERs) on the role of HRPs in managing workplace bullying. Design/methodology/approach Individual interviews were conducted with 12 HRPs and five ERs from a wide range of industries. Interview questions were open-ended and sought to gain insight on the views of the individual interviewees. Findings The findings address the role of HRPs in bullying scenarios and in the prevention of bullying. Regarding the role of HRPs in bullying, the responses of the participants suggest confusion and ambiguity, with a variety of roles being described ranging from a support-based role through to a protector of management. The participants also noted the importance of the HRP task of policy development, while a distrust of HRPs in bullying scenarios was mentioned. Regarding the effective management and prevention of bullying, the findings demonstrate that HRPs are viewed as having a central role through their particular responsibilities of creating and nurturing a positive organisational culture, as well as through engaging employees in the development of anti-bullying policies. Practical implications HRPs believe that they can contribute significantly to reducing workplace bullying through organisational culture (including educating staff and as role models of behaviour) and by engaging staff in the design of anti-bullying policies. Originality/value This paper contributes to the literature on workplace bullying by examining within the Australian context the perspectives of HRPs and ERs on how HRPs can prevent and manage workplace bullying.
  • Törnroos, Maria; Salin, Denise; Magnusson Hanson, Linda (2020-07-31)
    Despite the serious consequences of exposure to workplace bullying for the wellbeing of individuals and functioning of organisations, few studies have investigated how organisational practices could reduce the negative impact of bullying on employee wellbeing. In the present study, we investigate the longitudinal association of exposure to workplace bullying with depressive symptoms and sleep problems, and whether high-involvement work practices (HIWP) and conflict management (CM) procedures moderate these associations. The data for the study were drawn from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final sample comprised 21,029 individuals with 45,678 person-observations from 4 waves. Longitudinal multilevel models (with study waves nested under individuals) showed that exposure to workplace bullying increased depressive symptoms and sleep problems. Furthermore, both HIWPs and CM procedures were moderators of the association between exposure to bullying and depressive symptoms and sleep problems. The results support previous findings, suggesting that workplace bullying has severe consequences for subsequent wellbeing. Moreover, it extends previous research by showing that organisational practices, such as high-involvement work practices and collaborative conflict management procedures, may act as organisational resources that buffer the negative effects of exposure to bullying on wellbeing.
  • Rask, Mikko; Mačiukaitė-Žvinienė, Saulė; Tauginienė, Loreta; Dikčius, Vytautas; Matschoss, Kaisa; Aarrevaara, Timo; d'Andrea, Luciano (PE2020, European Union, 2016)
  • Zedlacher, Eva; Salin, Denise (2021-06-16)
    Workplace bullying consists of repeated, long-term exposure to a variety of negative behaviors. However, it remains unclear when behaviors are seen as morally acceptable vs. become bullying. Moral judgments affect whether third parties deem it necessary to intervene. In this qualitative study, we first conceptualize and then explore via 27 interviews with Austrian HR professionals and employee representatives whether twelve diverse negative behaviors elicit distinct causal attributions and moral judgments. In particular, we examine how a perpetrator’s hierarchical position and gender shape the third parties’ evaluations. A qualitative content analysis reveals the behaviors vary in their perceived acceptability and associations with workplace bullying. Ambiguous behaviors require specific cues such a perpetrator’s malicious intent to be labeled workplace bullying. Overall, third parties judge behaviors by supervisors more harshly, particularly when managerial role expectations are violated. The majority of informants reject the notion that their perceptions are affected by perpetrator gender. Still, women who engage in behaviors associated with anger or a lack of empathy are often perceived as acting with intent. The findings suggest that the violation of social role expectations amplifies the attribution of dispositional causes (e.g., malicious intent). We discuss the relevance of perpetrator intent for research and practice.
  • Einola, Katja; Alvesson, Mats (2021-03-27)
    In this commentary we lay out what to us appear as perils of authentic leadership theory (ALT) in a modest effort to help weed out one theory that has gone amiss to pave the way for new ideas. We have made a detailed argument against authentic leadership theory elsewhere (Alvesson & Einola, 2019; Gardner, Karam, Alvesson & Einola, 2020; see also Sveningsson & Nyberg, 2014; Tourish, 2019) and are not going to repeat ourselves here. Instead, we focus on developing an argument for why ALT is not only wrong in a harmless manner but it may be outright perilous to leadership scholars, scholarship and those who believe in it. Of course, the consequences of ALT are not devastating in the same way and magnitude as those of a global pandemic or the weakening of democratic institutions, for instance. Still, we claim it is harmful -- but in ways that our community of researchers can collectively counteract. We together can decide where we want to go from here. Even though our focus is on authentic leadership theory, we consider it only as an example, one member of a much larger dysfunctional family of positive leadership theories celebrating good qualities in a leader linked with good outcomes and positive follower 'effects' almost by definition.
  • Hultman, Magnus; Iveson, Abbie; Oghazi, Pejvak (2021-04-19)
    This research investigates the effect of knowledge on the perception of internationalization barriers and the intention to internationalize among emerging market small/medium enterprise (SME) managers. Drawing from social cognitive theories in entrepreneurship, the study tests a paradoxical effect of knowledge on a sample of 150 managers. The model predicts that the characteristics specific to emerging market SMEs will reverse the traditionally positive relationship of knowledge on internationalization intention commonly found in the literature. Consistent with the hypothesis, the results indicate that knowledge relates negatively to internationalization intention. Additionally, the effect of perceived barriers on intention to internationalize becomes positive when perceived international market knowledge is higher. By clarifying the role of knowledge in the emerging market SME context, the study adds novel understanding to the key concept of internationalization knowledge.
  • Hajighasemi, Ali; Oghazi, Pejvak (2021-08-04)
    This article examines the economic consequences of migration for the Swedish welfare system. The question of whether the high costs of receiving refugees undermine the sustainability of the universal welfare state has received considerable attention in the political debate. While most studies focus on the fiscal burden of refugee reception and the short-term impacts of migration on welfare arrangements, this article advocates a comprehensive, long-term assessment of the effects of migration flows on public finances. Starting from the priorities of the architects of the welfare system, who designed and expanded social policy, indicators are derived to assess strategic goals and considerations. Reproduction of the workforce by managing its age profile, increasing employment levels and the employability of the surplus workforce, and creating conditions that increase long-term growth in the economy are considered crucial for the sustainability of the system. From a purely utilitarian perspective, migration is considered beneficial to the economy, provided that migrants gain quick entry to, and a high employment rate in, the labour market.

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