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Recent Submissions

  • Partti, Heisi; Väkevä, Lauri (2020)
    Based on recent research reports, one could argue that creative music making activities have not established a central role in Finnish music classrooms. According to the National Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Music (Juntunen 2011), composing is only occasionally taught in Finnish basic education (Grades 1–9). In addition, a recent nationwide survey indicates that as much as three out of four music teachers feel that they have not been equipped with adequate tools and skills for teaching composing during their studies (Partti 2016).2 Facilitating group-based composing and collaborative creativity in heterogeneous classrooms is perceived as especially challenging. Yet, previous curriculum documents (e.g. Finnish National Board of Education 1970, 2004), as well as the recently introduced National Core Curriculum for Basic Education (Finnish National Board of Education 2014), indicate that the creative production of music should be taught to all pupils at all grades. The most recent core curriculum further emphasizes creative collaboration as a central learning approach in music, as well as in other school subjects (ibid.). In this chapter, we examine questions related to teaching creative music making in schools. What could be the role of a professional composer or songwriter in music education? What would the introduction of such professionals into the classrooms require from the teachers? We examine these questions through the case of a recent developmental project that brought professional composers into music classrooms in Finnish comprehensive and upper secondary schools. The project, called BiisiPumppu [SongPump], was organized by the Finnish Composers’ Copyright Society (Teosto) during the academic year of 2013–14. In the project, teachers collaborated with professional songwriters, lyricists, musicians, and music producers to instruct pupils in how to create their own pieces of music.3 The BiisiPumppu project thus exemplifies collaborative efforts between teachers, composers, and schools that may open new avenues for more participatory music education in a variety of musical-aesthetic contexts. Based on a case study conducted by the first author of this chapter, we will discuss themes pertaining to how the project succeeded, how the stakeholders benefited from the effort, and what kinds of development ideas emerged in terms of music pedagogy. We will also address some critical aspects of the project, suggesting ways in which similar initiatives can better take into account the specific characteristics of school music in the future.
  • Olsonen, Ida (2019)
    This study delves into the artistry of the choral conductor. Being based on insiderknowledge, and thereby a subjective viewpoint, autoethnography has been chosen as the appropriate research method for this study. The study displays several traits typical to artistic research, especially in its use of an intuitive, creative analysis process and the presentation of results. Instead of describing the technical skills needed to execute the conductorship or the pedagogical abilities required to lead a group, this study attempts to address the agenda driving the artistic vision – the why rather than the what or the how. The theoretical framework of the study approaches the conductor's artistry from two directions – firstly, via the different professional roles contained within the main function of conducting, and secondly, via Dag Jansson's (2018) model of the conductor's competences. The artistry is examined by identifying and analysing its key processes, as well as reflecting on how the roles or functions (the artist, the teacher and the leader) are visible within those processes. The field work took place over the spring semester of 2017, following the conductor-researcher's work with her choir Musta lammas. The conclusion of the study reinforces the notion that the different functions of the choral conductor are highly interrelated and interdependent, even when approached primarily with the artistry in mind. Along with locating aesthetic preferences, the results connect the artistic agenda to social and interpersonal processes such as building the group and becoming seen (both as individuals within the group and as performers in front of the audience). Relational processes like these can actually add to the artistic substance and be part of the artistic expression of the group. This study suggests that high ambitions and artistic emphasis actually invite a comprehensive vision with a distinctive pedagogic view and leadership.
  • Hovi, Hanna; Leivuori, Mirja; Koivikko, Riitta; Tervonen, Keijo; Lanteri, Sari; Ilmakunnas, Markku (2020)
    3/2020
    Proftest SYKE carried out the interlaboratory comparison in cooperation with Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) for VOC thermodesorption measurements (ISO 16000-6) from native indoor air samples in Tenax TA thermodesorption tubes in October 2019 (IAVOC 10/2019). Further, the measurements of alpha-pinene, 1-butanol, 2-butoxyethanol, 2EH (2-ethyl-1-hexanol), naphthalene, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, and TXIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate) were tested from the synthetic sample. In total ten participants took part in the comparison. In total 77 % of the results reported by the participants were satisfactory when deviation of 20–40 % from the assigned value was accepted. The calculated values were used as the assigned values for the results of the synthetic sample reported as compound specific responses. For the other measurands and samples mainly the mean of the results of the homogeneity measurements and the test results of the expert laboratory was used as the assigned value. The performance evaluation was based on the z scores. Warm thanks to all the participants in this interlaboratory comparison!
  • Uimonen, Heikki (Taideyliopiston Sibelius-Akatemia, 2017)
    This article presents the historical transformation of Finnish commercial radio popular music policies from 1985–2005 and contemplates the role of terrestrial radio in contemporary digital age. It argues that a sender-centred paradigm of early commercial radio was replaced swiftly by receiver-centered paradigm, which has been applied since the early 1990s. The change of radio music cultures is described in detail by dividing it into three different eras: Block Radio, Format Radio, and Media Convergence. The study draws on the research project consisting of case studies analysing the music content of various radio stations. The primary empirical data is composed of thirty-two interviews of radio personnel and the analysis of 4,500 individual songs broadcast by popular music radio stations with newspaper and journal articles supporting the primary data. Radio music culture is approached theoretically from the ethnomusicological perspective and thus defined as all practices that have an effect on broadcast music, including the processes of acquiring, selecting, and governing music. The empirical results of the study show that the transformation of radio music cultures is affected by economic, technological, legal, organisational, and cultural factors.
  • Westergård, Maiju (2019)
    Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastelen 12–16-vuotiaiden nuorten pop/jazz-laulunopetusta kolmen pop/jazz-laulupedagogin kokemusten pohjalta. Pyrin selvittämään, minkälaisia erityispiirteitä nuorten laulunopetukseen liittyy, sekä millä tavoin nuoria opetetaan laulutunneilla. Koska laulu on niin kokonaisvaltainen instrumentti, käyn sen opettamista läpi niin fyysiseltä, psyykkiseltä kuin sosiaaliseltakin kannalta. Tutkielmani on laadullinen tapaustutkimus, jonka olen toteuttanut keräämällä aineistoni kolmella teemahaastatte- lulla. Kaikki kolme haastateltavaa ovat pop/jazz-laulunopettajia, jotka opettavat pääkaupunkiseudulla sijaitsevissa musiikkioppilaitoksissa. Heillä kaikilla on useamman vuoden kokemus nuorten laulunopetuksesta. Olen analysoi- nut aineistoni teoriasidonnaisesti, mikä tarkoittaa, että olen käsitellyt aineistostani esiin nousseita teemoja myös jo tutkitun tiedon valossa. Tutkielmani tuloksista nousi selkeästi esiin, että perusperiaatteet ovat kaikenikäisten laulunopetuksessa samat. Opetustapoihin ja laulutunnin etenemiseen vaikuttaakin ikää enemmän ihmisen persoona. Siksi opetus ja sen tavoitteet tulee suunnitella jokaiselle oppilaalle henkilökohtaisesti. Opettajan on kuitenkin hyvä olla tietoinen siitä, että nuoren oppilaan keho ja mieli ovat vielä kehittyviä. Voimakkaiden äänenkäyttötapojen kanssa on syytä olla varovainen, jottei nuoren kehittyvälle äänelle aiheutuisi haittaa. Nuori ei myöskään välttämättä löydä laulamisessa tarvittavia lihaksia yhtä nopeasti kuin aikuinen, ja kokonaisvaltainen heittäytyminen erilaisiin harjoitteisiin saattaa vaatia enemmän rohkaisua. Näissäkin asioissa on kuitenkin yksilöllisiä eroja ihmisten välillä, oli kyse minkä ikäisistä tahansa. Selkein nuorten laulunopetukseen merkittävästi vaikuttava asia on etenkin pojilla äänenmurros. Tutkielmani mukaan ääntä voidaan, ja on jopa suotavaa harjoittaa myös äänenmurroksen aikana. Rumia ääniä ei pidä pelätä, vaan äänen tulee antaa toimia luonnollisesti, kuten se äänenmurroksen aikana toimii. Tärkeintä on muistaa, että laulamisen tulisi aina tuntua mukavalta, ja opettajan olisikin hyvä kehottaa nuoria oppilaitaan tarkkailemaan omia tuntemuksiaan.
  • Miettinen, Jukka O. (2018)
    Teatterikorkeakoulun julkaisusarja
    This vastly illustrated web-based material is an introduction to Asian theatre and dance traditions. It can be used as a virtual textbook for university students as well as a handbook for general readers. With its search-by-word facility it also serves as an encyclopaedia of names and terms related to the Asian performing arts. Twelve countries are included in the present, second edition of this on-line material (India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Korea, and Japan). The focus is on the traditional forms of theatre and dance. The chapters that discuss the developments that have taken place in the 20th century in each country, however, include short descriptions of how the influx of Western theatrical aesthetics and conventions has influenced the traditional forms of theatrical arts of the country in question. The introductory chapter discusses those specific aspects of Asian traditions that differ from the Western ones, while the origins of theatrical traditions are also examined. Geographically, the material proceeds from west to east. Each chapter starts with a country profile and provides a map and essential information on population, ethnicities, languages, and religions. This profile is followed by a general introduction to the theatre and dance traditions of the particular country. Special attention is paid on the kind of information that early visual evidence, such as sculptures, gives about the early forms of Asian theatrical arts. The core chapters, dedicated to specific theatre and dance styles or traditions, describe what is known about their early developments as well as their present state. Altogether some 120 theatrical genres are introduced, each in its own chapter. Special attention is paid to the literary contents and acting techniques. Pop-up texts give further information about specific features, such as masks, costumes, and make-up conventions. Furthermore, synopses of important epics and dramas are provided in order to give the reader an overall view of the ideas the performances generate as well as the background to their cultural contexts. Additional articles give further in-depth information. The final article, "From East to West, from West to East" by Dr Anna Thuring focuses on the controversies in cultural exchanges between Asia and the Western world. Dozens of video clips and some 1200 photographs have been provided in order to visualise these colourful traditions with their intricate acting techniques and masks or make-up practices. Research and the compilation of information stretch back over three decades. I published my first book on Asian theatre in 1984 (Jumalia, sankareita, demoneja, Teak). Its section on Southeast Asia was further elaborated in my book published in 1992 (Classical Dance and Theatre in South-east Asia, Oxford University Press). The "forerunner" of this present material was the web-based material I compiled together with Mr. Veli Rosenberg in 1996 (Aasialaisen teatterin ja tanssin historia, Theatre Academy, Helsinki). My continual festival work in Finland and research abroad have also enabled me to study and document living Asian dance traditions further. My deepest thanks go to those numerous artists, colleagues, and photographers who have, through their various contributions, helped in creating this vast collection of material.
  • Khoramshahi, Ehsan; Campos, Mariana Batista; Tommaselli, Antonio Maria Garcia; Viljanen, Niko; Mielonen, Teemu; Kaartinen, Harri; Kukko, Antero; Honkavaara, Eija (MDPI, 2019)
    Remote Sensing
    Mobile mapping systems (MMS) are increasingly used for many photogrammetric and computer vision applications, especially encouraged by the fast and accurate geospatial data generation. The accuracy of point position in an MMS is mainly dependent on the quality of calibration, accuracy of sensor synchronization, accuracy of georeferencing and stability of geometric configuration of space intersections. In this study, we focus on multi-camera calibration (interior and relative orientation parameter estimation) and MMS calibration (mounting parameter estimation). The objective of this study was to develop a practical scheme for rigorous and accurate system calibration of a photogrammetric mapping station equipped with a multi-projective camera (MPC) and a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for direct georeferencing. The proposed technique is comprised of two steps. Firstly, interior orientation parameters of each individual camera in an MPC and the relative orientation parameters of each cameras of the MPC with respect to the first camera are estimated. In the second step the offset and misalignment between MPC and GNSS/IMU are estimated. The global accuracy of the proposed method was assessed using independent check points. A correspondence map for a panorama is introduced that provides metric information. Our results highlight that the proposed calibration scheme reaches centimeter-level global accuracy for 3D point positioning. This level of global accuracy demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed technique and has the potential to fit accurate mapping purposes.
  • Jaakonaho, Liisa; Junttila, Kristina (Routledge, 2019)
    Routledge Research in Education
  • Zhu, Lingli; Kukko, Antero; Virtanen, Juho-Pekka; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Hannu; Turppa, Tuomas (MDPI, 2019)
    Remote Sensing
    As data acquisition technology continues to advance, the improvement and upgrade of the algorithms for surface reconstruction are required. In this paper, we utilized multiple terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (Lidar) systems to acquire point clouds with different levels of complexity, namely dynamic and rigid targets for surface reconstruction. We propose a robust and effective method to obtain simplified and uniform resample points for surface reconstruction. The method was evaluated. A point reduction of up to 99.371% with a standard deviation of 0.2 cm was achieved. In addition, well-known surface reconstruction methods, i.e., Alpha shapes, Screened Poisson reconstruction (SPR), the Crust, and Algebraic point set surfaces (APSS Marching Cubes), were utilized for object reconstruction. We evaluated the benefits in exploiting simplified and uniform points, as well as different density points, for surface reconstruction. These reconstruction methods and their capacities in handling data imperfections were analyzed and discussed. The findings are that (i) the capacity of surface reconstruction in dealing with diverse objects needs to be improved; (ii) when the number of points reaches the level of millions (e.g., approximately five million points in our data), point simplification is necessary, as otherwise, the reconstruction methods might fail; (iii) for some reconstruction methods, the number of input points is proportional to the number of output meshes; but a few methods are in the opposite; (iv) all reconstruction methods are beneficial from the reduction of running time; and (v) a balance between the geometric details and the level of smoothing is needed. Some methods produce detailed and accurate geometry, but their capacity to deal with data imperfection is poor, while some other methods exhibit the opposite characteristics.
  • Franzese, Giulio; Linty, Nicola; Dovis, Fabio (MDPI, 2020)
    Applied Sciences
    This work focuses on a machine learning based detection of iono-spheric scintillation events affecting Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals. We here extend the recent detection results based on Decision Trees, designing a semi-supervised detection system based on the DeepInfomax approach recently proposed. The paper shows that it is possible to achieve good classification accuracy while reducing the amount of time that human experts must spend manually labelling the datasets for the training of supervised algorithms. The proposed method is scalable and reduces the required percentage of annotated samples to achieve a given performance, making it a viable candidate for a realistic deployment of scintillation detection in software defined GNSS receivers.
  • Siponen, Hemmo (2019)
  • Kähkönen, Jaana (2019)
  • Uimonen, Heikki (2017)
    Sound Preference Tests were applied at Strathdevon Primary School in the Scottish village of Dollar to study the preferences on the everyday sound and local sonic environments. The study draws on theory of acoustic communication and anthropological concept of dirt concentrating on the liked and disliked environmental sound. The answers elicited by questionnaires were analyzed and contextualized with previous research. The research shows that personal preferences are affected by the enculturation of the individuals, shared values of the community and the changes in acoustic and electroacoustic sound sources. Sound Preference Test and other methods presented in the article can be used for pedagogical purposes, too.
  • Aittola, Inkeri (2019)
    Tämän kirjallisen työn tarkoitus on tutkia, millä tavoin säveltäjä Pekka Kostiainen (s. 1944) on sisällyttänyt Suomen evankelis-luterilaisen kirkon virsikirjan (1986) virsiä ja erityisesti niiden koraaleita kolmiosaiseen Triduum Paschale -nimiseen pääsiäisoratorioonsa (2000). Kyseessä on laadullinen tutkimus, jonka menetelmät ovat aineistolähtöinen analyysi ja säveltäjän avoin haastattelu. Työn empiriaosuus koostuu Triduum Paschalen neljän koraalipohjaisen osan tarkastelusta. Kostiaisen näihin osiin valitsemat virret ovat 222a, 67, 100 ja 727. Pekka Kostiainen on käyttänyt virsiä monin eri tavoin sävellystyönsä aineksina. Kuorolla on keskeinen rooli virsiosuuksissa, mutta myös solistit osallistuvat niiden esittämiseen. Lauletut koraalipohjaiset jaksot seurailevat kolorointia ja rytmistä muuntelua lukuunottamatta alkuperäistä sävelmää, mutta orkesteriosuuksissa Kostiainen hyödyntää virsielementtejä vapaammin. Virsien säkeistöt poikkeavat tyypillisesti toisistaan sekä satsin että kokoonpanon osalta. Säveltäjä on yhdistänyt kolmeen neljästä tutkittavasta osasta yhden tai useamman tekstin virren lisäksi, joka usein limittyy säkeistöjen väleihin.
  • Brusila, Pekka (Vesihallitus, 1986)
    Vesihallituksen monistesarja 436

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