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Now showing items 382-401 of 1385
  • Miettinen, Topi; Ropponen, Olli; Sääskilahti, Pekka (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2011)
  • Kalliovirta, Leena; Meitz, Mika; Saikkonen, Pentti (HECER – Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2014)
    This paper proposes a new nonlinear vector autoregressive (VAR) model referred to as the Gaussian mixture vector autoregressive (GMVAR) model. The GMVAR model belongs to the family of mixture vector autoregressive models and is designed for analyzing time series that exhibit regime-switching behavior. The main difference between the GMVAR model and previous mixture VAR models lies in the definition of the mixing weights that govern the regime probabilities. In the GMVAR model the mixing weights depend on past values of the series in a specific way that has very advantageous properties from both theoretical and practical point of view. A practical advantage is that there is a wide diversity of ways in which a researcher can associate different regimes with specific economically meaningful characteristics of the phenomenon modeled. A theoretical advantage is that stationarity and ergodicity of the underlying stochastic process are straightforward to establish and, contrary to most other nonlinear autoregressive models, explicit expressions of low order stationary marginal distributions are known. These theoretical properties are used to develop an asymptotic theory of maximum likelihood estimation for the GMVAR model whose practical usefulness is illustrated in a bivariate setting by examining the relationship between the EUR-USD exchange rate and a related interest rate data.
  • Breen, Michael; Gillanders, Robert; McNulty, Gemma; Suzuki, Akisato (HECER - Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2015)
    Are women less corrupt in business? We revisit this question using firm-level data from the World Bank’s Enterprise Surveys, which measure firms’ experience of corruption and the gender of their owners and top managers. We find that women in positions of influence are associated with less corruption: female-owned businesses pay less in bribes and corruption is seen as less of an obstacle in companies where women are represented in top management. By providing evidence that women are, ethically at least, good for business our research contributes to the literature on development, gender equality, and corruption more generally.
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Ilmakunnas, Pekka (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2004)
  • Johansson, Tino (Department of Geography, 2006)
  • Collins, John (Tutkijakollegium, 2009)
  • Palokangas, Tapio (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2011)
  • Palokangas, Tapio (University of Helsinki, 2010)
  • Alleyne, Mike (Tutkijakollegium, 2009)
  • Lanne, Markku; Saikkonen, Pentti (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2009)
  • Lof, Matthijs (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2011)
  • Koskela, Erkki; Viren, Matti (University of Helsinki, 2003)
  • Ilmakunnas, Pekka; Ilmakunnas, Seija (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2006)
  • Cattaneo, Andrea; Lankoski, Jussi; Ollikainen, Markku (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2007)
    This paper examines how jointness of environmental benefits and environmental heterogeneity affect the potential benefits of green auctions over flat-rate agri-environmental policies. A sealed bid green auction with two environmental objectives, nutrient runoff reduction and biodiversity provision, is analyzed. The green auction is analyzed analytically and then empirically by using Finnish data. Auctions that screen farmers’ applications according to an environmental index (with and without a cost-saving component) are simulated in the context of two different conservation options. The first option assumes enlarged field edges are located in whichever edge of a parcel, providing only biodiversity benefits, whereas in the second option they are located on the waterfront so as to also reduce nitrogen runoff. Empirical results show that in both cases the green auction with the cost saving outperforms other policies. However, when environmental benefits are not jointly produced by a practice, farmer participation is much more sensitive to how objectives and cost-saving are weighted, leading to unwanted swings in participation.
  • Korpela, Mari (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2014)
    An increasing number of Western families lead a lifestyle whereby they spend half of the year in Goa, India, and the rest in the parents’ countries of origin. Such people can be defined as lifestyle migrants. In this article, I discuss the phenomenon in terms of cosmopolitanism. I ask whether lifestyle migrant children in Goa (3 to 12-year-olds) are growing up in a cosmopolitan way. I show that the parents say that for their children their lifestyle is a great advantage: their transnationally mobile life makes the children sociable and cosmopolitan. The views and practices of children and young adults who have grown up in Goa, however, show that although they appear cosmopolitan in some respects, in other respects they do not, and deeming them cosmopolitan depends on how we define the term. The lifestyle migrant children and young people do not necessarily reach out across cultural differences but their horizons are not narrowly national either. I argue that lifestyle migrant children in Goa are multilingual, sociable and flexible in adapting to life in different places but that their engagement with the Indian other is limited. Therefore, they are cosmopolitan, but it is cosmopolitanism on limited, Western terms.
  • Unknown author (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)