Publications syncronized from Haris


Recent Submissions

  • Laakso, Mikael; Wise, Alicia; Snijder, Ronald (2022-11)
    This paper reports on some of the initial observations from an ongoing study focused on determining the preservation status of academic open access books. The central challenges discussed revolve around lack of common definitions, metadata, and established practices for openly recording preservation status for books.
  • Stolt, Sofia; Bergström, Marina (Svensk-österbottniska samfundet r.f., 2022-06)
  • Saarikorpi, Pekka; Heinonen, Kristina (Editorial de la Universitat Politècnica de València, 2022-04-05)
    The research distinguishes between individual and shared experiences and advances the understanding of the social dimension of customer experience in the context of the arts. Building on the extant C2C literature, but also the experience literature within the cultural research and social sciences, this research integrates experience perspectives of marketing and cultural studies. The paper contributes to the customer experience research by highlighting the social mechanisms of customer experience and provides a foundation for developing the conceptual and empirical understanding of shared C2C experiences. The paper shifts the focus of customer experience as an existential-phenomenological phenomenon to a social phenomenon.
  • Mylly, Ulla-Maija (2022-09-06)
    In academic discourse it has been pointed out that many European courts do not pay sufficient attention to assessing the proportionality of patent law remedies. Article 3 of the Enforcement Directive (IPRED), which harmonizes the remedies for all intellectual property rights (IPRs), requires that remedies be proportionate. However, it seems that this requirement is often overlooked, with more attention being paid to the rest of Art. 3, namely the requirements that remedies be efficient and dissuasive. This article contributes to the discussion on the potential over-enforcement of IPRs, but focuses in particular on analyzing the remedies available under the Trade Secret Directive (TSD). Special attention will be paid to the explicit proportionality factors under the TSD. The availability of the bona fide defense under the TSD will also be analyzed. In this article, comparisons will be made between remedies under patent law and those under trade secret law. This article argues that the trade secret regime differs from the patent regime. Therefore, balancing the various interests under the TSD proportionality factors and the bona fide defense is more important under the trade secret regime than under the patent regime. This article seeks both to identify the differences between the two regimes and to dissect possibilities for a more balanced approach to enforcement practices under the IPRED for patent rights.
  • Espinosa, Alberto; Clark, Mark; Nordbäck, Emma (2022-01-04)
    Today’s work increasingly involves teams with fluid boundaries, and members working on multiple projects at a time. To understand how work is effectively coordinated in such complex organizations, we focus on the role of a company’s task dependency network. We integrate three research streams – coordination, team knowledge and social networks to conceptualize multiteam work as a large collaboration with members in multiple functional roles and areas of expertise, with complex task dependency relationships, operating as a coherent and well-coordinated knowledge network. Through this integration and empirical test of associated hypotheses with data from a European software company, our study illustrates how to represent multiple relationships in one complex multiplex network. This extends our understanding of how the various knowledge relationships and individual attribute differences influence the effective coordination in collaborative software development work. We address the concepts of awareness and shared familiarity and how they affect coordination, while keeping our focus on illustrating the power of network analytics to gain nuanced insights into the drivers of effective coordination.
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Rouvinen, Petri; Pajarinen, Mika; Virtanen, Joosua (2022-11-06)
    We examine how machine learning (ML) predictions of high-growth enterprises (HGEs) help a budget-constrained venture capitalist source investments for a fixed size portfolio. Applying a design science approach, we predict HGEs 3 years ahead and focus on decision (not statistical) errors, using an accuracy measure relevant to the decision-making context. We find that when the ML procedure adheres to the budget constraint and maximizes the accuracy measure, nearly 40% of the HGE predictions are correct. Moreover, ML performs particularly well where it matters in practice—in the upper tail of the distribution of the predicted HGE probabilities.
  • Sthapit, Erose; Björk, Peter; Coudounaris, Dafnis (2022-10-24)
    The global outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 has raised awareness of the importance of physical, mental and spiritual wellness, and many consumers (tourists) are turning to holistic approaches to their health and well-being. This study tests a new model of memorable wellness tourism experience by examining the effects of novelty, experience co-creation, experiencescape, refreshment and involvement. This study also examines the relationship between memorable wellness tourism experience, subjective well-being and revisit intention. Data were gathered from 272 tourists who had recently undertaken a holiday, whose main motivation to undertake this trip was wellness, and who participated in a wellness activity within the six months preceding the data collection period (January–June 2022). An online survey questionnaire was distributed through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) in July 2022. This study’s main contributions include the extension of the memorable tourism experience concept by including other key factors that influence tourists’ memorable wellness tourism experiences. The relationship between memorable wellness tourism experience, subjective well-being and revisit intention was also shown to be significant.
  • Sthapit, Erose; Björk, Peter; Coudounaris, Dafnis N.; Barreto, Jano Jimenez (2022-10-18)
    Although Halal tourism is becoming an important tourism sector and represents one of the largest niche markets in global tourism, the aspects that makes this type of tourism memorable are still unexplored for academics and practitioners. The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between hedonism, novelty, local culture, refreshment, meaningfulness, involvement, knowledge and memorable Halal tourism experience. The study also examines the relationship between memorable Halal tourism experience and place attachment. Data were gathered from Muslim tourists who had a halal tourism experience during the 48 months preceding the time of data collection (April 2018–March 2022). The empirical results support all eight hypotheses. The results also extend the memorable tourism experience concept in the context of Halal tourism. A positive relationship between a memorable Halal tourism experience and place attachment was also supported.
  • Coudounaris, Dafnis N.; Arvidsson, Henrik G.S. (2021-09-23)
    This study aims to investigate the influence of the big-5 personality traits on causation and effectuation decision-making logics using the entrepreneurial process theory. This is an empirical study based on 113 surveys of managers/entrepreneurs from the Estonian IT sector. The questionnaire was uploaded onto the online platform of and the participants were invited to complete it. The study reveals that only conscientiousness positively and significantly predicts causation logic. However, four of the five factors of personality traits positively and significantly predict effectuation logic, i.e., openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, except for neuroticism. Furthermore, only nine of 25 hypotheses are positive and significant, and of the 11 relationships of the model, three are negative and non-significant for causation logic and eight are negative and non-significant for effectuation logic. Finally, there are another five relationships of the model which are positively but non-significantly related. Managers of IT companies in Estonia should think of shifting to effectuation logic as most personality traits predict effectuation logic, and therefore, there is the possibility of a better performance for IT firms. Eight of the 51 items of the model had standardised regression weights below the threshold of 0.500, but only four were extracted from the final model. The extraction of items from the model indicates the need for the re-identification of the constructs of personality traits using, for example, the six-factor personality traits.
  • Stenbacka, Rune (2022-02-08)
    We show that duopolistic innovation competition between identical firms may lead to an equilibrium with asymmetric corporate governance modes with one firm being shareholder oriented and its rival stakeholder oriented. This happens if the benefit associated with innovation success faced by the stakeholders falls short of an endogenously determined threshold. Above this threshold, the corporate governance equilibrium is symmetric with both firms oriented toward maximization of shareholder value.
  • Peters, Laura E. R.; Shannon, Geordan; Kelman, Ilan; Meriläinen, Eija (2022-11-22)
    Communities are powerful and necessary agents for defining and pursuing their health, but outside organizations often adopt community health promotion approaches that are patronizing and top-down. Conversely, bottom-up approaches that build on and mobilize community health assets are often critiqued for tasking the most vulnerable and marginalized communities to use their own limited resources without real opportunities for change. Taking into consideration these community health promotion shortcomings, this article asks how communities may be most effectively and appropriately supported in pursuing their health. This article reviews how community health is understood, moving from negative to positive conceptualizations; how it is determined, moving from a risk-factor orientation to social determination; and how it is promoted, moving from top-down to bottom-up approaches. Building on these understandings, we offer the concept of ‘resourcefulness’ as an approach to strengthen positive health for communities, and we discuss how it engages with three interrelated tensions in community health promotion: resources and sustainability, interdependence and autonomy, and community diversity and inclusion. We make practical suggestions for outside organizations to apply resourcefulness as a process-based, place-based, and relational approach to community health promotion, arguing that resourcefulness can forge new pathways to sustainable and self-sustaining community positive health.
  • Nilsson, Eva (2022-11-07)
    This article examines how corporate social responsibility (CSR) can serve as an external source of rents for governments that depend on foreign financing for state-building and development. The strategic, instrumental use of CSR has been overlooked in previous research on governments and CSR, especially in the Global South. To understand how CSR can serve as a lever for rents, the concept of “extraversion” is introduced to describe the way in which rent-seeking African governments instrumentalize their asymmetric external relations for political and private benefit. The connection between CSR and rent-seeking is analyzed through a case study of large gas investments in Tanzania. The article finds that the government has set up regulation that enables local and central government authorities to appropriate, mediate, reclaim, or possibly trick CSR practices to gain rents. Based on the study, two contributions are made to the literature on CSR and governments. First, the instrumental use of CSR in the Global South is added to the variety of perspectives that can be taken when studying government agency. Second, CSR is conceptualized as a potential stream of rents for governments to exploit. The article ends with discussing that the outcome of CSR in a rent-seeking environment depends on whether the leveraged resources are managed well to support peaceful and locally beneficial economic development or whether they serve private accumulation through corruption.
  • Mäntysaari, Petri (2022-10-19)
    This comparative legal study focuses on career advancement to a tenured full professor position according to pre-determined criteria in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Nordic career advancement and professor recruitment practices to a large extent depend on the applicable national regulatory framework. There are fundamental differences between these countries’ practices. It is customary to use promotion to full professor positions in Norway and Sweden. In Norway, the regulation of promotion to a full professor position is complemented by the regulation of standards. Norwegian promotion practices were used as a model in Sweden, but the Swedish laissez-faire approach to common standards seems to have created problems. American-style tenure-track practices are constrained by the laws of all four countries. The Danish "forfremmelsesprogram til professor" may nevertheless have potential to develop into a close functional equivalent to American-style tenure-track practices. In Finland, tenure-track practices are widespread but not sufficiently aligned with the regulatory framework.
  • Jach, Agnieszka (2022-01-19)
    This paper presents a high-frequency analysis of the Dow-30 stocks during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in February and March 2020. Using a wide range of proxies for stock activity, liquidity, and volatility in 1-min resolution, the impact of the COVID-19 on the stock markets is visually assessed. To gauge the immediate effect of the COVID-19 on the Dow-30 stocks, robust descriptive statistics are used to compare variables during “normal” times in February and “ab-normal” times in March 2020. A 2-to-3-fold change in the level of the indicators and a 2-to-6-fold change in the variability of the indicators is found after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Heyns, Andries; Banick, Robert (2022-10-25)
    The traditional aim in transportation planning is to maximise gains associated with vehicular travel distances or times, indirectly prioritising populations that live near existing or proposed roads—remote populations that first require hours of walking to reach roads are overlooked. In this paper, rural roads optimisation is performed using a new model that estimates proposed roads’ accessibility gains, considering reductions in vehicular travel time and reductions in walking time required by remote populations to reach them. This ensures that even the most remote populations that may benefit from new roads are included in their evaluation. When presented with a large number of proposed roads and the requirement of determining a plan within a suitable budget, it is often infeasible to construct all proposed roads. In such instances, subsets of well-performing road-combinations that are evaluated with respect to multiple objectives need to be identified for analysis and comparison–for which multi-objective optimisation approaches can be employed. Traditional optimisation approaches return a small number of road-combination plans only, limited to user-specified budget levels and objective weight sets. This paper presents an innovative heuristic solution approach that overcomes such limitations by returning thousands of well-performing solutions scattered across a budget span, and not limited in number to user-specified objective weight sets at fixed budget levels. The heuristic is employed along with a more traditional weighted-sum integer-linear programming approach to determine high-quality road-combination plans selected from 92 roads recently proposed for construction in Nepal’s remote Karnali province. Using these two approaches with inputs from the new multi-modal accessibility model, it is illustrated how rural roads planning can be performed to the benefit of rural populations regardless of their proximity to roads. New planning and analysis benefits of the heuristic are demonstrated by comparing its solutions to those determined by the weighted-sum approach, providing a level of detail and sophistication not previously possible for rural roads planning and analysis.
  • Alvesson, Mats; Einola, Katja (2022-09-30)
    This article is a response to Bill Gardner and Kelly McCauley’s ‘gaslighting’ critique of our text on the perils of authentic leadership (Einola & Alvesson, 2021a). Against gaslighting 1.0 (evilly trying to convince people to doubt their perceptions), we propose gaslighting 2.0 (enlightenment). We argue that organizations face severe problems and challenges that cannot be solved by motivating managers to engage in introspection and being overly preoccupied by their own authenticity. A search for one’s true self is a personal journey of inner growth and heightened self-awareness that individuals, leaders and non-leaders, may engage in and find highly beneficial, but outside any notion of exercising influence or power on others to reach career objectives or corporate goals. The broad use of simple recipes with claims of overwhelming positive effects is problematic. Leadership research is often based on highly problematic measures, making most efforts to capture the core phenomenon unreliable. That many people are attracted by simplistic, positive-sounding and ego-enhancing formulas is not the same as evidence for theoretical value and relevance of a truth claim. Taking aspiration as a critical element would call for the development and study of Aspirational Authentic Leadership Theory, which would be something quite different from the static study of how managers score in terms of being true to their values, a core self, and so on. In-depth process studies of managers trying to be authentic navigating dilemmas at work could be an alternative to focus further research on.
  • Alvesson, Mats; Einola, Katja; Schaefer, Stephan M (2022-08-05)
    Contemporary society is obsessed with knowledge, leaving its less seductive counterpart, ignorance, in the shadows. However, as an expanding literature suggests, it is equally important to understand ignorance, and consider its varieties. This study specifies the nature of wilful ignorance in organizations. It does so by a) making a distinction between the will of an actor and the epistemic properties of ignorance, and showing how these two form a dynamic relation, b) linking wilful ignorance to its various drivers, and c) suggesting how our concept of wilful ignorance can be used in the study of organizations. Rather than reducing the phenomenon into a simple to know/to ignore dichotomy, we zoom in on its processual and dynamic nature. Moreover, we explore complexities and ambiguity inherently involved in all knowing and ignoring, as well as the role of agency to reduce harmful effects of wilful ignorance in organizations.
  • Yang, Man; Leposky, Tiina (2022-11-09)
    The importance of value co-creation in servitization is increasingly emphasized but remains largely unexplored from the entrepreneurship theoretical perspective. This study develops an entrepreneurial framework for value co-creation in servitization by conducting a qualitative case study with middle managers from a multinational industrial company. The empirical findings suggest that value co-creation facilitates the discovery and creation of service opportunities through middle managers' entrepreneurial actions, that is, boundary spanning and bricolage. We also find that servitization reinforces value co-creation through middle managers' exploitation or exploration of service opportunities. The study not only offers new knowledge on the mutual influence between value co-creation and servitization, but also discusses the importance of middle managers as individual level actors in value co-creation. In addition, this study acts as a call for entrepreneurship frameworks for research on servitization.
  • Vega, Diego; Arvidsson, Ala; Saïah, Félicia Rachel (2022-10-27)
    Purpose This study investigated how organizations can maintain their supply chain (SC) resilience in situations where high-impact shocks cannot be absorbed and what capabilities are needed. The article is an empirical exploration of a socio-ecological view of resilience in the SC context. Design/methodology/approach The case under study in this article is that of Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) and MSF's reconfiguration of its supply management processes in response to the supply shocks during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In total, 503 internal documents and ERP extractions from six databases from late 2019 to September 2020, 43 semi-structured interviews and a 3-round policy Delphi process were used to investigate this phenomenon. Findings The authors' results show that throughout the pandemic, MSF adapted its procurement and supply processes to cope with supply shortages at both the international and local levels of the SC. This was possible due to the organization's capacity to use its exploitation and exploration capabilities of the organization at the same time. Research limitations/implications This research is based on the single in-depth case study of a medical aid organization. Further research should investigate this phenomenon in commercial companies with similar or different organizational structures. Originality/value This study constitutes a first attempt to empirically demonstrate that the four phases of the adaptive cycle put forth in the panarchy theory constitute a suitable representation of the reconfigurations that SCs follow in response to a high-impact shock. The study also adds to the growing body of knowledge on resilience by including ambidexterity as a mechanism to achieve resilience.
  • Golf-Papez, Maja; Heller, Jonas; Hilken, Tim; Chylinski, Mathew; de Ruyter, Ko; Keeling, Debbie I.; Mahr, Dominik (2022-11-01)
    The metaverse has been heralded as a next frontier for fueling strategic business opportunities. At the same time, recent months have witnessed explosive volatility in the market potential of proposed metaverse offerings. As a result, businesses are struggling to set a meaningful strategic course through an uncharted and rapidly changing landscape. We argue that the success of developing and scaling the metaverse as a vibrant new business ecosystem is largely dependent on the understanding that it is a unified and immersive reality where the physical and synthetic customer experiences seamlessly converge. For this to work, businesses and their customers need to be able to suspend their disbelief that synthetic elements are inherently false. We therefore consider the metaverse as a differentiated experience by exploring the promise and perils of falsity. We discuss how businesses can strategically embrace falsity by harnessing its intended—as well as mitigating its unintended—consequences, as they maneuver through major technological challenges in capturing customer value. We offer a diverse set of examples that illustrate how these strategies translate into managerial actions to competitively succeed in this new reality.

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