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  • Kanniainen, Vesa; Lehtonen, Juha-Matti (HECER, Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2017)
    HECER, Discussion Paper No. 412
  • Newby, Andrew G. (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
  • Newby, Andrew G. (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    This article provides an interim report, and gazetteer, on the enumeration and categorisation of memorials to Finland’s Great Famine Years, an element of the Academy of Finland’s 2012-17 project, “‘The Terrible Visitation’: Famine in Finland and Ireland ca. 1845-68 – Transnational, Comparative and Long-Term Perspectives”. To outside observers, it can sometimes seen as though Finland’s famine of the 1860s has been “forgotten”, particularly in comparison with catastrophes in Ireland (1845-51) and Ukraine (1932-3). In the latter cases, political circumstances have influenced historic narratives, and placed the Great Famines at the centre of a national narrative that emphasises the baleful role of an external other. In Finland, which was responsible for its own economic and political administration by the 1860s, commemoration has been more local in focus. The memorials nevertheless highlight the existence of an idealised national autostereotype, which stresses stoicism and forbearance, along with a persistent belief that the nation could be crystallised by shared suffering.
  • Ertem, Özge (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    This article analyzes the Ottoman famines of the 1870s – that killed tens of thousands of people in Anatolia due to starvation and disease – from a global comparative perspective. It focuses on two famines in particular that struck the central and eastern provinces of the empire in 1873-75 and 1879-1881 (just following the Russo-Ottoman War of 1877-78), respectively. They were triggered by climatic causes, yet their devastating effects were also a product of the global and domestic economic and political environment of the decade. Local, imperial and global man-made reasons exacerbated the severe impacts of nature and climate. The article addresses these famines as significant traumatic disasters, the memories of which were overshadowed by later catastrophic events in Ottoman history and historiography, and which have been almost invisible in European and global famine historiography of the nineteenth century. It summarizes the political-economic environment of the decade, attempts to investigate Ottoman famines in a global historical context and outline a comparative research agenda for an Ottoman history of famine and empire in the late nineteenth century.
  • Vuorela, Miikka (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    The article examines criminality and the use of the criminal justice system during the Finnish famine of 1866–1868. The main research objective of the study is to provide insight on how and why famine affects crime. To provide background for the examination, a description of the trends in crime and crime control during the years 1842–1890 is presented. The latter half of the century and the nascent urbanisation of Finland brought about a considerable increase in the number of criminal convictions for minor crimes but the convictions for serious crimes were on a downward trend. The crime trend was interrupted by the famine when property crime rates quadrupled. Interestingly, the levels of recorded violence and homicides remained stable or even reduced slightly. In order to provide explanations for the phenomenon, theories of modern criminology are used in conjunction with an analysis of individual, structural and cultural factors affecting hidden crime. The conclusion of the analysis is that the reduction of violence is most likely a statistical illusion caused by a multitude of factors discouraging the exposure of violent crimes. After the famine, the downward trend of serious crimes halted and stabilised to a level slightly higher than before.
  • Ludvigsson, David (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    In the 1970s, historical documentarists Olle Häger and Hans Villius at the Swedish Broadcasting Corporation made both a documentary and a dramatic television production about the famine years of the 1860s. The productions indicate that a class perspective dominated popular culture at the time. Yet, not least the documentary (“Ett satans år,” [One Year of Satan] 1977) is evidence of how media producers sought to communicate seriously about famine in the past, at the same time relating to contemporary issues
  • Reese, Heidi (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    In 1867 Finland was faced with a serious crop failure. An insufficient amount of food was imported and when the winter came, there was not enough grain to feed the hungry. Traditionally this event in Finnish history has been explained as a crisis of outdated agriculture and an inescapable natural and economic catastrophe. When examining the political aspects of the crisis, it is noticeable that the failure to import a sufficient amount of food was based not only on a lack of resources, but also on inefficient transfer and use of information and, indeed, a lack of will to help the hungry. In the 1860s the Grand Duchy of Finland was a part of the Russian Empire. Finland formed a separate financial state from the Russian Empire that had to take care of its own financial operations. The department for financial affairs of the Senate of Finland, and its head, Johan Vilhelm Snellman, were responsible for finances and poor relief in Finland. The harvest reports, letters and telegrams of governors as well as the reports of the rapidly-developing local press provided Snellman with the possibility of staying informed on the food stocks and crop forecasts. Snellman’s political views are visible in his public writings and letters to the governors. All of the above are used as central source material in this article.
  • Voutilainen, Miikka (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    On the basis of recent findings, independent rural households formed a safeguard against the excess mortality during the Finnish 1860s famine. In this article, an analysis of deanery level longitudinal panel data shows that an increase in the number of unmarried adults reduced the number of households. This suggests that the ability to marry not only had a role in determining the household structure but also by increasing the within-household inequality it facilitated the economic hardships in the pre-famine rural Finland.
  • Lust, Kersti (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    Russian rulers recognized the principle that ‘good government’ nourishes its people in bad years. The paper addresses the question how the principle of paternalist ‘moral economy’ was translated into practice or more specifically, what the Russian central government did and ordered the others--manorial lords, communities--to do in this respect. It appears that throughout the period under study, the Russian rulers as well as the Baltic German nobilities made efforts to place the responsibility for the peasants’ maintenance on the shoulders of communities (i.e. local peasants). The paper discusses the results of such policy. Through references to famine experiences in Russia Proper it looks at the adequacy of official relief efforts from the point of whether these kept people from dying and starving, or failed to do so. In different socioeconomic contexts, the same policy gave different results when measured in terms of the demographic response to short-term crisis.
  • Curran, Declan (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    The Bank Charter Act 1844, extended to Ireland via the Bankers (Ireland) Act 1845, established a highly restrictive monetary regime in Britain and Ireland, in which currency circulation was to be determined by a mechanistic rule-based approach rather than by bank discretion. This paper analyses the functioning of the Irish banking system during the Great Irish Famine (1845-1850) in the context of this rigid monetary regime, focusing in particular on the role of the government chartered bank, Bank of Ireland. The analysis is based on archival material from the Bank of Ireland Court of Directors, as well as quantitative data detailing note issue by Irish banks. This paper contends that while Bank of Ireland was focal point of the Irish banking system during the famine years, it perceived itself at this time primarily as a commercial bank operating within the prevailing monetary regime rather than as a central bank-type entity. Indeed, subsequent characterizations of Bank of Ireland as a “de facto” Irish central bank during the 1840s run the risk of overestimating the level of institutional agency possessed by Bank of Ireland within the wider monetary regime during the famine years.
  • Reilly, Ciarán (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    In 1845, on the eve of the Great Irish Famine, the cottier class numbered some three million people. Despite such large numbers we know little of the individual experience of cottiers as they are absent from both the historiography and the social memory of the period. At the bottom of the social and economic pyramid, and entirely dependent on the potato as their staple diet, the cottier class remain hidden in the Famine narrative, mainly because of the supposed paucity of sources. And so the cottier class remains the largest body of people in nineteenth-century Ireland about whom we know the least. This essay considers the world of the cottier, using recently discovered primary sources from County Cavan as a case study. Theirs was a precarious existence and one which was often determined by outside factors, beyond their control. Yet, the question remains: who was ultimately responsible for them when the Famine crisis commenced. Landlords, at the top of the economic pyramid or the small farmer class who had facilitated their existence?
  • Newby, Andrew (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
  • Harless, Patrick; Phan, William (HECER, Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2017)
    HECER, Discussion Paper, No. 411
  • Tanner, Johanna; Kokkonen, Marja (Helsingin yliopiston suomen kielen ja kotimaisen kirjallisuuden laitos, 2008)
    Kakkoskieli 6
  • Jerman, Helena (Helsingin yliopisto, Kehitysmaatutkimuksen laitos, 2001)