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  • Iho, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2007)
    Eutrophication of surface waters accelerated by nutrient runoff from agriculture is a growing concern in developed countries. Controlling the loss of phosphorus is complicated, among other things, due to its intertemporal nature. Phosphorus fertilisation affects crop yields and phosphorus losses mainly via the potentially plant available of soil phosphorus reserves whose development is very slow. Hence, both privately and socially optimal choices of phosphorus are results of a dynamic decision making process. On the other hand, phosphorus loss is comprised of various phosphorus forms, differing in their contribution to eutrophication and in their sensitivity towards various phosphorus control measures. These forms can be roughly divided into particulate phosphorus and dissolved reactive phosphorus. The former can be controlled mainly by controlling the soil erosion, the latter by controlling the potentially plant available soil phosphorus reserves. In this study, we solve analytically the privately and socially optimal steady state fertilisation levels and vegetative filter strip allocations, and design and analyse alternative instruments to sustain these allocations. We conduct an empirical application for an agricultural area of 37 parcels of one hectare, varying in their slopes and shapes. We find that the first-best taxes can be equivalently base on fertilisation or on soil phosphorus, but basing them directly on soil phosphorus might reduce the information burden of the regulator. We also find that the vegetative filter strip allocations are strongly differentiated, and that the second-best vegetative filter strip subsidies can be relatively easily be adjusted to sustain almost the first-best allocations.
  • Arovuori, K.; Kola, J.; Lankoski, J.; Ollikainen, M. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2006)
  • Huvio, T.; Kola, J.; Lundström, T. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2005)
  • Arovuori, K. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2005)
  • Lesyk, O. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2005)
  • Römer-Paakkanen, T. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2002)
    In this thesis the focus is on how do the K-retailers and their wives cope in connecting family life, family entrepreneurship and cooperation with the chain organization. The entrepreneur’s household and the firm form a socio-economic unit called householdenterprise- complex which interacts with its environment. The interaction within the household-enterprise complex and the interaction between the complex and the chain organization form the general framework for this empirical investigation. The research problem is examined by seeking answers for the next more detailed research questions: 1. How does the K-retailer's household-enterprise-complex cope between multiple needs and challenges? 2. How do the household and the family firm interact economically? 3. How do the gender roles influence in the household-enterprise-complex of K-retailers? 4. How does the household-enterprise-complex interact with the chain? 5. How do the entrepreneurial couples experience their way of life? Familyentrepreneurship as a life style is examined as the entrepreneurial couple experience it themselves. The study is based to the empirical data that is collected in qualitative semi-structured-interviews of 10 retailers and 8 wives in the capital area of Finland. The interviews were conducted in spring 1999. There were two cases from each of the retail chains of Kesko (Rimi discount stores, K-neighborhood stores, Ksupermarkets, K-superstores and Citymarket hypermarkets). Most of all the interaction between household and enterprise is affected by characteristics of the family and the firm, by the life cycle of the family and the firm, by the size of the family and the firm, by the division of labor and gender roles within the family. The complex operates on the basis of its values, sets of goals and available resources. The family’s "soft" values and culture has to be connected to the "hard" values and culture of the firm and chain. The economic stage of a family firm changes over time and the economic interaction between household and enterprise follows the life cycle stages. When starting a family business the retailer and his/her family usually invest all the private property to the firm and from that day the household and the firm are economically overlapping as long as the enterprise exists. There may be some periods of time when the household and the firm can be quite self-supporting but when the store needs some renewals the retailer has to invest again to his/her business. The family gives its labor and also the private property to the use of the family firm. The chain brings the logistic efficiency and information to the use of the retailer. And the retailer as a promoter connects all the resources and tries to create the family business so that it can fulfill all the tasks that the different interest groups ask for. One of the most important results of this study is that the family entrepreneurship can provide one solution to the problem of connecting work and family as the division of labor is quite flexible in business families. The case families can be divided into three main categories (copreneurs, equal partners, patriarchal families) according to their division of labor but as the families move on in their life cycle stage they can also move to another category of division of labor. The respondents in this study see the cooperation with the chain more as cooperation between the retailers. All the respondents feel that it is good and safe to be K-retailer. The economies of scale and the joint purchasing are the most important motives to belong to the chain.
  • Markula, J. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2001)
    A new category of health-promoting foods has emerged on food markets. This study examines the background of the development of the products that belong to this category. It aims for a more holistic view to the subject area than what has been typical in the previous studies. The key framework used in the study, the foodweb, is based on the model of industrial networks. The model is adapted for the purposes of this study. The study has an empirical basis. Product related cases are examined. These five Finnish cases are: Benecol, Hyla, LGG, Xylitol, and Yosa. The study is mainly based on findings made from these cases. Some aspects of the international markets are also brought up. It was found that this new food product category has brought with it many new questions that previously have not been of major significance in the food context. The basic characteristics of foods and the relationships of health-promoting foods with other product categories were examined under a new framework for foods: body-centred foods. It was observed that foods are linked to different body linked purposes under which foods can be functional. Health-functionality is one of the respective functionalities. Empirical development processes described using the foodweb as conceptual framework showed the interdependency of the development process from many activities, actors, and resources that usually cannot be captured if the development is viewed from a single organisation point of view. It also seemed that development of these products is a multilayered process of many concurrent and sequential interactions. There are many obstacles within food system that hinder the development processes of these specific foods. There are many unresolved questions and questions that have not yet explicitly been asked that have to be encountered before it is relevant to expect goal oriented smooth development processes for health-functional foods.
  • Timonen, R. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2000)
    The aim of the study was to search for relationships between entrepreneurship, management and success in farm businesses. Entrepreneurship (’yrittävyys’ in Finnish) is considered as a qualitative characteristic of a person. It is defined as the combination of certain values and attitudes, which are concept of human being; attitudes towards property, labour and uncertainty as well as innovativeness. Management is considered as a labour process on three levels: the institutional level, the economical level and the operative level. Entrepreneurship was measured with a one-dimensional construction called ideology of entrepreneurship. The effectiveness of management on different levels was measured with sum variables. The empirical data of the study was collected from bookkeeping farms in the region of Southern Finland. The main conclusions of the study are as follows. Well-educated farmers and farmers of large farms were more entrepreneurial and more effective as managers than those with lower education and smaller farms. The more entrepreneurial the orientation of the farmer, the higher the effectiveness of management on all the three levels. Innovative farmers and farmers who are willing to take risks were more effective as managers than the less innovative and the risk minimizers. The score on the measure of ideology of entrepreneurship and the coefficient of profitability were positively correlated. The correlation was higher on small farms than on large farms. Three out of five components of ideology of entrepreneurship correlated with the coefficient of profitability on a significant level. The components were attitudes toward property, labour and uncertainty. The scores on the measures of effectiveness on all the managerial levels had a stronger relationship with the technical success (average yield) than with the economical success (coefficient of profitability). Regression analysis demonstrated that besides arable area entrepreneurship is a significant predictor of economical success. Other variables in the model were forest area, insitutional effectiveness and the production line. The model explained 39 percent of the variance in the coefficient of profitability.
  • Siitonen, M. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 1999)