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  • Sohrab, Fahad; Iosifidis, Alexandros; Gabbouj, Moncef; Raitoharju, Jenni (Elsevier BV, 2023)
    Pattern Recognition
    Highlights •A novel subspace learning framework for one-class classification is proposed. •The framework presents the problem in the form of graph embedding and includes the previously proposed subspace one-class techniques as its special cases. •The proposed framework reveals spectral and spectral regression-based solutions as alternatives to the previously used gradient-based technique. •Similarities to the traditional subspace learning techniques and other novel insights revealed by the framework are discussed. Abstract In this paper, we propose a novel subspace learning framework for one-class classification. The proposed framework presents the problem in the form of graph embedding. It includes the previously proposed subspace one-class techniques as its special cases and provides further insight on what these techniques actually optimize. The framework allows to incorporate other meaningful optimization goals via the graph preserving criterion and reveals a spectral solution and a spectral regression-based solution as alternatives to the previously used gradient-based technique. We combine the subspace learning framework iteratively with Support Vector Data Description applied in the subspace to formulate Graph-Embedded Subspace Support Vector Data Description. We experimentally analyzed the performance of newly proposed different variants. We demonstrate improved performance against the baselines and the recently proposed subspace learning methods for one-class classification.
  • Vehola, Anni; Hurmekoski, Elias; Lähtinen, Katja; Ruokamo, Enni; Roos, Anders; Toivonen, Ritva; Toppinen, Anne (Canadian Science Publishing, 2022)
    Canadian Journal of Forest Research
    Climate change places great pressure on the construction sector to decrease its greenhouse gas emissions and to create solutions that perform well in changing weather conditions. Our study explores citizen perceptions on wood usage as a building material under expected mitigation and adaptation measures aimed at a changing climate and extreme weather events. The data are founded on an internet-based survey material collected from a consumer panel from Finland and Sweden during May–June 2021, with a total of 2015 responses. By employing exploratory factor analysis, we identified similar belief structures for the two countries, consisting of both positive and negative views on wood construction. In linear regression models for predicting these beliefs, the perceived seriousness of climate change was found to increase positive views on wood construction but was insignificant for negative views. Both in Finland and Sweden, higher familiarity with wooden multistory construction was found to connect with more positive views on the potential of wood in building, e.g., due to carbon storage and material properties. Our findings underline the potential of wood material use as one avenue of climate change adaptation in the built environment. Future research should study how citizens’ concerns for extreme weather events affect their future material preferences in their everyday living environments, also beyond the Nordic region.
  • Peltonen, Heikki; Weigel, Benjamin (Wiley, 2022)
    Journal of Fish Biology
    Coastal systems experience strong impacts of ongoing environmental change, affect-ing fish communities and subsequently fishery yields. In the Baltic Sea, the combined effects of climate-induced changes and eutrophication-related pressures constitute major threats to its living resources. Although much work has been devoted to unco-vering environmental impacts on the commercially most valuable fish stocks, only lit-tle is known about community-wide responses of fished species and howenvironmental change may affect their yield. In this study, the authors use a jointspecies distribution modelling framework to disentangle environmental impacts onspecies-specific fishery yields of 16 fished species along the coast of Finland overfour decades. The authors show that environmental covariates substantially contrib-uted to variations in fishery yields and are likely to have strong impacts on fishedresources also in the future. Salinity and near-bottom oxygen concentration emergedas the strongest environmental drivers of yields at the community level, whereastemperature was particularly important for cod (Gadus morhua) and sprat (Sprattussprattus) yields. The authors found shore density to be an important predictor forfisheries resources especially for freshwater fish. The results of this study suggestthat the changes in environmental conditions during the past four decades had a pos-itive effect on the yields of freshwater and warm-affinity species, whereas yields ofmarine cold-affinity species have been mainly negatively affected by contractingfavourable habitats, becoming warmer and less saline.
  • Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Obertegger, Ulrike; Rudebeck, Hugo; Jakobsson, Ellinor; Jansen, Joachim; Zdorovennova, Galina; Bansal, Sheel; Block, Benjamin D.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Doubek, Jonathan P.; Dugan, Hilary; Erina, Oxana; Fedorova, Irina; Fischer, Janet M.; Grinberga, Laura; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Kangur, Külli; Knoll, Lesley B.; Laas, Alo; Lepori, Fabio; Meier, Jacob; Palshin, Nikolai; Peternell, Mark; Pulkkanen, Merja; Rusak, James A.; Sharma, Sapna; Wain, Danielle; Zdorovennov, Roman (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Nature Communications
    The quality of lake ice is of uppermost importance for ice safety and under-ice ecology, but its temporal and spatial variability is largely unknown. Here we conducted a coordinated lake ice quality sampling campaign across the Northern Hemisphere during one of the warmest winters since 1880 and show that lake ice during 2020/2021 commonly consisted of unstable white ice, at times contributing up to 100% to the total ice thickness. We observed that white ice increased over the winter season, becoming thickest and constituting the largest proportion of the ice layer towards the end of the ice cover season when fatal winter drownings occur most often and light limits the growth and reproduction of primary producers. We attribute the dominance of white ice before ice-off to air temperatures varying around the freezing point, a con dition which occurs more frequently during warmer winters. Thus, under continued global warming, the prevalence of white ice is likely to substantially increase during the critical period before ice-off, for which we adjusted com monly used equations for human ice safety and light transmittance through ice.
  • Kiviluoto, Katariina; Tapio, Petri; Tuominen, Anu; Lyytimäki, Jari; Ahokas, Ira; Silonsaari, Jonne; Schwanen, Tim (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives
    Highlights •Increasing the share of walking and cycling is one of the building blocks of sustainable mobility transformation. •We organised an online Delphi survey for 30 walking and cycling experts during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. •Disaggregative Delphi analysis is elaborated based on the systemic restructuring of qualitative data. •Transport experts’ views of the future are described in the form of five walking and cycling scenarios up to 2034. •The results can be used for strategic transport planning and policy, and for identifying instruments for walking and cycling promotion in urban areas. Abstract Increasing the share of walking and cycling is one of the building blocks of sustainable mobility transformation. Fundamental changes are needed in society and urban structure to support the integration of walking and cycling into everyday routines. We conducted an online Delphi study with 30 walking and cycling experts during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Finland in the spring of 2020. The aim was to explore transport experts’ views on the future and derive scenarios of walking and cycling with the broader context of the urban mobility system. The scenarios were created using a combination of cluster analysis and qualitative content analysis. In addition, a methodological elaboration of the Disaggregative Delphi analysis was introduced, systematising the analysis of qualitative data. The analysis resulted in five scenarios depicting walking and cycling in 2034: 1. Business as Usual Plus, 2. The Demise of Bus-Transport, 3. The Era of Soft Modes, 4. Public Transport Serving All, and 5. Car-dependent Lifestyles Persist. The scenario set can be used as a basis for strategic transport planning and policy as well as a more practical tool for identifying measures for walking and cycling promotion in urban areas. kaupunkisuunnittelu kestävä kehitys liikkuminen kestävyysmurrokset pyöräily kävely Delfoi-menetelmä kvalitatiivinen tutkimus kyselytutkimus skenaariot tulevaisuus vaihtoehdot
  • Latvala, Pekka; Huuhko, Kim; Kokkonen, Matti (Copernicus Publications, 2022)
    Abstracts of the International Cartographic Association Series
  • Härkönen, Laura H.; Ilmonen, Jari; Tolonen, Kimmo T.; Vuorio, Kristiina; Ahola, Marjo; Vaso, Asta; Käki, Tiina; Lehtovaara, Vilma; Haapalehto, Suvi; Koljonen, Saija; Hautamäki, Jouko; Olli, Pentti; Leinonen, Kirsti; Tiusanen, Maria; Leinonen, Antti; Myllykangas, Nina; Hellsten, Seppo (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2022)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 37/2022
    Vesienhoidon ja luonnonsuojelun tavoitteet ovat useimmiten yhdenmukaisia. Ne tähtäävät paitsi vesiekosysteemien hyvään tilaan, myös lajien ja luontotyyppien suotuisaan suojelutasoon. Vesien ja luontotyyppien tilan parantamisen ohella vesistökunnostustoimenpiteitä voidaan suunnitella myös virkistyskäyttöedellytysten kohentamiseksi ja maisemansuojelun edistämiseksi. Vesistöjen ekologisen tilan parantaminen edellyttää useimmiten riittävää ulkoisen kuormituksen vähentämistä. Näin ollen vesiensuojelutoimet valuma-alueella ovat keskeisiä hoitotoimia vesistökunnostuksissa ja valuma-aluetasoisen kunnostussuunnittelun tarve on nostettu esille useissa ohjelmissa ja strategioissa. Toistaiseksi Natura 2000 -alueiden huomioiminen on kuitenkin jäänyt valuma-aluetason kunnostussuunnittelun ohjeistuksessa vähälle huomiolle. Vesienhoidon ja virkistyskäytön toimenpiteet voivat toisinaan aiheuttaa luontodirektiivin lajien lisääntymis- ja levähdyspaikkojen paikallista heikentymistä ja maisemansuojelulliset hoitotoimenpiteet voivat puolestaan olla ristiriidassa vesiensuojelutavoitteiden kanssa. Myös luonto- ja lintudirektiivin tavoitteet saattavat ajoittain olla ristiriidassa toistensa kanssa. Natura 2000 -alueilla tehtävien vesistökunnostusten ja vesiensuojelutoimenpiteiden tulisi parantaa paitsi vesistön tilaa, myös alueen suojeluperusteena olevan luontotyypin tilaa, sekä edistää luontotyypille ominaisten lajien elinmahdollisuuksia. Luontodirektiivin lajien suotuisan suojelutason sekä lajien lisääntymis- ja levähdyspaikkojen säilyminen on turvattava. Freshabit LIFE IP -hankkeessa (2016–2022) toteutettiin vesistö- ja valuma-aluekunnostuksia yhteensä 33 Natura 2000 -alueella, jotka sijoittuivat 11 vesistöalueelle eri puolille Suomea. Hankkeen tavoitteena oli parantaa Suomen sisävesien luonnon monimuotoisuutta ja kohdevesistöjen ekologista tilaa kehittämällä valuma-aluetason suunnittelun toimintatapoja ja testaamalla niitä hankkeen kohdevesistöissä. Hankkeen kokemusten perusteella koottiin tämä toimintamalli, jossa kuvataan vesistö- ja valuma-aluekunnostusten suunnittelun periaatteet Natura 2000 -alueilla, jotta mahdolliset ristiriidat pystytään huomioimaan ja ratkaisemaan. Natura 2000 -alueilla valuma-aluetason kunnostussuunnittelun keskiössä ovat paitsi erityistä huomiota vaativien lajien ja luontotyyppien tunnistaminen ja huomioiminen toimenpiteiden ajoituksessa ja sijoittamisessa, myös sidosryhmien osallistaminen jo suunnittelun alkuvaiheessa. Sidosryhmistä oleellisimpia ovat maa- ja vesialueiden omistajat. Vesistökunnostusmenetelmät valitaan kohdekohtaisesti, seurantatietojen perusteella tunnistettujen ongelmien ja niiden pohjalta muodostettujen tavoitteiden mukaisesti. Kunnostusten seurantaan tulee varata riittävästi resursseja, jotta vaikuttavuutta pystytään arvioimaan. Seurantaa tulisi tehdä niin vedenlaadun ja biologisten tekijöiden kuin direktiivilajien osalta myös kunnostusten jälkeen. Ulkoisen kuormituksen vähentäminen on avainasemassa, jotta kunnostuksilla voidaan saavuttaa vaikuttavuutta pitkällä tähtäimellä. Restoration and water protection of aquatic ecosystems at Natura 2000 sites: framework for planning The goals of water resource management and nature conservation are most often consistent. Both can aim at a good status of aquatic ecosystems, and at a favorable conservation status of species and habitats. In addition to improving the condition of aquatic ecosystems, restoration measures can also be targeted to improve the prerequisites for recreational use and to promote landscape protection. Improving the ecological status of water bodies typically requires a sufficient reduction of the external loading. Consequently, water protection measures in the catchment area are key management measures on a watershed level. The need for planning restoration measures at the catchment scale has been brought up in several national programs and strategies. However, the consideration of Natura 2000 sites has so far received less attention in such guidelines. Some restoration measures targeted to improve the status of water bodies and their recreational value can sometimes cause a local deterioration of breeding and resting habitats for species that are included in the European Union’s Birds and Habitats Directives. Also, some landscape protection measures can, in turn, conflict with the goals of water protection. Additionally, the objectives of the Birds and Habitats Directives may sometimes conflict with each other. The restoration of water bodies and water protection measures carried out at sites under Natura 2000 network should not only improve the status of aquatic ecosystems and certain habitat types to which protection of the areas are based on, but they should also promote the survival of species that are typical for the given habitat types. A favorable conservation status for species and habitats must be secured. In the Freshabit LIFE IP -project (2016–2022), restoration and water protection measures were carried out at a total of 33 Natura 2000 sites located in 11 separate watersheds around the country. The aim of the project was to improve the biodiversity of Finnish inland waters and the ecological status of the target lakes and streams by developing and implementing planning procedures at a catchment scale. Based on the project’s experiences, this framework for planning was put together to describe the principles of planning restoration and water protection measures at Natura 2000 sites, so that possible conflicts can be considered and resolved. At Natura 2000 sites, the focus of planning restorations at the catchment level is not only about identification and consideration of species and habitats that require special attention in the timing and placement of different measures. It is also about the involvement of stakeholders, most importantly the owners of land and water areas, already in the initial stages of planning. The restoration methods are selected site-specifically, according to the problems identified and targets set on the basis of validated monitoring data. Sufficient resources should always be set aside for monitoring the impacts of restorations, that should be carried out before, during and after the easures allowing for evaluating their effectiveness. Monitoring should include both water quality, morphology and the species included in the Directives. Reducing the external loading is always a key to achieve effectiveness in the long term.
  • Kraft, Kaisa; Velhonoja, Otso; Eerola, Tuomas; Suikkanen, Sanna; Tamminen, Timo; Haraguchi, Lumi; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Kielosto, Sami; Johansson, Milla; Lensu, Lasse; Kälviäinen, Heikki; Haario, Heikki; Seppälä, Jukka (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    Frontiers in Marine Science
    Plankton communities form the basis of aquatic ecosystems and elucidating their role in increasingly important environmental issues is a persistent research question. Recent technological advances in automated microscopic imaging, together with cloud platforms for high-performance computing, have created possibilities for collecting and processing detailed high-frequency data on planktonic communities, opening new horizons for testing core hypotheses in aquatic ecosystems. Analyzing continuous streams of big data calls for development and deployment of novel computer vision and machine learning systems. The implementation of these analysis systems is not always straightforward with regards to operationality, and issues regarding data flows, computing and data treatment need to be considered. We created a data pipeline for automated near-real-time classification of phytoplankton during remote deployment of imaging flow cytometer (Imaging FlowCytobot, IFCB). Convolutional neural network (CNN) is used to classify continuous imaging data with probability thresholds used to filter out images not belonging to our existing classes. The automated data flow and classification system were used to monitor dominating species of filamentous cyanobacteria on the coast of Finland during summer 2021. We demonstrate that good phytoplankton recognition can be achieved with transfer learning utilizing a relatively shallow, publicly available, pre-trained CNN model and fine-tuning it with community-specific phytoplankton images (overall F1-score of 0.95 for test set of our labeled image data complemented with a 50% unclassifiable image portion). This enables both fast training and low computing resource requirements for model deployment making it easy to modify and applicable in wide range of situations. The system performed well when used to classify a natural phytoplankton community over different seasons (overall F1-score 0.82 for our evaluation data set). Furthermore, we address the key challenges of image classification for varying planktonic communities and analyze the practical implications of confused classes. We published our labeled image data set of Baltic Sea phytoplankton community for the training of image recognition models (similar to 63000 images in 50 classes) to accelerate implementation of imaging systems for other brackish and freshwater communities. Our evaluation data set, 59 fully annotated samples of natural communities throughout an annual cycle, is also available for model testing purposes (similar to 150000 images).
  • Viljanen, Ari; Kauristie, Kirsti; Laitinen, Tiera; Osmane, Adnane; Palmroth, Minna; Rintamäki, Emilia; Savola, Mikko; Siirtola, Roope; Suni, Jonas; Turc, Lucile (Ilmatieteen laitos - Finnish Meteorological Institute, 2022)
    Raportteja - Rapporter - Reports 2022:2
    Tässä hankkeessa kerättiin tietoa äärimmäisen voimakkaiden avaruussää-myrskyjen vaikutuksista erilaisiin teknisiin järjestelmiin. Selvitykseen osallistuivat Ilmatieteen laitos, Helsingin yliopisto (HY, Avaruusfysiikan tutkimus) ja Change in Momentum -yritys. Raportissa esitellään laajasta kirjallisuustutkimuksesta kerättyä tietoa voimakkaista myrskyistä ja tietokonesimulaatioiden tuloksia. Raportin loppuosassa käsitellään avaruussäämyrskyihin liittyviä suoria ja välillisiä yhteiskunnallisia riskejä, kuvataan verrokkimaiden kansallisten riskiarvioiden tuloksia jaesitellään varautumisharjoituksiin soveltuva äärimmäisen avaruusmyrskyn skenaario. Kirjallisuustutkimuksessa kiinnitettiin erityistä huomiota avaruus-säämyrskyjen aiheuttamiin ongelmiin sähkönjakelujärjestelmissä niiden laajojen kerrannaisvaikutusten vuoksi. Nopeat vaihtelut Maan magneetti-kentässä synnyttävät jakelujärjestelmiin haitallisia geomagneettisesti indusoituneita (GI) virtoja. Äärimmäisten myrskyjen aikaan saattaa esiintyä jopa kolme kertaa suurempia magneettikentän aikaderivaattoja Euroopassa mitattuihin arvoihin verrattuna. Haittavaikutuksille altis alue ulottuu Keski- ja Etelä-Eurooppaan asti. Meidän tulee siis varautua myrskyjen aiheuttamiin välillisiin vaikutuksiin esim. kansainvälisten toimitusketjujen ongelmien seurauksena, vaikka Suomen sähkönjakelujärjestelmän GI-virtojen sietokyvyn tiedetään olevan hyvä. Koska geomagneettisia myrskyjä riittävän tarkasti kuvaavat aikasarjat ovat verrattain lyhyitä (<150 vuotta), tilastollisissa arvioissa esiintymistodennäköisyyksille esiintyy vielä paljon vaihtelua. Kirjallisuudessa annetut arviot yleisesti vertailukohteena käytetyn vuoden 1859 Carrington-myrskyn kaltaisen ääritapahtuman todennäköisyy-delle seuraavan 10 vuoden sisällä vaihtelevat välillä 0,5–20 %. Hankkeessa testattiin ensimmäistä kertaa Helsingin yliopiston Vlasiator-simulaatiota avaruussäämyrskyjen mallinnuksessa erityisesti satelliittien toimintaympäristöön liittyen. Suurteholaskentaa vaativa Vlasiator on maailman ainoa mallinnustyökalu, joka kattaa koko lähiavaruuden ja kuvaa tarkasti avaruusplasman ionien vaikutuksen myrskyjen kehittymiseen. Simulaatiot osoittivat, että äärimmäisten myrskyjen aikaan geostationaariset ja navigointi-satelliitit menettävät ajoittain magnetosfäärin antaman suojan Auringon hiukkaspurkauksia vastaan. Geostationaaristen satelliittien hiukkasmittausten perusteella HY:n tutkijat arvioivat myös, että korkeaenergiaisten elektronien vuot saattavat olla äärimmäisissä tilanteissa 1–3 kertaluokkaa suuremmat kuin aiempien myrskyjen aikana mitatut satelliittiteknologialle ongelmia aiheuttaneet vuot. Tässä hankkeessa vuosina 2021–2022 tehtyjä Vlasiatorajoja ja muuta tutkimustyötä tarkennetaan ja laajennetaan Suomen Akatemian rahoittamassa “Preparing for the most extreme space weather” -hankeessa vuosina 2020–2023.
  • Kahlert, Maria; Maaria Karjalainen, Satu; Keck, Francois; Kelly, Martyn; Ramon, Mathieu; Rimet, Frederic; Schneider, Susanne; Tapolczai, Kálmán; Zimmermann, Jonas (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Ecological Indicators
    Diatom taxonomy has evolved in recent years, with many new species described and new approaches such as molecular genetics showing the existence of cryptic diversity within currently accepted species. This cryptic diversity is not well understood even for common freshwater genera such as Fragilaria and Ulnaria. The purpose of our study was to define taxon-specific ecological profiles and geographical distributions for unique molecular identifiers (amplicon sequence variants, ASVs) linked to curated taxonomy for these genera. Our goal is to contribute to the development of ecological assessment methods, and to the understanding why we often observe so many diatom species co-occurring in a single sample. We filtered a large (770 samples) metabarcoding dataset with linked environmental data covering several countries in Europe for genetic variants (ASVs) assigned to currently accepted species of our target genera. We studied the geographical distribution of the ASVs, and tested for ASV-pair co-occurrence. We modelled ASV-specific preferences for pH, alkalinity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and conductivity, and analysed their preference for lakes or streams as habitat. Our study confirmed that there seems to be no general geographical barrier for the distribution of freshwater benthic diatom ASVs in Europe, but that dispersal is not rapid enough to hide historical events. The Fragilaria and Ulnaria ASVs in our study showed considerable overlap in geographical distribution, habitat and ecological preferences. We found evidence that only large differences in preferences for the analysed water chemistry variables prevented the co occurrence of ASVs at the same sites. Instead, Fragilaria and Ulnaria ASVs co-occurred frequently in samples. We found subtle differences in ecological preferences for some ASV pairs, which might in part explain the co occurrence by the avoidance of direct competition. However, the great overlap in distribution and ecological preferences suggests that other factors not studied here were also responsible for the observed co-occurrences and high richness of ASVs found at many sites. To our knowledge, we are the first to use ASVs in combina tion with a curated taxonomy to understand co-occurrence, specific ecological profiles and large-scale geographical distribution for unique identifiers not biased by the quality of reference databases, clustering methods, or non-harmonized morphological identification. Thus, our results can now be used in subsequent projects to interpret ASV occurrences, e.g. for development of ecological assessment methods.
  • Kela (Kela, 2022)
    Suomen virallinen tilasto
  • Vaalama, Anu; Hartikainen, Helinä; Soinne, Helena; Lukkari, Kaarina (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    SN Applied Sciences
    This study reports results on the estimated magnitude of changes in P sorption isotherms in clayey mud sediments when performed using (1) freeze-dried instead of fresh sediment samples and (2) artificial sea water (ASW) instead of ambient near-bottom water. The sediments used differed in their P sorption. For the isotherms, sediments were equilibrated for 48 h in solutions of varying P concentration whereafter the amount of P sorbed or desorbed was determined. We adjusted the modified Freundlich equation to the isotherm data and assessed differences in the isotherms between the treatments by comparing equilibrium P concentrations and P buffering capacities determined from the isotherm equation. Freeze-drying decreased the P sorption in all investigated sediments, but the magnitude of the changes varied depending on the properties of the sediments. The effect was minor in the sediment abundant in P sorption sites and low in easily exchangeable P, while it was clearer in the sediments originally high in P or low in sorption surfaces. ASW and ambient water produced similar isotherms suggesting that ASW is a suitable equilibrium solution in P exchange experiments with muddy clay sediments. This study enlightens the processes occurring in freeze-drying. The results highlight that when examining the effects of dissimilar treatments or experimental conditions on the P exchange isotherms the magnitude and significance of the observed changes should be evaluated in a proper context considering the precision of the method.
  • Lautamo, Tiina; Juntunen, Kristiina; Lällä, Kaisa; Pikkarainen, Aila (Kela, 2022)
    Tässä raportissa kuvataan nuorten aikuisten ja ikääntyneiden aikuisten toimijuuden itsearviointiin kehitetyn ATPA19-itsearviointityökalun (Assessment Tool of Perceived Agency, ATPA19) teoreettiset perusteet ja luotettavuustutkimuksen vaiheet päätuloksineen. Lisäksi esitetään työkalun käyttöä koskevia suosituksia. Uusimmassa kuntoutusta koskevassa keskustelussa kuntoutumisen tavoitteena on korostunut kuntoutujien toimijuuden ja osallistumisen edistäminen sekä näiden tukeminen erilaisissa arjen ympäristöissä. Jos kuntoutuksen tavoitteet keskittyvät näihin toimintakeskeisiin ilmiöihin, tulisi myös arvioinnin kohdentua niihin. Samalla henkilön omat näkemykset päivittäisen elämänsä mahdollisuuksista ja haasteista voidaan kattavammin ottaa kuntoutusinterventioiden lähtökohdiksi. ATPA19-itsearviointityökalun avulla voidaan arvioida henkilön koettua toimijuutta ja tukea samalla häntä tuomaan arviointikeskusteluun omia näkemyksiään toimijuudestaan ja sen eri osa-tekijöistä. Lisäksi arviointi tuo esille niitä henkilön itsensä nimeämiä toimintoja, jotka tuovat voimavaroja arkeen, mutta myös niitä, jotka vievät voimia. Näiden pohjalta voidaan keskustella henkilön toivomista muutostarpeista, joista puolestaan muodostuvat luontevasti kuntoutuksen tavoitteet ja interventioiden painotukset. Koetun toimijuuden itsearviointi täydentää ja laajentaa osaltaan toimintakykylähtöisen kuntoutuksen arviointiperinnettä. ATPA19-itsearviointityökalua suositellaan käytettäväksi itsearviointiin joko haastatellen tai itsenäisesti täyttäen. Kohderyhmäksi on määritelty aikuiset henkilöt, joilla on riittävät valmiudet kuvata ja pohtia omaa toimijuuttaan.
  • Räisänen, Petri; Merikanto, Joonas; Makkonen, Risto; Savolahti, Mikko; Kirkevåg, Alf; Sand, Maria; Seland, Øyvind; Partanen, Antti-Ilari (Copernicus GmbH, 2022)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
    For short-lived climate forcers such as black carbon (BC), the atmospheric concentrations, radiative forcing (RF), and, ultimately, the subsequent effects on climate, depend on the location and timing of the emis sions. Here, we employ the NorESM1-Happi version of the Norwegian Earth System Model to systematically study how the RF associated with BC emissions depends on the latitude, longitude, and seasonality of the emis sions. The model aerosol scheme is run in an offline mode to allow for an essentially noise-free evaluation of the RF associated with even minor changes in emissions. A total of 960 experiments were run to evaluate the BC direct RF (dirRF) and the RF associated with BC in snow/ice (snowRF) for emissions in 192 latitude–longitude boxes covering the globe, both for seasonally uniform emissions and for emissions in each of the four seasons separately. We also calculate a rough estimate of the global temperature response to regional emissions and provide a Fortran-based tool to facilitate the further use of our results. Overall, the results demonstrate that the BC RFs strongly depend on the latitude, longitude, and season of the emissions. In particular, the global mean dirRF normalized by emissions (direct specific forcing; dirSF) depends much more strongly on the emission location than suggested by previous studies that have considered emissions from continental-/subcontinental-scale regions. Even for seasonally uniform emissions, dirSF varies by more than a factor of 10, depending on the emission location. These variations correlate strongly with BC lifetime, which varies from less than 2 to 11 d. BC dirSF is largest for emissions in tropical convective regions and in subtropical and midlatitude continents in summer, both due to the abundant solar radiation and strong convective transport, which increases BC lifetime and the amount of BC above clouds. The dirSF is also relatively large for emissions in high-albedo, high-latitude regions such as Antarctica and Greenland. The dependence of snow specific forcing (snowSF) on the emission location is even larger. While BC emissions originating from most low-latitude regions result in negligible snowSF, the maxima of snowSF for emissions in polar regions greatly exceed the largest values of dirSF for low-latitude emissions. The large magnitude of snowSF for high-latitude BC emissions suggests that, for a given mass of BC emitted, the climate impacts are also largest for high-latitude emissions. The additivity of the RFs resulting from BC emissions in different regions and seasons is also investigated. It is found that dirRF is almost additive for current-day emissions, so that summing the RFs computed for individual regions/seasons without considering BC emissions from elsewhere overestimates dirRF by less than 10 %. For snowRF, the overestimate is somewhat larger, at ∼ 20 %.
  • Rantala, Salla; Swallow, Brent; Lähteenmäki-Uutela, Anu; Paloniemi, Riikka (Elsevier Science, 2022)
    Environmental science and policy
    Highlights •We studied how emerging forest data governance is shaped by dynamics in forest governance. •Forest data institutions may support path-dependency or renewal of forest governance, depending on context. •Innovative data institutions may enable a dynamic governance continuum from closed to open natural resource data. •Future studies should focus on feedback effects of data governance on natural resource governance. Abstract The rapid development of new digital technologies for natural resource management has created a need to design and update governance regimes for effective and transparent generation, sharing and use of digital natural resource data. In this paper, we contribute to this novel area of investigation from the perspective of institutional change. We develop a conceptual framework to analyze how emerging natural resource data governance is shaped by related natural resource governance; complex, multilevel systems of actors, institutions and their interplay. We apply this framework to study forest data governance and its roots in forest governance in Finland and Canada. In Finland, an emphasis on open forest data and the associated legal reform represents the instutionalization of a mixed open data-bioeconomy discourse, pushed by higher-level institutional requirements towards greater openness and shaped by changing actor dynamics in relation to diverse forest values. In Canada, a strong institutional lock-in around public-private partnerships in forest management has engendered an approach that is based on voluntary data sharing agreements and fragmented data management, conforming with the entrenched interests of autonomous sub-national actors and thus extending the path-dependence of forest governance to forest data governance. We conclude by proposing how the framework could be further developed and tested to help explain which factors condition the formation of natural resource data institutions and subsequently the (re-)distribution of benefits they govern. Transparent and efficient data approaches can be enabled only if the analysis of data institutions is given equal attention to the technological development of data solutions.
  • Khan, Uzair Akbar; Postila, Heini; Kujala, Katharina; Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Ecological Engineering
    Highlights •Initial peaks in tracer concentration were simulated satisfactorily. •Transport of nitrogen especially in winter was modeled with limited success. •Limitations of the model and possibilities for improvement are discussed. •Possibility to use multiple HYDRUS add-ons simultaneously may be critical. Abstract The HYDRUS wetland module is widely used together with the biokinetic model CWM1 to simulate reactive transport of contaminants in constructed wetlands. However, this approach has not been used previously to simulate processes in peat-based wetlands operating in cold climates and treating mining-influenced water. In this study, the goal was to clarify changes in flow, transport, and nitrogen removal processes in cold climate treatment peatlands by assessing the performance of HYDRUS-CWM1. Flow and non-reactive transport of tracer, and reactive transport of ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate, in two pilot wetlands operated under controlled conditions representing frozen (winter) and frost-free (summer) periods were simulated. Model simulation outputs were compared against data obtained from the pilot wetlands and from a full-scale treatment peatland treating mining-influenced water in an Arctic region. Initial peaks in tracer concentration were simulated satisfactorily, but transformation and transport of nitrogen species in treatment peatlands, especially under partially frozen conditions, were modeled with only limited success. Limitations of the model and the assumptions made for the simulations have been discussed to highlight the challenges in modeling of treatment peatlands.
  • Grönroos, Päivi; Leivuori, Mirja; Näykki, Teemu; Kovru, Olga; Kolehmainen, Jaana; Tervonen, Keijo; Lanteri, Sari; Väisänen, Ritva; Ilmakunnas, Markku (Finnish Environment Institute, 2022)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 36/2022
    Proftest SYKE carried out the proficiency test for the determination of chlorophyll a, oxygen, salinity, SiO2, TIC, and TOC in natural waters in May 2022. In total, 28 participants joined in the proficiency test. Either the calculated concentration or the robust mean or the mean of the results reported by the participants was chosen to be the assigned value for the measurands. For the synthetic sample of salinity, the mean of the participants’ and the homogeneity test results measured by the salinometer was used as the assigned value. The performance of the participants was evaluated by using z scores. In this proficiency test 88 % of the results were satisfactory, when deviation 3.5–20 % from the assigned value was accepted. Warm thanks to all the participants in this proficiency test! Pätevyyskoe 06/2022: Luonnonvesianalyysit II Proftest SYKE järjesti luonnonvesiä analysoiville laboratorioille pätevyyskokeen toukokuussa 2022. Määritettävinä testisuureina olivat happi, klorofylli a, saliniteetti, SiO2, TIC ja TOC synteettisestä näytteestä sekä murto- ja jokivedestä. Pätevyyskokeessa oli yhteensä 28 osallistujaa. Testisuureen vertailuarvona käytettiin joko laskennallista pitoisuutta tai osallistujien tulosten robustia keskiarvoa tai keskiarvoa. Saliniteetin synteettiselle näytteelle käytettiin vertailuarvona salinometrimääritysten osallistujatulosten ja homogeenisuustestauksen tulosten keskiarvoa. Tulosten arviointi tehtiin z-arvojen perusteella, jolloin määrityksissä sallittiin 3,5–20 %:n poikkeama vertailuarvosta. Koko aineistossa hyväksyttäviä tuloksia oli 88 %. Kiitos pätevyyskokeen osallistujille!
  • Rocchini, Duccio; Santos, Maria J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Féret, Jean‐Baptiste; Asner, Gregory P.; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Dalponte, Michele; Feilhauer, Hannes; Foody, Giles M.; Geller, Gary N.; Gillespie, Thomas W.; He, Kate S.; Kleijn, David; Leitão, Pedro J.; Malavasi, Marco; Moudrý, Vítězslav; Müllerová, Jana; Nagendra, Harini; Normand, Signe; Ricotta, Carlo; Schaepman, Michael E.; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Šímová, Petra; Torresani, Michele; Townsend, Philip A.; Turner, Woody; Vihervaara, Petteri; Wegmann, Martin; Lenoir, Jonathan (American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2022)
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences
    Key Points: • Remote sensing has opened possibilities for Earth observation from air and space, allowing us to monitor ecological change • Biodiversity monitoring based on field data is almost inconceivable at the scale of the entire Earth • The spectral species concept, relating field to remotely sensed data, can open new ways to measure diversity from space Abstract Biodiversity monitoring is an almost inconceivable challenge at the scale of the entire Earth. The current (and soon to be flown) generation of spaceborne and airborne optical sensors (i.e., imaging spectrometers) can collect detailed information at unprecedented spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions. These new data streams are preceded by a revolution in modeling and analytics that can utilize the richness of these datasets to measure a wide range of plant traits, community composition, and ecosystem functions. At the heart of this framework for monitoring plant biodiversity is the idea of remotely identifying species by making use of the 'spectral species' concept. In theory, the spectral species concept can be defined as a species characterized by a unique spectral signature and thus remotely detectable within pixel units of a spectral image. In reality, depending on spatial resolution, pixels may contain several species which renders species-specific assignment of spectral information more challenging. The aim of this paper is to review the spectral species concept and relate it to underlying ecological principles, while also discussing the complexities, challenges and opportunities to apply this concept given current and future scientific advances in remote sensing.
  • Gonzales-Inca, Carlos; Calle, Mikel; Croghan, Danny; Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Marttila, Hannu; Silander, Jari; Alho, Petteri (MDPI AG, 2022)
  • Lahtinen, Sonja (Unigrafia Oy, 2022)
    FGI Publications 167 - Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL THESES, 54/2022
    Terrestrial, Earth-fixed, reference frames are fundamental, but often unnoticeable, components for modern societies. Today, regional terrestrial reference frames are created and maintained by the measurement of continuously operating Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reference stations. In Fennoscandia, glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) causes deformation, also known as postglacial rebound, decreasing the accuracy of national static reference frames referring to the European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89). Considering the deformation is thus a necessity to accurately transform coordinates from the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) to national ETRS89 realisations such as EUREF-FIN in Finland. This dissertation focused on estimating densified reference frame realisations in the global reference frames for the Nordic and Baltic countries. The work was carried out in the GNSS Analysis Centre project of the Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG). It builds on eight local analysis centres, one in each country, processing its sub-net. The emphasis of the dissertation was on developing methods for combination of the sub-nets, analysis of the time series, and estimating a multi-year position and velocity solution, including uncertainties of the station velocities. The results showed that the sub-net solutions were consistent with the combined solution within 1–2 mm. The distribution of the GNSS processing into local sub-nets thus strengthened the daily solutions due to the redundantly processed reference stations. The station-wise position time series were analysed for offsets both manually and with the developed automatic approach with a 74 % success rate in respect to the manual interpretation. Station velocities were estimated for approximately 270 stations from daily position solutions. The lengths of time series varied between 3 and 20 years. Uncertainty levels of 0.10, 0.10, and 0.25 mm/y for the north, east, and up components respectively were reached with 10 years of data for more than 90 % of stations. The detailed understanding of the GNSS time series in the Nordic and Baltic countries will enhance the quality of the European and global terrestrial reference frame realisations, because some of the stations contribute with the same data to those solutions. The densified reference frame solutions will be utilised in the maintenance of the national geodetic reference frames, including deformation modelling and the development of the accurate coordinate transformations. This will ultimately extend the lifetime of the national reference frames like EUREF-FIN.

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