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Now showing items 906-925 of 1425
  • Hämäläinen, Saara (HECER - Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2016)
    HECER, Discussion Paper No. 398
  • Mäkiranta, Eeva (2009)
    Report series in Geophysics 58
  • Svennevig, Jan (2012)
    Språk och interaktion 3
  • Kilpiö, Matti (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2012)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences 7
  • Lagus, Robert (Frenckell, 1858)
  • Henricson, Sofie (Finska, finskugriska och nordiska institutionen, 2008)
    Språk och interaktion 1
  • Liski, Matti; Montero, Juan-Pablo (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2009)
    Discussion Paper No 258
  • Kohonen, Anssi (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2012)
    HECER Discussion Paper 346
  • Vartiainen, Hannu (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2011)
    HECER, Discussion Paper 333
  • Palokangas, Tapio (HECER – Helsinki Center of Economic Research,, 2013)
    HECER Discussion Paper No. 366
  • Kennedy, David (Tutkijakollegium, 2008)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies Across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences, volume 4: Universalism in International Law and Political Philosophy
  • Poutvaara, Panu (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2005)
    Discussion Paper No 89
  • Zhang, Zhanhai (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Uusikivi, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Sea ice has been recognized as one of the key elements of polar and sub-polar seas, including Baltic Sea. The existence of sea ice cover and its properties have influence to many aspects of marine biology, climate and seafaring. This thesis is concentrated on describing physical and optical properties of landfast ice, and also pack ice, in the Baltic Sea. The aim of the thesis is to use measurements to study the interactions between optical and physical properties of sea ice and how these can affect the biology in sea ice. Decade long observations of ice properties were used to construct a statistical model of properties of landfast ice. Temperature was found to be the most important factor determining ice thickness and contribution of snow ice to the ice thickness was determined by the amount of winter time precipitation. Stratigraphy of ice and growth history had influence to the vertical distribution of organisms in the ice cover as snow ice layers and columnar ice layers were found to favor different types of organisms. Thickness of meteoric ice layer, including snow ice and superimposed ice, controlled the albedo of ice cover when no snow cover was on the ice. Based on the observations of fast ice conditions and albedo, the effects of snow thickness and meteoric ice thickness to the albedo of sea ice were formulated as albedo parameterization equations. The optical properties of sea ice with spectral resolution were studied on the landfast sea ice. Emphasis in these studies was given to optical properties in the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. Organic matter, dissolved and particulate, was the most important factor determining the ultraviolet properties of sea ice cover. The optical properties in the ultraviolet were also actively modified by the living organisms in the ice cover by producing mycosporine like amino acids (MAAs) in relatively high amounts. MAAs are a family of photoprotective compounds that absorb UV radiation efficiently. At the visible part of spectrum the ice by itself and the thickness of meteoric ice layer were the most important determinants. Salinity and the initial salt entrapment during ice growth in the Baltic Sea were measured to be less than in the oceans with equal ice growth rates. The turbulent fluxes of heat and salinity under the landfast sea ice were measured to be small.
  • Vartia, Yrjö (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2008)
    Discussion Paper No 248
  • Patron, Sylvie (Tutkijakollegium, 2006)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies Across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 1: The Travelling Concept of Narrative
    In this article, I propose to analyze narrative theory from an epistemological standpoint. To do so, I will draw upon both Genettian narratology and what I would call, following Shigeyuki Kuroda, “non-communicational” theories of fictional narrative. In spite of their very unequal popularity, I consider these theories as objective, or, in other words, as debatable and ripe for rational analyses; one can choose between them. The article is made up of three parts. The first part concerns the object of narrative theory, or the narrative as a constructed object, both in narratology (where narrative is likened to a narrative discourse) and in non-communicational narrative theories (where fictional narrative and discourse are mutually exclusive categories). The second part takes up the question of how the claims of these theories do or do not lend themselves to falsification. In particular, Gérard Genette’s claim that “every narrative is, explicitly or not, ‘in the first person’”, will be considered, through the lens of Ann Banfield’s theory of free indirect style. In the third part the reductionism of narrative theory will be dealt with. This leads to a reflection on the role of narrative theory in the analysis of fictional narratives.
  • Vartiainen, Hannu; Salonen, Hannu (2011)
    HECER Discussion Paper 339