Management and Organisation

 

Recent Submissions

  • Laakso, Mikael; Wise, Alicia; Snijder, Ronald (2022-11)
    This paper reports on some of the initial observations from an ongoing study focused on determining the preservation status of academic open access books. The central challenges discussed revolve around lack of common definitions, metadata, and established practices for openly recording preservation status for books.
  • Espinosa, Alberto; Clark, Mark; Nordbäck, Emma (2022-01-04)
    Today’s work increasingly involves teams with fluid boundaries, and members working on multiple projects at a time. To understand how work is effectively coordinated in such complex organizations, we focus on the role of a company’s task dependency network. We integrate three research streams – coordination, team knowledge and social networks to conceptualize multiteam work as a large collaboration with members in multiple functional roles and areas of expertise, with complex task dependency relationships, operating as a coherent and well-coordinated knowledge network. Through this integration and empirical test of associated hypotheses with data from a European software company, our study illustrates how to represent multiple relationships in one complex multiplex network. This extends our understanding of how the various knowledge relationships and individual attribute differences influence the effective coordination in collaborative software development work. We address the concepts of awareness and shared familiarity and how they affect coordination, while keeping our focus on illustrating the power of network analytics to gain nuanced insights into the drivers of effective coordination.
  • Peters, Laura E. R.; Shannon, Geordan; Kelman, Ilan; Meriläinen, Eija (2022-11-22)
    Communities are powerful and necessary agents for defining and pursuing their health, but outside organizations often adopt community health promotion approaches that are patronizing and top-down. Conversely, bottom-up approaches that build on and mobilize community health assets are often critiqued for tasking the most vulnerable and marginalized communities to use their own limited resources without real opportunities for change. Taking into consideration these community health promotion shortcomings, this article asks how communities may be most effectively and appropriately supported in pursuing their health. This article reviews how community health is understood, moving from negative to positive conceptualizations; how it is determined, moving from a risk-factor orientation to social determination; and how it is promoted, moving from top-down to bottom-up approaches. Building on these understandings, we offer the concept of ‘resourcefulness’ as an approach to strengthen positive health for communities, and we discuss how it engages with three interrelated tensions in community health promotion: resources and sustainability, interdependence and autonomy, and community diversity and inclusion. We make practical suggestions for outside organizations to apply resourcefulness as a process-based, place-based, and relational approach to community health promotion, arguing that resourcefulness can forge new pathways to sustainable and self-sustaining community positive health.
  • Nilsson, Eva (2022-11-07)
    This article examines how corporate social responsibility (CSR) can serve as an external source of rents for governments that depend on foreign financing for state-building and development. The strategic, instrumental use of CSR has been overlooked in previous research on governments and CSR, especially in the Global South. To understand how CSR can serve as a lever for rents, the concept of “extraversion” is introduced to describe the way in which rent-seeking African governments instrumentalize their asymmetric external relations for political and private benefit. The connection between CSR and rent-seeking is analyzed through a case study of large gas investments in Tanzania. The article finds that the government has set up regulation that enables local and central government authorities to appropriate, mediate, reclaim, or possibly trick CSR practices to gain rents. Based on the study, two contributions are made to the literature on CSR and governments. First, the instrumental use of CSR in the Global South is added to the variety of perspectives that can be taken when studying government agency. Second, CSR is conceptualized as a potential stream of rents for governments to exploit. The article ends with discussing that the outcome of CSR in a rent-seeking environment depends on whether the leveraged resources are managed well to support peaceful and locally beneficial economic development or whether they serve private accumulation through corruption.
  • Alvesson, Mats; Einola, Katja (2022-09-30)
    This article is a response to Bill Gardner and Kelly McCauley’s ‘gaslighting’ critique of our text on the perils of authentic leadership (Einola & Alvesson, 2021a). Against gaslighting 1.0 (evilly trying to convince people to doubt their perceptions), we propose gaslighting 2.0 (enlightenment). We argue that organizations face severe problems and challenges that cannot be solved by motivating managers to engage in introspection and being overly preoccupied by their own authenticity. A search for one’s true self is a personal journey of inner growth and heightened self-awareness that individuals, leaders and non-leaders, may engage in and find highly beneficial, but outside any notion of exercising influence or power on others to reach career objectives or corporate goals. The broad use of simple recipes with claims of overwhelming positive effects is problematic. Leadership research is often based on highly problematic measures, making most efforts to capture the core phenomenon unreliable. That many people are attracted by simplistic, positive-sounding and ego-enhancing formulas is not the same as evidence for theoretical value and relevance of a truth claim. Taking aspiration as a critical element would call for the development and study of Aspirational Authentic Leadership Theory, which would be something quite different from the static study of how managers score in terms of being true to their values, a core self, and so on. In-depth process studies of managers trying to be authentic navigating dilemmas at work could be an alternative to focus further research on.
  • Alvesson, Mats; Einola, Katja; Schaefer, Stephan M (2022-08-05)
    Contemporary society is obsessed with knowledge, leaving its less seductive counterpart, ignorance, in the shadows. However, as an expanding literature suggests, it is equally important to understand ignorance, and consider its varieties. This study specifies the nature of wilful ignorance in organizations. It does so by a) making a distinction between the will of an actor and the epistemic properties of ignorance, and showing how these two form a dynamic relation, b) linking wilful ignorance to its various drivers, and c) suggesting how our concept of wilful ignorance can be used in the study of organizations. Rather than reducing the phenomenon into a simple to know/to ignore dichotomy, we zoom in on its processual and dynamic nature. Moreover, we explore complexities and ambiguity inherently involved in all knowing and ignoring, as well as the role of agency to reduce harmful effects of wilful ignorance in organizations.
  • Yang, Man; Leposky, Tiina (2022-11-09)
    The importance of value co-creation in servitization is increasingly emphasized but remains largely unexplored from the entrepreneurship theoretical perspective. This study develops an entrepreneurial framework for value co-creation in servitization by conducting a qualitative case study with middle managers from a multinational industrial company. The empirical findings suggest that value co-creation facilitates the discovery and creation of service opportunities through middle managers' entrepreneurial actions, that is, boundary spanning and bricolage. We also find that servitization reinforces value co-creation through middle managers' exploitation or exploration of service opportunities. The study not only offers new knowledge on the mutual influence between value co-creation and servitization, but also discusses the importance of middle managers as individual level actors in value co-creation. In addition, this study acts as a call for entrepreneurship frameworks for research on servitization.
  • Einola, Katja; Khoreva, Violetta (2022-10-05)
    Artificial intelligence (AI) has become an important topic in business literature and strategy talk. Yet, much of this literature is normative and conceptual in nature. How organizational members perceive AI and the job role changes that come with it is, so far, largely unknown territory for both HR scholars and practitioners. We sought to investigate the relationship between humans and AI and conducted an in-depth exploratory study into the co-existence of humans and two early-stage AI-solutions, one for “low-status” automation and another for “high-status”; augmentation. We suggest that different organizational groups may engage in distinctly different sensemaking processes regarding AI, an important insight for successful HRM strategies when AI is being introduced into the workplace. Moreover, contrary to recent conceptual work, our findings indicate that AI-enabled automation and augmentation solutions may not be detached from nor exist in tension with each other. They are deeply embedded in organizational processes and workflows for which people who co-exist with the technologies must take ownership. Our findings, in part, go against discussions on AI “taking over” jobs or deskilling humans. We describe a more nuanced version of reality fluctuating around the various ways different organizational groups encounter different AI-solutions in their daily work. Finally, our study warns against unconditional technological enthusiasm, managerial ignorance of the nature of work that employees undertake in different organizational groups, and a neglect of the time and effort required to successfully implement AI-solutions that affect not only the home organization but also members of the broader ecosystem.
  • Watt, Peter; Weibull, Fredrik (2022-09-14)
    This paper interrogates the phenomenon of boredom at work by considering Ernst Jünger’s potential contribution. We contend that Jünger offers an important yet overlooked alternative to the dominant perspectives of boredom in Management and Organization Studies (MOS), which are largely composed of ‘simple’ psychological diagnoses and managerial prescriptions. Such studies largely understand boredom as a localised experience at work which can be overcome by targeted managerial prescriptions, techniques and interventions. In contrast we show how Jünger understands boredom from a ‘profound’ perspective as a central feature of modernity. This is premised on Jünger’s broader critique of the bourgeois values that define 20th and 21st century managerial work and organization. Jünger’s cultural-historical perspective is therefore aligned to the discrete field of Boredom Studies. By addressing how Jünger understands ‘work’ as the defining feature of the modern age, his critique situates the phenomenon of boredom at work within the broader social, institutional and cultural order of the 21st Century. While Jünger does not set out to provide a theory of boredom as such, we reconstruct such a theory through an exegesis of his writing on ‘work’ and ‘danger’. This reveals boredom and danger as phenomenologically intertwined concepts, which is an understanding of boredom that has not been considered in MOS or Boredom Studies. It is through this, we argue, that Jünger’s conception of work holds the potential for a powerful critique and understanding of boredom at work under the contemporary regime of neoliberal managerialism.
  • Rodgers, Waymond; Al Shammakhi, Badriya N.; Johansson, Jeaneth; Wincent, Joakim; Adams, Kweku (2020-09-22)
    This conceptual paper provides a decision-making framework that enhances our understanding of how Do-It-Yourself (DIY) laboratory entrepreneurs execute ethical standards by dismissing fraud. Although our theory assumes that most DIY entrepreneurs are by nature ‘ethical’, we discuss how the unique nature of DIY laboratory entrepreneurship provides risks for fraud. Drawing on three ethical theoretical lenses, utilitarianism, deontology and egoism, our paper proposes different potential causes of fraud and motivates further analysis about why DIY laboratory entrepreneurship is an important context for the study of fraud. We contribute to theory and government policy by providing a conceptual framework that explains how entrepreneurial choices lead to three main types of fraud based on the dominant decision pathways. Further resear
  • Vesa, Mikko; Krohn, Mikaela Hanna Maria; den Hond, Frank (Routledge, 2021)
    This chapter uses photography as an analogy to ethnography in order to focus attention on the recording of research materials during ethnographic fieldwork. Photographic pictures are not unproblematic representations of the ‘world out there’, as has long been acknowledged by John Berger, Susan Sontag, Vilém Flusser, Ariella Azoulay, and other writers on photography. The camera – an apparatus – enables and constrains the photographer in recording a situation to produce technical images, information-rich surfaces. Photographic pictures are framed in multiple ways. Likewise, as ethnographic research materials are recorded with the apparatus of ethnographic methods, all observational field notes, interviews and visual objects are inherently framed at the very moment of their inception, not only in the sense of them being socially constructed, but also in a technical sense, which is independent from the subjectivity of the ethnographer. This latter framing is likely to affect the post-fieldwork reading of research materials. Through this analogy, the chapter highlights an under-explored dimension of ethnography, namely how the production of ethnographic data may contribute to a misplaced belief in the facticity of ethnography. It thus explores what can be learned from the analogy with photography for understanding ethnographic data, the ethnographer, ethnographic method, research participants, and the public use of ethnography; it is an invitation to reflect on the framing of research materials in ethnographic fieldwork.
  • Jääskeläinen, Tiina (2020-03-25)
    Although international institutions increasingly recognize the connection that indigenous peoples have to lands and the particular role that indigenous peoples have in maintaining and achieving sustainable development, notable challenges remain in the recognition of indigenous peoples’ own conceptualizations of sustainability. At a time when there is a growing pressure to intensify land use in Sápmi, this study reviews how Sámi reindeer herders’ articulations on sustainability are recognized in land governance and the permitting of mineral extraction in Sápmi. The review shows that governance of mineral extraction in many ways ignores Sámi considerations concerning fragmentation of pastureland. The governance rests on standardized categories introduced by the settlers and logics of separation, privileging ontologies that determine land as a resource. The review addresses the need for indigenous-led development of metrics on sustainable development and management schemes that are open to ontological multiplicity.
  • Alvesson, Mats; Einola, Katja (2019-04-28)
    We study authentic leadership as a prominent but problematic example of positive leadership that we use as a more general “warning” against the current fashion of excessive positivity in leadership studies. Without trying to cover “everything”, we critically examine the principal tenets of mainstream authentic leadership theory and reveal a number of fundamental flaws: shaky philosophical and theoretical foundations, tautological reasoning, weak empirical studies, nonsensical measurement tools, unsupported knowledge claims and a generally simplistic and out of date view of corporate life. Even though our study focuses on authentic leadership, much of our criticism is also applicable to other popular positive leadership theories, such as transformational, servant, ethical and spiritual leadership.
  • Lund, Rebecca; Meriläinen, Susan; Tienari, Janne (2019-05-20)
    In this article, we explore forms and possible implications of new masculinities in universities, and elucidate how they relate to hegemonic masculinity. ‘New masculinities’ coins a particular tradition of naming in Nordic masculinity studies. In the Nordic context, gendered social relations are shaped by State policies and equality discourses, which are increasingly embracing father-friendly initiatives. New masculinities refers to the increased involvement of men in caring practices and especially in fathering. Our empirical study comprises in-depth interviews with young male academics in a Finnish business school. We elucidate, first, the ambivalence and struggles between masculinities in the discourses of these men and, second, how the construction of masculinities is specific to societal, sociocultural and local contexts. Relations of class, and middle-class notions of the ‘good life’ in particular, emerge as central for understanding the experiences of these men. Beyond the Nordic countries, we argue that while the change potential of caring masculinity stems from particular contexts, the concept of new masculinities is helpful in capturing the ambivalence and struggles between hegemonic and caring masculinities rather than dismissing the latter as subordinate to the former.
  • Vesalainen, Jukka; Rajala, Anni; Wincent, Joakim (2019-07-26)
    This study introduces a framework of persuasive communication that is central to understanding how individual purchasers behave as boundary spanners to manage customer–supplier relationships. Drawing on the institutional theory and multiple governance approach, we assume authoritarian, competitive, and relational behavioral orientations reflect institutional logics at an individual level. Purchasers' boundary-spanner behavior thus manifests itself as individual purchasers' rhetorical orientations. In a sample of 349 purchasers, we find support for the existence of four configurations of orientations: competitive/authoritarian, relational, comprehensive, and neutral. A subsequent follow-up study of 20 interviews with the most typical representatives of each group suggests storylines that reflect the background and logic of different persuasive styles. The findings highlight purchaser persuasive orientation as one facet of a purchaser capability set making it possible to cope with the transactional versus relational paradox in buyer–seller relationship contexts.
  • Sirén, Charlotta; Parida, Vinit; Patel, Pankaj C.; Wincent, Joakim (2019-08)
    We investigate the influence of entrepreneurs' temporal preferences on the alertness–effectuation association in the early opportunity creation process. Although temporal cognitions of planning and flexible pacing are generally beneficial in organizational settings, we ask whether they constrain effectuation efforts when there is increasing alertness. Using survey data from 92 entrepreneurs running Swedish ventures, we find that entrepreneurial alertness has a positive association with effectual decision making during opportunity creation. We find support for our predictions that temporal planning (the consideration of the temporal flow of task activities) and flexible pacing behavior (the adaptation of one's pace within social interactions) weaken the positive association between alertness and effectuation. We discuss the implications of our research for the literature on entrepreneurial alertness and effectuation and for the emerging literature on entrepreneurs' temporal preferences.
  • Seeck, Hannele; Sturdy, Andrew; Boncori, Anne-Laure; Fougère, Martin (2019-08-13)
    Ideology is a core and contested concept in the social sciences, but also long deployed in management research to highlight the political, embedded and/or obscuring nature of ideas. Indeed, many would argue that management itself is inherently ideological in legitimating or privileging managerial interests and concealing other groups and ways of organizing. In the first systematic review of how ideology has been conceptualized in management studies, this paper explores its diverse and changing meanings in order to develop and sustain the concept. It is based on a heuristic review of 175 articles and 41 books published between 1956 and 2018. Further developing categories used in the social sciences around its role, we found views of ideology as: (1) domination; (2) legitimation; (3) interpretation; (4) integration; and (5) normative logic. In addition, emerging perspectives were identified where ideology was (6) an object of critique or (7) fantasy structuring social reality. We describe, illustrate and evaluate these often internally diverse and interrelated perspectives, as well as comparing them with sometimes competing notions within the management field, such as discourse, culture and legitimation. We also bring together the different approaches and argue for a pluralist, but not infinitely flexible, approach to the concept. In doing so, we identify research agendas for ideology within management and organization studies.
  • Balabanova, Evgeniya; Ehrnrooth, Mats; Koveshnikov, Alexei; Efendiev, Azer (2019-12-12)
    The study examines within- and between-culture differences in the relationships between psychological contract breach (PCB) and exit and constructive voice among 731 full-time, white-collar employees in Russia and Finland. The analysis shows that the former are more sensitive to transactional PCB whereas the latter are equally sensitive to both transactional and relational PCB. It also reveals that transactional PCB increases exit equally strongly among both Russian and Finnish employees. Relational PCB relates significantly and positively only to Finnish employees’ exit reactions. Neither transactional nor relational PCB are associated with voice among Russian employees, while the relationship is significant between relational PCB and voice among Finnish employees. The study offers a rare within- and between-culture comparative analysis of employee responses to PCB, pointing to the importance of complementing extant theorizing around PCB with contextual cultural and socio-economic theorizing. It also questions the generalizability of cultural explanations for PCB and suggests that such explanations might have lower explanatory power in the context of strong situations. Finally, it provides an explanation for the inconclusive extant research concerning the influence of PCB on employee voice.
  • Fougère, Martin; Meriläinen, Eija (2019-12-27)
    In this essay we expose three dark sides of social innovation (SI) by mobilising the concept of resilience. We examine implications for SI from (1) resilience thinking, (2) (critical) resilience studies and (3) the exceptional contexts in which resilience is needed. The first dark side of SI is that SIs lead to disruptions likely to cause unintended adverse consequences. The second dark side is that top-down SIs tend to be deployed in the name of vulnerable communities, but in neoliberal ways mainly concerned in making these communities more productive for society, at the risk of heightening their marginalisation. The third dark side is that SI discourse lends itself too easily to hijackings by powerful actors driving their own interests of capital accumulation while calling for communities to self-organise. We discuss how critical perspectives on resilience help us challenge these dark sides of SI.
  • Salin, Denise; Notelaers, Guy (2020-01-14)
    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between high-performance work practices (HPWPs) and workplace bullying and identify possible mediators. The study presents hypotheses based on two competing perspectives: a mutual gains perspective, arguing that HPWPs lead to higher perceptions of justice and less role conflict, thereby reducing the risk of bullying; and, a critical perspective, arguing that HPWPs lead to work intensification and competition among colleagues, and thereby to more bullying. A two-wave survey (n = 209) was conducted among business professionals in Finland. The results show that HPWPs are associated with less bullying, and justice and role conflict mediated the relationship. Thus, the results provide support for the mutual gains perspective on HPWPs, challenging prevailing assumptions in the bullying literature that suggest performance-enhancing HR practices are a risk factor. Instead, the results point to the significance of HPWPs as an important tool to prevent bullying.

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