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  • Löfström, Jan (Helsingin yliopiston opettajankoulutuslaitos, 2001)
    Studia Paedagogica 26
  • Nelimarkka, Jaakko (HECER – Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2017)
    HECER, Discussion Paper No. 415
    News shocks about future productivity can be correctly inferred from a conventional VAR model only if information contained in observables is rich enough. This paper examines news shocks by means of a noncausal VAR model that recovers economic shocks from both past and future variation. As noncausality is implied by nonfundamentalness, the model solves the problem of insufficient information per se. By the impulse responses derived from the model, variables react to the anticipated structural shocks, which are identified by exploiting future dependence of investment with respect to productivity. In the U.S. economy, news shocks move investment and stock prices on impact, but these responses are likely affected by a parallel increase in productivity. News shocks are characterised by gradual diffusion to productivity and generate smooth reactions of forward-looking variables.
  • Hämäläinen, Saara (HECER – Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2017)
    HECER, Discussion Paper No. 414
    We consider a price search model with gradual information arrival and deadlines to study how consumers search within and across stores during a single search spell. This renders the effects of search costs smooth and allows us to endogenize the intensity of competition in a new way that avoids both Diamond and Bertrand paradoxes. Firms can commit to any choice complexity levels. They determine the relative numbers of informed and uninformed consumers, which equal in equilibrium. The outcome is thus halfway from Diamond and Bertrand equilibria. Wider price awareness and advertizing improves welfare by discouraging the prominent firm's obfuscation.
  • Lindblad, Annika (HECER, Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2017)
    HECER, Discussion Paper No. 413
  • Erfving, Emilia; Hintsa, Antti; Sintonen, Sara; Sairanen, Heidi; Kumpulainen, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, Playful Learning Center, 2017)
    Myyttejä ja monilukutaitoa Myytit ovat yhteisesti jaettuja tarinoita ja uskomuksia, joita kukaan ei oikeastaan ole välttämättä koskaan oikeasti nähnyt tai kokenut, mutta joita pidetään totena. Menneessä ajassa, todella kauan sitten, suomalaiset myytit saivat monesti alkunsa luontoon liittyvistä havainnoista. Luonto innosti ihmisiä ja luonnon kanssa pyrittiin vuoropuheluun: ihmisillä oli nykyaikaan verrattuna erilainen suhde luontoon. Pohjoisen ihmisille luonnolla on ollut oma erityinen merkityksensä, sillä luonto on vuodenaikojen vaihtelujen myötä täällä hyvin moninainen ja rikas. Ei ihmekään, että se on herättänyt mielikuvituksen ja synnyttänyt monia uskomuksia. Esimerkiksi tähdenlennon on ajateltu olevan repeämä taivaalla, josta jumalat voivat kurkkia alas maan päälle. Samoin metsät haltijoineen liittyvät olennaisella tavalla pohjoiseen kulttuuriin ja elämäntapoihin, olihan se myös tärkeä ravinnon lähde. Haltijan kuiskaus -aktiviteettikorteilla haluamme osaltamme juhlistaa 100-vuotiasta Suomea. Kokonaisuus julkaistaan digitaalisessa muodossa, ja sitä on mahdollisuus käyttää ja levittää ei-kaupallisissa tarkoituksissa. Ajatuksemme on, että tulostamisen sijaan materiaalia käytetään erilaisilla digitaalisilla näyttöpäätteillä. Aktiviteettikorttien pedagogisena tavoitteena on herättää kiinnostusta suomalaista luontoa ja vanhoja uskomuksia kohtaan monesta eri näkökulmasta. Tehtävät houkuttavat myös monella eri tavalla tarkkailemaan, pohtimaan, keksimään ja kokeilemaan itse. Haltijan kuiskaus -aktiviteettikorttien tuottamiseen on saatu tukea Opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriön rahoittamalta ‘MOI - Monilukutaitoa opitaan ilolla’ -hankkeelta, jonka toteuttaa Helsingin yliopisto. Materiaali on vapaasti ladattavissa MOI-hankkeen sivuilta osoitteessa: www.monilukutaito.com
  • Stevanovic, Melisa; Voutilainen, Liisa; Weiste, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, Intersubjektiivisuus vuorovaikutuksessa -huippututkimusyksikkö, 2017)
  • Linnakangas, Esko (Copyright © 2017 Esko Linnakangas, 2017)
    Tämän kirjan alkuosassa selvitetään kulutusverotuksemme kehitys Ruotsin ja Venäjän vallan ajoista Suomen itsenäisyyteen ja EU-aikaan. Tullista ja erityisistä kulutusveroista painopiste on tänä aikana siirtynyt yleiseen kulutusverotukseen. Ajatusta ylellisyys- ja muista pisteveroista ei ole kuitenkaan haudattu. Sitä osoittavat veneveron sisällyttäminen vuonna 2015 hallitusohjelmaan ja asianvalmistelu valtiovarainministeriössä. Kirjassa muun muassa selostetaan ja analysoidaan veneveroluonnoksesta ministeriölle annettuja lausuntoja. Lausuntoja annettiin noin 50, joista vain yhdessä osoitettiin jonkinasteista ymmärtämystä esitystä kohtaan. Veneverohankkeesta luovuttiin, mutta valtion verotarve säilyi. Kirjan lopussa tarkastellaankin veneveron tilalle ehdoteltuja erilaisia varoihin, tuloihin ja kulutukseen kohdistuvia veroja.
  • Winterhalter, Kati; Merenmies, Eija; Tainio, Kersti; Bonsdorff, Mikko (Helsingin yliopiston rahastot; Helsingin yliopiston Tila- ja kiinteistökeskus, 2017)
  • Kanniainen, Vesa; Lehtonen, Juha-Matti (HECER, Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2017)
    HECER, Discussion Paper No. 412
  • Newby, Andrew G. (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
  • Newby, Andrew G. (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    This article provides an interim report, and gazetteer, on the enumeration and categorisation of memorials to Finland’s Great Famine Years, an element of the Academy of Finland’s 2012-17 project, “‘The Terrible Visitation’: Famine in Finland and Ireland ca. 1845-68 – Transnational, Comparative and Long-Term Perspectives”. To outside observers, it can sometimes seen as though Finland’s famine of the 1860s has been “forgotten”, particularly in comparison with catastrophes in Ireland (1845-51) and Ukraine (1932-3). In the latter cases, political circumstances have influenced historic narratives, and placed the Great Famines at the centre of a national narrative that emphasises the baleful role of an external other. In Finland, which was responsible for its own economic and political administration by the 1860s, commemoration has been more local in focus. The memorials nevertheless highlight the existence of an idealised national autostereotype, which stresses stoicism and forbearance, along with a persistent belief that the nation could be crystallised by shared suffering.
  • Ertem, Özge (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    This article analyzes the Ottoman famines of the 1870s – that killed tens of thousands of people in Anatolia due to starvation and disease – from a global comparative perspective. It focuses on two famines in particular that struck the central and eastern provinces of the empire in 1873-75 and 1879-1881 (just following the Russo-Ottoman War of 1877-78), respectively. They were triggered by climatic causes, yet their devastating effects were also a product of the global and domestic economic and political environment of the decade. Local, imperial and global man-made reasons exacerbated the severe impacts of nature and climate. The article addresses these famines as significant traumatic disasters, the memories of which were overshadowed by later catastrophic events in Ottoman history and historiography, and which have been almost invisible in European and global famine historiography of the nineteenth century. It summarizes the political-economic environment of the decade, attempts to investigate Ottoman famines in a global historical context and outline a comparative research agenda for an Ottoman history of famine and empire in the late nineteenth century.
  • Vuorela, Miikka (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    The article examines criminality and the use of the criminal justice system during the Finnish famine of 1866–1868. The main research objective of the study is to provide insight on how and why famine affects crime. To provide background for the examination, a description of the trends in crime and crime control during the years 1842–1890 is presented. The latter half of the century and the nascent urbanisation of Finland brought about a considerable increase in the number of criminal convictions for minor crimes but the convictions for serious crimes were on a downward trend. The crime trend was interrupted by the famine when property crime rates quadrupled. Interestingly, the levels of recorded violence and homicides remained stable or even reduced slightly. In order to provide explanations for the phenomenon, theories of modern criminology are used in conjunction with an analysis of individual, structural and cultural factors affecting hidden crime. The conclusion of the analysis is that the reduction of violence is most likely a statistical illusion caused by a multitude of factors discouraging the exposure of violent crimes. After the famine, the downward trend of serious crimes halted and stabilised to a level slightly higher than before.
  • Ludvigsson, David (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    In the 1970s, historical documentarists Olle Häger and Hans Villius at the Swedish Broadcasting Corporation made both a documentary and a dramatic television production about the famine years of the 1860s. The productions indicate that a class perspective dominated popular culture at the time. Yet, not least the documentary (“Ett satans år,” [One Year of Satan] 1977) is evidence of how media producers sought to communicate seriously about famine in the past, at the same time relating to contemporary issues
  • Reese, Heidi (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    22
    In 1867 Finland was faced with a serious crop failure. An insufficient amount of food was imported and when the winter came, there was not enough grain to feed the hungry. Traditionally this event in Finnish history has been explained as a crisis of outdated agriculture and an inescapable natural and economic catastrophe. When examining the political aspects of the crisis, it is noticeable that the failure to import a sufficient amount of food was based not only on a lack of resources, but also on inefficient transfer and use of information and, indeed, a lack of will to help the hungry. In the 1860s the Grand Duchy of Finland was a part of the Russian Empire. Finland formed a separate financial state from the Russian Empire that had to take care of its own financial operations. The department for financial affairs of the Senate of Finland, and its head, Johan Vilhelm Snellman, were responsible for finances and poor relief in Finland. The harvest reports, letters and telegrams of governors as well as the reports of the rapidly-developing local press provided Snellman with the possibility of staying informed on the food stocks and crop forecasts. Snellman’s political views are visible in his public writings and letters to the governors. All of the above are used as central source material in this article.