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  • Bradley, Fergal; Lappalainen, Pia (University of Helsinki Language Centre, 2015)
    Language Centre Publications 5
  • Sintonen, Sara; Erfving, Emilia (2015)
  • Sintonen, Sara; Ohls, Olli; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse (Helsinki University, Department of Teacher Education, 2015)
  • Kanniainen, Vesa; Ringbom, Staffan (HECER - Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2015)
    HECER Discussion Papers No. 393
    The paper introduces a welfarist approach to the national safety of a nation with membership in a defense alliance as an option. The members are risk averse but heterogeneous in their safety classification. There are two public goods as insurance devices, the domestic military budget and the incremental safety provided by the membership in the alliance. The commitment of the alliance in the creation of safety is,however, imperfect. A sufficient condition is stated for the non-membership. Under a positive option value of the membership, several adverse incentive effects shaping the option value are identified, including the incentive to free ride in domestic defense investment and a moral hazard effect in terms of national commitment to the defense effort. The cost of participation is determined in the spirit of the median voter theorem. The alliance equilibrium is shown to be of two potential types, a stable alliance equilibrium with a positive mass and or a degenerate one with one member only. The driving force in the adjustment of the alliance is its size relative to the safety class of the median voter. Expectations of the decision making of the co-members concerning the commitment can result in multiple equilibria.
  • Peltoniemi, Ari; Arovuori, Kyösti; Niemi, Jyrki; Pyykkönen, Perttu (Politiikan ja talouden tutkimuksen laitos, 2015)
    2015:1
    Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan kotimaisen maitosektorin hintarakenteita ja rahavirtojen jakautumisessa tapahtuneita muutoksia vuosien 2008 ja 2012 välisenä aikana. Tutkimuksessa kuluttajan tuotteesta maksama hinta jaetaan raaka-aineen hintaan sekä jalostuksen, kaupan ja valtion osuuteen. Lisäksi tutkimuksessa analysoidaan kotimaisen maitoketjun rahavirtoja hyödyntämällä elintarvikkeiden kulutuksen, tuotannon ja ulkomaankaupan bruttomääräisiä tilastoarvoja. Tulokset osoittavat, että kaupan osuus maitosektorin tuotteiden kuluttajahinnoissa on kasvanut. Teollisuuden osuus on pysynyt ennallaan, mutta tuottajan ja verottajan osuus on sitä vastoin hieman pienentynyt. Yhä suurempi osa maitojalosteiden kulutuksesta tapahtuu tuonnin kautta. Siten kaupan asema sen ja teollisuuden välisissä sopimusneuvotteluissa on vahvistunut. Kauppa myös kykeni parhaiten hyödyntämään elintarvikkeiden lokakuussa 2009 tapahtuneen arvonlisäveron alentumisen.
  • Sintonen, Sara; Ohls, Olli; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse (Helsingin yliopisto, Opettajankoulutuslaitos, 2015)
  • Unknown author (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
  • Unknown author (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
  • Unknown author (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
  • Korpiola, Mia; Lahtinen, Anu (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
  • Tamm, Ditlev (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
  • Haugland, Håkon (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
    This article examines the help the medieval guilds and the early modern craft guilds in Norway could provide when their members died, and how the Reformation of 1536 changed the extent of this help. For the medieval period, the paper discusses the funeral arrangements in urban guilds and rural guilds. For the early modern period, the discussion is limited to the towns, since few, if any rural guilds survived the Reformation. The essay argues that aid to deceased members was essential both to the medieval guilds and the craft guilds that were founded after the Reformation, thus stressing a greater degree of continuity between the medieval guilds and the post-Reformation craft guilds than previous Norwegian research has claimed. The social and religious functions, exemplified by the funeral arrangements, were essential to the early modern craft guilds, as they were in the medieval guilds. Furthermore, there was a continuity in form in the various elements of which the help to the deceased consisted, including being with the dying in his last hours, waking over him, eating and drinking in his honour, following him in a procession to his grave and providing economic support for his funeral. However, the Reformation also constituted a major change, as guild chantries were confiscated, doctrine of purgatory was abolished, the masses for the deceased prohibited and intercession for the deceased made obsolete. Thus, the guilds that survived the Reformation and the new craft guilds that were founded afterward were forced to shift the focus of their help from the intercession for the dead to give them an honourable funeral. A second shift came after the craft guild reforms in the 1680s and 1690s, when attempts were made to limit the extent and the splendour of the funeral processions, and attendance at guild members’ funerals were made optional. This led to the decline of the communal funeral and the privatisation of the Lutheran funeral ritual. Still, one aspect of the help, the financial support for their members’ funerals, continued to be important right up to the dissolution of the Norwegian craft guilds in 1869.
  • Ridder, Iris (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
    In the early seventeenth century, the city of Falun was among the most important cities in Sweden because of its profitable copper mine, called Stora Kopparberget (the Great Copper Mountain). Working as a miner was, particularly in this period, a dangerous profession with high risks. The lives of the miners were frequently exposed to the unpredictability of this dangerous work, and mine accidents were a constant peril. During the Middle Ages and the early modern period, both the accidents and misfortune which befell the miners as well as their successes and wealth were seen as expressions of God’s plan for salvation. People therefore often turned their faith into religious or magical strategies in their effort to protect their lives. The aim of this article is to highlight the connection between dicing and dying in early modern mining industry by analysing an oracular dice game book for miners, printed in Stockholm in 1613. A local mining clerk, Gisle Jacobson, published the text, entitled Ett litet Tidhfördriff (A small pastime), which exploits the peculiar fact that the miners at Stora Kopparberg made decisions with the help of a ritualized dice game.
  • Oftestad, Eivor Andersen (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
    This article investigates continuity and change in the economic and spiritual investment in the afterlife in the religious contexts of Denmark before and after the Reformation. The transmission of the late medieval poem De Vita Hominis, first printed in 1514, and then re-edited by Anders Sørensen Vedel in 1571, provides the main material of the investigation. In the text, the main character had to die a lonely death as a consequence of his wicked life. The intensity in the pre-Reformatory version was due to the experience of lack of intercession in the transgression to afterlife. Changed theological premises meant that the Protestant principle of security of salvation undercut the very heart of the late medieval De Vita Hominis. Intercession was no longer necessary as faith was what saved. This article investigates how the message of the poem was transformed according to the theological rearrangement that followed the new certainty of salvation. One important consequence was a changed notion of memory, and a new function for memorial genres, which Vedel’s 1571 edition testifies to.
  • Aldrin, Viktor (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
    This article focuses on expressions of bereavement and religious coping in medieval miracle stories from Sweden. The stories come from the collections of St. Birgitta (Bridget) of Sweden, the Blessed Bishop Nicolaus Hermanni (Sw. Nils Hermansson) of Linköping and the Blessed Katarina of Vadstena, and were recorded in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Catherine M. Sanders’s modern five stages of bereavement have been used as the theory of analysis through Kay Talbot’s adaptation of the theory for parents in grief. This theoretical foundation has provided new insights into how parental grief was expressed in medieval Sweden – and in stark contrast to Continental research on the same topic. Parents of both sexes expressed their grief outwardly through tears and crying, and a reluctance to accept that their children were dead. Throughout the miracle stories, lay people constructed their own prayers for miraculous intervention without the aid of any priests. This makes fathers and mothers in medieval Sweden agents of their own in terms of praying to God and being able to construct their own forms of religious coping.