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  • Pessi, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2007)
  • Poutvaara, Panu; Jordahl, Henrik; Berggren, Niclas (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2009)
  • Römer-Paakkanen, T. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2002)
    In this thesis the focus is on how do the K-retailers and their wives cope in connecting family life, family entrepreneurship and cooperation with the chain organization. The entrepreneur’s household and the firm form a socio-economic unit called householdenterprise- complex which interacts with its environment. The interaction within the household-enterprise complex and the interaction between the complex and the chain organization form the general framework for this empirical investigation. The research problem is examined by seeking answers for the next more detailed research questions: 1. How does the K-retailer's household-enterprise-complex cope between multiple needs and challenges? 2. How do the household and the family firm interact economically? 3. How do the gender roles influence in the household-enterprise-complex of K-retailers? 4. How does the household-enterprise-complex interact with the chain? 5. How do the entrepreneurial couples experience their way of life? Familyentrepreneurship as a life style is examined as the entrepreneurial couple experience it themselves. The study is based to the empirical data that is collected in qualitative semi-structured-interviews of 10 retailers and 8 wives in the capital area of Finland. The interviews were conducted in spring 1999. There were two cases from each of the retail chains of Kesko (Rimi discount stores, K-neighborhood stores, Ksupermarkets, K-superstores and Citymarket hypermarkets). Most of all the interaction between household and enterprise is affected by characteristics of the family and the firm, by the life cycle of the family and the firm, by the size of the family and the firm, by the division of labor and gender roles within the family. The complex operates on the basis of its values, sets of goals and available resources. The family’s "soft" values and culture has to be connected to the "hard" values and culture of the firm and chain. The economic stage of a family firm changes over time and the economic interaction between household and enterprise follows the life cycle stages. When starting a family business the retailer and his/her family usually invest all the private property to the firm and from that day the household and the firm are economically overlapping as long as the enterprise exists. There may be some periods of time when the household and the firm can be quite self-supporting but when the store needs some renewals the retailer has to invest again to his/her business. The family gives its labor and also the private property to the use of the family firm. The chain brings the logistic efficiency and information to the use of the retailer. And the retailer as a promoter connects all the resources and tries to create the family business so that it can fulfill all the tasks that the different interest groups ask for. One of the most important results of this study is that the family entrepreneurship can provide one solution to the problem of connecting work and family as the division of labor is quite flexible in business families. The case families can be divided into three main categories (copreneurs, equal partners, patriarchal families) according to their division of labor but as the families move on in their life cycle stage they can also move to another category of division of labor. The respondents in this study see the cooperation with the chain more as cooperation between the retailers. All the respondents feel that it is good and safe to be K-retailer. The economies of scale and the joint purchasing are the most important motives to belong to the chain.
  • Arovuori, K.; Kola, J. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2006)
  • Donadini, Fabio (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The geomagnetic field is one of the most fundamental geophysical properties of the Earth and has significantly contributed to our understanding of the internal structure of the Earth and its evolution. Paleomagnetic and paleointensity data have been crucial in shaping concepts like continental drift, magnetic reversals, as well as estimating the time when the Earth's core and associated geodynamo processes begun. The work of this dissertation is based on reliable Proterozoic and Holocene geomagnetic field intensity data obtained from rocks and archeological artifacts. New archeomagnetic field intensity results are presented for Finland, Estonia, Bulgaria, Italy and Switzerland. The data were obtained using sophisticated laboratory setups as well as various reliability checks and corrections. Inter-laboratory comparisons between three laboratories (Helsinki, Sofia and Liverpool) were performed in order to check the reliability of different paleointensity methods. The new intensity results fill up considerable gaps in the master curves for each region investigated. In order to interpret the paleointensity data of the Holocene period, a novel and user-friendly database (GEOMAGIA50) was constructed. This provided a new tool to independently test the reliability of various techniques and materials used in paleointensity determinations. The results show that archeological artifacts, if well fired, are the most suitable materials. Also lavas yield reliable paleointensity results, although they appear more scattered. This study also shows that reliable estimates are obtained using the Thellier methodology (and its modifications) with reliability checks. Global paleointensity curves during Paleozoic and Proterozoic have several time gaps with few or no intensity data. To define the global intensity behavior of the Earth's magnetic field during these times new rock types (meteorite impact rocks) were investigated. Two case histories are presented. The Ilyinets (Ukraine) impact melt rocks yielded a reliable paleointensity value at 440 Ma (Silurian), whereas the results from Jänisjärvi impact melts (Russian Karelia, ca. 700 Ma) might be biased towards high intensity values because of non-ideal magnetic mineralogy. The features of the geomagnetic field at 1.1 Ga are not well defined due to problems related to reversal asymmetries observed in Keweenawan data of the Lake Superior region. In this work new paleomagnetic, paleosecular variation and paleointensity results are reported from coeval diabases from Central Arizona and help understanding the asymmetry. The results confirm the earlier preliminary observations that the asymmetry is larger in Arizona than in Lake Superior area. Two of the mechanisms proposed to explain the asymmetry remain plausible: the plate motion and the non-dipole influence.
  • Niinimäki, J-P. (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2006)
  • Ropponen, Olli (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2009)
  • Juselius, Mikael (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2006)
  • Mõttus, Matti (University of Helsinki, Department of Geosciences and Geography, 2012)
  • Laine, Pekka (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2007)
  • Glazer, Amihai; Kanniainen, Vesa; Poutvaara, Panu (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2008)
  • Kanniainen, Vesa; Pääkkönen, Jenni; Schneider, Friedrich (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2004)
  • Tervala, Juha (University of Helsinki, 2005)
  • Shivarov, A.; Kulmala, S.; Lindroos, M. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2005)
  • Koskela, Erkki (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2005)
  • Koskela, Erkki; Poutvaara, Panu (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2008)
  • Koskela, Erkki; König, Jan (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2008)
  • Mair, Jonathan (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2014)
    On the basis of a study of an international Buddhist movement, this article defines “ethical conversations across borders” – acts of ethical deliberation, evaluation or argument that take place in cognisance of multiple ethical regimes – and proposes the conditions under which they can take place. Fo Guang Shan, described in the first part of the article, is a Buddhist movement that originated in Taiwan, but which now has branches around the world. It seeks to promote the cultivation of virtue among its members and among other people with which it has contact. The teachings of Master Hsing Yun, the movement’s founder, advocate two methods through which this project can be realised, “sowing seeds of affinity” and “convenience”. The second part of the article generalises observations made in relation to Fo Guang Shan and draws the conclusion that all “ethical conversations across borders” require two things, namely, the identification of similarities or “affinities”, and an account of difference that stipulates the units between which the conversation is to be carried on.
  • Janhonen-Abruquah, Hille; Palojoki, Päivi (Yliopistopaino, 2009)
    This publication is based on the five year Nordic discussion dealing with food and its various roles and meanings in the contemporary society. The discussion has mainly been carried out amongst five university departments, their lecturers, researchers, visiting scholars and enthusiastic students. The Department of Food, Health and Environment from Gothenbourg University, the Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics from University of Uppsala and the Department of Curriculum Research, Danish School of Education, Aarhus University from Copenhagen have been the long standing partners. Akershus University College from Norway participated in the beginning of the project and Tallin University from Estonia joined the group two years ago. The Department of Home Economics and Craft Science at University of Helsinki, Finland has coordinated the project. A careful reader will notice that the names of the participating departments have changed during the project and the swaping of names seems just to continue. These structural changes in each university have made the academic discussion more needed that ever. Four intensive learning weeks - in Helsinki, Gothenbourg, Uppsla and Copenhagen - over the years have given the opportunity for the participants to have face-to-face discussions. During the workshops there have always been open lecture sessions to reach for the wider audience but especially through this publication we hope to open the discussions for even wider audiences. Let’s talk about food! Hille Janhonen-Abruquah Päivi Palojoki
  • Viitaharju, Leena; Lähdesmäki, Merja; Kurki, Sami; Valkosalo, Pauli (2005)
    An essential component of the food production sector in lagging regions consists of small-scale enterprises located in rural areas. A high proportion utilise traditional production methods, emphasising local identity and distinctiveness, thereby differentiating products and servicing niche or segmented markets. Such enterprises frequently integrate with other sectors of the local economy, such as raw material suppliers, distributors, tourism and catering, thereby enhancing local activity. Thus, the assessment and development of food supply chains from rural small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) is crucial, not only from the perspective of SME performance, but also for the economic health of the region. The development of marketing and distribution systems for products from SMEs is one of the most essential activities for business operations. A critical problem for many rural SMEs is market access. Distance from major centres of population, low output volume and the dispersed nature of enterprises add to the dilemma. Recent changes in the retail sector have accentuated the problems and may ultimately threaten the competitiveness and viability of many rural food SMEs in particular, and the regions in general. There is greater emphasis on supply chain management which involves the integration of business processes, from end-user through to the original product producer and their suppliers. Retail chains have increasingly recognised that integrated and highly managed supply chains can be a major source of competitive advantage. Competition between individual businesses within and between stages in the supply chain is being replaced by competition between chains. This now means dedicated suppliers and exclusive contracts ensure that the benefits of investing in machinery, people, systems and programmes designed to maximise consumer satisfaction are retained and distributed appropriately between chain members. Such developments tend to militate against the involvement of small enterprises with major retailers, thereby limiting access to major markets and having implications for rural development. The objective of this report is to review and evaluate factors influencing supply chain development and performance in Finland, their likely evolution and impact on small-scale food enterprises and rural development in terms of benefits and problems. The report starts by introducing the theoretical framework and methodology of the study and then the food supply chain environment in Finland. After that different stages of food chain are presented based on empirical findings. The empirical data of the study was collected by face-to-face interviews. Different stages of food chains include: SME processors, intermediate chain members, commercial customers and institutions. The report is concluded by a presentation of different supply chain strategies of rural food SMEs. Various case examples are given to better illustrate the great variety of strategies.