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  • Pessi, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2007)
  • Poutvaara, Panu; Jordahl, Henrik; Berggren, Niclas (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2009)
    Discussion Paper No 266
  • Römer-Paakkanen, T. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2002)
    In this thesis the focus is on how do the K-retailers and their wives cope in connecting family life, family entrepreneurship and cooperation with the chain organization. The entrepreneur’s household and the firm form a socio-economic unit called householdenterprise- complex which interacts with its environment. The interaction within the household-enterprise complex and the interaction between the complex and the chain organization form the general framework for this empirical investigation. The research problem is examined by seeking answers for the next more detailed research questions: 1. How does the K-retailer's household-enterprise-complex cope between multiple needs and challenges? 2. How do the household and the family firm interact economically? 3. How do the gender roles influence in the household-enterprise-complex of K-retailers? 4. How does the household-enterprise-complex interact with the chain? 5. How do the entrepreneurial couples experience their way of life? Familyentrepreneurship as a life style is examined as the entrepreneurial couple experience it themselves. The study is based to the empirical data that is collected in qualitative semi-structured-interviews of 10 retailers and 8 wives in the capital area of Finland. The interviews were conducted in spring 1999. There were two cases from each of the retail chains of Kesko (Rimi discount stores, K-neighborhood stores, Ksupermarkets, K-superstores and Citymarket hypermarkets). Most of all the interaction between household and enterprise is affected by characteristics of the family and the firm, by the life cycle of the family and the firm, by the size of the family and the firm, by the division of labor and gender roles within the family. The complex operates on the basis of its values, sets of goals and available resources. The family’s "soft" values and culture has to be connected to the "hard" values and culture of the firm and chain. The economic stage of a family firm changes over time and the economic interaction between household and enterprise follows the life cycle stages. When starting a family business the retailer and his/her family usually invest all the private property to the firm and from that day the household and the firm are economically overlapping as long as the enterprise exists. There may be some periods of time when the household and the firm can be quite self-supporting but when the store needs some renewals the retailer has to invest again to his/her business. The family gives its labor and also the private property to the use of the family firm. The chain brings the logistic efficiency and information to the use of the retailer. And the retailer as a promoter connects all the resources and tries to create the family business so that it can fulfill all the tasks that the different interest groups ask for. One of the most important results of this study is that the family entrepreneurship can provide one solution to the problem of connecting work and family as the division of labor is quite flexible in business families. The case families can be divided into three main categories (copreneurs, equal partners, patriarchal families) according to their division of labor but as the families move on in their life cycle stage they can also move to another category of division of labor. The respondents in this study see the cooperation with the chain more as cooperation between the retailers. All the respondents feel that it is good and safe to be K-retailer. The economies of scale and the joint purchasing are the most important motives to belong to the chain.
  • Arovuori, K.; Kola, J. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2006)
    Discussion Papers
  • Donadini, Fabio (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The geomagnetic field is one of the most fundamental geophysical properties of the Earth and has significantly contributed to our understanding of the internal structure of the Earth and its evolution. Paleomagnetic and paleointensity data have been crucial in shaping concepts like continental drift, magnetic reversals, as well as estimating the time when the Earth's core and associated geodynamo processes begun. The work of this dissertation is based on reliable Proterozoic and Holocene geomagnetic field intensity data obtained from rocks and archeological artifacts. New archeomagnetic field intensity results are presented for Finland, Estonia, Bulgaria, Italy and Switzerland. The data were obtained using sophisticated laboratory setups as well as various reliability checks and corrections. Inter-laboratory comparisons between three laboratories (Helsinki, Sofia and Liverpool) were performed in order to check the reliability of different paleointensity methods. The new intensity results fill up considerable gaps in the master curves for each region investigated. In order to interpret the paleointensity data of the Holocene period, a novel and user-friendly database (GEOMAGIA50) was constructed. This provided a new tool to independently test the reliability of various techniques and materials used in paleointensity determinations. The results show that archeological artifacts, if well fired, are the most suitable materials. Also lavas yield reliable paleointensity results, although they appear more scattered. This study also shows that reliable estimates are obtained using the Thellier methodology (and its modifications) with reliability checks. Global paleointensity curves during Paleozoic and Proterozoic have several time gaps with few or no intensity data. To define the global intensity behavior of the Earth's magnetic field during these times new rock types (meteorite impact rocks) were investigated. Two case histories are presented. The Ilyinets (Ukraine) impact melt rocks yielded a reliable paleointensity value at 440 Ma (Silurian), whereas the results from Jänisjärvi impact melts (Russian Karelia, ca. 700 Ma) might be biased towards high intensity values because of non-ideal magnetic mineralogy. The features of the geomagnetic field at 1.1 Ga are not well defined due to problems related to reversal asymmetries observed in Keweenawan data of the Lake Superior region. In this work new paleomagnetic, paleosecular variation and paleointensity results are reported from coeval diabases from Central Arizona and help understanding the asymmetry. The results confirm the earlier preliminary observations that the asymmetry is larger in Arizona than in Lake Superior area. Two of the mechanisms proposed to explain the asymmetry remain plausible: the plate motion and the non-dipole influence.
  • Niinimäki, J-P. (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2006)
    Discussion Paper No 115
  • Ropponen, Olli (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2009)
    Discussion Paper No 253
  • Saarela, Tauno (Työväen historian ja perinteen tutkimuksen seura, 2015)
    Papers on Labour History VII
    Finnish communism was one of the largest communist movements in Europe. It was born in two countries, Finland and Soviet Russia, and in 1918–1944 active in both of them. It was a movement deeply rooted in Finnish society and the traditions of the Finnish labour movement, but also a movement with strong ties with the Soviets. This collection of articles by Tauno Saarela gives a glimpse of this tension within Finnish communism. The articles discuss the contacts between the Communist International and Finnish communism, the relations between Finnish and Scandinavian communists, the American impact on Finnish communism. They also touch the importance of cemeteries for Finnish communism, characters in the short stories published in the Finnish communist magazines in the 1920s, and the attitude of the Finnish communist youth towards jazz, rock and roll and pop songs in 1944–1969. The articles address the cult of the individual within Finnish communism, too. *** Tauno Saarela is Senior Lecturer in Political History, Department of Political and Economic Studies, University of Helsinki. He is the author of Suomalaisen kommunismin synty 1918–1923 [Birth of Finnish communism, 1918–1923] (1996), Kansan Tahto. Pohjolan työtätekevien lehti (2006), Suomalainen kommunismi ja vallankumous 1923–1930 [Finnish communism and revolution, 1923–1930] (2008), and the co-author of Communism: National and International (1998), Коминтерн и Финляндия 1919–1943 (2003), and several books in Finnish.
  • Juselius, Mikael (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2006)
    Discussion Paper No 132
  • Mõttus, Matti (University of Helsinki, Department of Geosciences and Geography, 2012)
    Department of Geosciences and Geography C7
  • Laine, Pekka (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2007)
    Discussion Paper No 150
  • Glazer, Amihai; Kanniainen, Vesa; Poutvaara, Panu (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2008)
    Discussion Paper No 218
  • Kanniainen, Vesa; Pääkkönen, Jenni; Schneider, Friedrich (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2004)
    Discussion Paper No 30
  • Puonti, Päivi (HECER – Helsinki Center of Economic Research,, 2015)
    HECER Discussion Paper No. 394
    This paper estimates the effects of fiscal policy shocks on GDP in the United States with a vector error correction (VEC) model where shocks are identified by exploiting the nonnormal distribution of the model residuals. Unlike previous research, the model used here takes into account cointegation between the variables and identifies fiscal policy shocks without imposing any restrictions. The approach also allows statistical testing of previous identification strategies, which may help discriminate between them and hence also explain differences between various fiscal multiplier estimates. According to the results, a deficit financed government spending shock has a weak negative effect on output, whereas a tax raise to finance government spending has a positive impact on GDP.
  • Tervala, Juha (University of Helsinki, 2005)
    Discussion Paper No 619
  • Shivarov, A.; Kulmala, S.; Lindroos, M. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2005)
    Discussion Papers
  • Koskela, Erkki (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2005)
    Discussion Paper No 60
  • Koskela, Erkki; Poutvaara, Panu (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2008)
    Discussion Paper No 229
  • Koskela, Erkki; König, Jan (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2008)
    Discussion Paper No 230
  • Mair, Jonathan (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2014)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences 15
    On the basis of a study of an international Buddhist movement, this article defines “ethical conversations across borders” – acts of ethical deliberation, evaluation or argument that take place in cognisance of multiple ethical regimes – and proposes the conditions under which they can take place. Fo Guang Shan, described in the first part of the article, is a Buddhist movement that originated in Taiwan, but which now has branches around the world. It seeks to promote the cultivation of virtue among its members and among other people with which it has contact. The teachings of Master Hsing Yun, the movement’s founder, advocate two methods through which this project can be realised, “sowing seeds of affinity” and “convenience”. The second part of the article generalises observations made in relation to Fo Guang Shan and draws the conclusion that all “ethical conversations across borders” require two things, namely, the identification of similarities or “affinities”, and an account of difference that stipulates the units between which the conversation is to be carried on.