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  • Kilpiö, Matti (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2012)
  • Lagus, Robert (Frenckell, 1858)
  • Henricson, Sofie (Finska, finskugriska och nordiska institutionen, 2008)
  • Liski, Matti; Montero, Juan-Pablo (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2009)
  • Kohonen, Anssi (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2012)
  • Vartiainen, Hannu (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2011)
  • Palokangas, Tapio (HECER – Helsinki Center of Economic Research,, 2013)
  • Poutvaara, Panu (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2005)
  • Zhang, Zhanhai (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Uusikivi, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Sea ice has been recognized as one of the key elements of polar and sub-polar seas, including Baltic Sea. The existence of sea ice cover and its properties have influence to many aspects of marine biology, climate and seafaring. This thesis is concentrated on describing physical and optical properties of landfast ice, and also pack ice, in the Baltic Sea. The aim of the thesis is to use measurements to study the interactions between optical and physical properties of sea ice and how these can affect the biology in sea ice. Decade long observations of ice properties were used to construct a statistical model of properties of landfast ice. Temperature was found to be the most important factor determining ice thickness and contribution of snow ice to the ice thickness was determined by the amount of winter time precipitation. Stratigraphy of ice and growth history had influence to the vertical distribution of organisms in the ice cover as snow ice layers and columnar ice layers were found to favor different types of organisms. Thickness of meteoric ice layer, including snow ice and superimposed ice, controlled the albedo of ice cover when no snow cover was on the ice. Based on the observations of fast ice conditions and albedo, the effects of snow thickness and meteoric ice thickness to the albedo of sea ice were formulated as albedo parameterization equations. The optical properties of sea ice with spectral resolution were studied on the landfast sea ice. Emphasis in these studies was given to optical properties in the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. Organic matter, dissolved and particulate, was the most important factor determining the ultraviolet properties of sea ice cover. The optical properties in the ultraviolet were also actively modified by the living organisms in the ice cover by producing mycosporine like amino acids (MAAs) in relatively high amounts. MAAs are a family of photoprotective compounds that absorb UV radiation efficiently. At the visible part of spectrum the ice by itself and the thickness of meteoric ice layer were the most important determinants. Salinity and the initial salt entrapment during ice growth in the Baltic Sea were measured to be less than in the oceans with equal ice growth rates. The turbulent fluxes of heat and salinity under the landfast sea ice were measured to be small.
  • Vartia, Yrjö (Helsinki Center of Economic Research, 2008)
  • Patron, Sylvie (Tutkijakollegium, 2006)
    In this article, I propose to analyze narrative theory from an epistemological standpoint. To do so, I will draw upon both Genettian narratology and what I would call, following Shigeyuki Kuroda, “non-communicational” theories of fictional narrative. In spite of their very unequal popularity, I consider these theories as objective, or, in other words, as debatable and ripe for rational analyses; one can choose between them. The article is made up of three parts. The first part concerns the object of narrative theory, or the narrative as a constructed object, both in narratology (where narrative is likened to a narrative discourse) and in non-communicational narrative theories (where fictional narrative and discourse are mutually exclusive categories). The second part takes up the question of how the claims of these theories do or do not lend themselves to falsification. In particular, Gérard Genette’s claim that “every narrative is, explicitly or not, ‘in the first person’”, will be considered, through the lens of Ann Banfield’s theory of free indirect style. In the third part the reductionism of narrative theory will be dealt with. This leads to a reflection on the role of narrative theory in the analysis of fictional narratives.
  • Wang, Keguang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Pack ice is an aggregate of ice floes drifting on the sea surface. The forces controlling the motion and deformation of pack ice are air and water drag forces, sea surface tilt, Coriolis force and the internal force due to the interaction between ice floes. In this thesis, the mechanical behavior of compacted pack ice is investigated using theoretical and numerical methods, focusing on the three basic material properties: compressive strength, yield curve and flow rule. A high-resolution three-category sea ice model is applied to investigate the sea ice dynamics in two small basins, the whole Gulf Riga and the inside Pärnu Bay, focusing on the calibration of the compressive strength for thin ice. These two basins are on the scales of 100 km and 20 km, respectively, with typical ice thickness of 10-30 cm. The model is found capable of capturing the main characteristics of the ice dynamics. The compressive strength is calibrated to be about 30 kPa, consistent with the values from most large-scale sea ice dynamic studies. In addition, the numerical study in Pärnu Bay suggests that the shear strength drops significantly when the ice-floe size markedly decreases. A characteristic inversion method is developed to probe the yield curve of compacted pack ice. The basis of this method is the relationship between the intersection angle of linear kinematic features (LKFs) in sea ice and the slope of the yield curve. A summary of the observed LKFs shows that they can be basically divided into three groups: intersecting leads, uniaxial opening leads and uniaxial pressure ridges. Based on the available observed angles, the yield curve is determined to be a curved diamond. Comparisons of this yield curve with those from other methods show that it possesses almost all the advantages identified by the other methods. A new constitutive law is proposed, where the yield curve is a diamond and the flow rule is a combination of the normal and co-axial flow rule. The non-normal co-axial flow rule is necessary for the Coulombic yield constraint. This constitutive law not only captures the main features of forming LKFs but also takes the advantage of avoiding overestimating divergence during shear deformation. Moreover, this study provides a method for observing the flow rule for pack ice during deformation.