The United Nations Organization's Economic Sanctions: The case of Iraq and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/11021
Title: The United Nations Organization's Economic Sanctions: The case of Iraq and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Author: Opara, Augustine Uchenna
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science
Date: 2002-11-04
Language: en
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/11021
Thesis level: master's thesis
Abstract: Acts of aggression, abuse of human rights and recently the lack of democracy are behaviours that pose threats to international peace and security. In 1945, the United Nations Organisation (U. N. O.) was created to handle these acts and is also compelled to invoke the tool of economic sanctions against an erring member state so as to restore sanity at the international environment. This means that the U. N. O. was empowered to use the instrument of economic sanctions to contain or deter a bad behaviour of its member state in order to preserve world peace. And since the end of the cold war the United Nations' Security Council (U. N. S. C.), has intensified its use of this economic sanctions instrument against a category of countries like Liberia, Angola, Somalia, Rwanda, Libya, just to mention but a few, which had contravened the world peace norm. The UN's multilateral economic sanctions against Iraq (for its invasion of Kuwait: aggression) and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (for an alleged ethnic cleansing: crime against humanity) were classic cases in which the behaviours of the two countries ran into collision with the UN's goals of the collective security norm. Essentially, the purpose of this study is to use the UN's economic sanctions and its possible efficacy/success to examine the possibility of attaining global justice or fairness with the authority reposed on the five-permanent members of the Security Council as was provided by its Charter of 1945. This study is based on desk research that applied only documentary data in conjunction with coercive diplomacy theory and a method of structured focused comparison in the analysis. Overall, this study however, uncovered that the realists' 'massive quick-blow' responses of the Security Council, its secretive parliamentary culture, veto-power, the old Charter of the UN coupled with traditional national interests frustrated all the efforts for an effective enforcement and management of economic sanctions in both Iraq and the FRY. This is to the extent that these lapses of the UN enormously resulted into serious humanitarian disasters in both Iraq and the FRY who were targeted with sanctions, which again went contrary to the UN's goals on human rights contained in Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human rights. In this study, such contradictions tends to question the rationale of the UN's multilateral mandatory comprehensive economic sanctions which does not distinguish the targeted from the untargeted but rather causes immense collateral damage on the civil society. Apart from this collateral damage, the efficacy of the UN's multilateral economic sanctions against Iraq and the FRY remains illusory, hence, it is an obvious failure of the international collective security norm. This is because multilateral sanctions do not result into serious change due the divisions in the UN. While this study recommended a reform of the UN with 'targeted sanctions' this however requires further research before the UN can enforce it. Conclusively, this study argues that until the crisis in Iraq and the FRY are resolved fully, the competing political perceptions and commercial interests would continue to complicate the maintenance of international peace and security.
Description: Endast sammandrag. Inbundna avhandlingar kan sökas i Helka-databasen (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Elektroniska kopior av avhandlingar finns antingen öppet på nätet eller endast tillgängliga i bibliotekets avhandlingsterminaler.Only abstract. Paper copies of master’s theses are listed in the Helka database (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Electronic copies of master’s theses are either available as open access or only on thesis terminals in the Helsinki University Library.Vain tiivistelmä. Sidottujen gradujen saatavuuden voit tarkistaa Helka-tietokannasta (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Digitaaliset gradut voivat olla luettavissa avoimesti verkossa tai rajoitetusti kirjaston opinnäytekioskeilla.
Subject: economic sanctions collateral-damage
national interest
propaganda


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