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  • Pelkonen, Riina; Alfthan, Georg; Järvinen, Olli (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    The aim of the study was to study the geographical and temporal variation of Cd, Pb, As and Ni in wild edible mushrooms and to evaluate possible toxicological risks resulting from their consumption. The research focused on 12 mushroom species commonly collected in Finland. The samples were collected at common collection sites in Southern Finland between the years 1977 and 1999 and analysed using ICP-MS. The median dry weight concentrations ranged between 0.22-29.70 mg kg-1 d.w. for Cd, 0.36-6.05 mg kg-1 d.w. for Pb, 0.14-5.11 mg kg-1 d.w. for As and 0.41-9.08 mg kg-1 d.w. for Ni. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb and As were found in Agaricus abruptibulbus and the highest level of Ni in Albatrellus ovinus. The Pb concentrations in A. abruptibulbus and Cd levels in Lactarius species were found to be significantly higher at polluted than at unpolluted sites. The Pb contents of A. ovinus, Boletus species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Lactarius species as well as Cd levels of A. abruptibulbus and Leccinum species were signifi cantly higher for samples collected in 1977-1983 than for ones collected in 1992-1999. Decomposer species had generally higher concentrations of Cd, Pb and As than mycorrhizal fungi. Apart from the high element concentrations of A. abruptibulbus, the consumption of mushrooms was generally not considered to pose a toxicological risk in the light of the safety limits set by WHO. However, the Cd and Pb contents in A. abruptibulbus and Cd levels of Gyromitra esculenta and Boletus species exceeded the EU maximum permitted concentrations for cultivated mushrooms.
  • Björk, Bo-Christer; Laakso, Mikael (Elsevier, 2010)
    There has been a demand for uniform CAD standards in the construction industry ever since the large-scale introduction of computer aided design systems in the late 1980s. While some standards have been widely adopted without much formal effort, other standards have failed to gain support even though considerable resources have been allocated for the purpose. Establishing a standard concerning building information modeling has been one particularly active area of industry development and scientific interest within recent years. In this paper, four different standards are discussed as cases: the IGES and DXF/DWG standards for representing the graphics in 2D drawings, the ISO 13567 standard for the structuring of building information on layers, and the IFC standard for building product models. Based on a literature study combined with two qualitative interview studies with domain experts, a process model is proposed to describe and interpret the contrasting histories of past CAD standardisation processes.
  • Ignatius, Janica Sofia (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014)
  • Poso, Simo; Waite, Mark-Leo (The Finnish Society of Forest Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute., 1995)
    A calculation procedure is presented for calculating and analysing remeasured permanent sample plots. Data for eight different fixed and variable size plot types were simulated on the basis of two stands whose trees were mapped and measured in 1982 and 1986. The accuracy and efficiency of the plot types were assessed and compared. The calculation procedure is based on treewise expansion factors and the division of trees sampled into state/measurement classes. Nine classes were required for variable size plots and six for fixed size plots. A relascope plot with basal-area factor 1 (m2/ha) proved to be most efficient for estimating basal-area at a given time and a fixed size circular plot with radius 10 m for estimating basal-area increment over a given time period. The main problems were related to the estimation of non-measurable variables, e.g., the initial diameters of ingrowth trees, i.e., trees having passed the threshold size during the measurement period. Most problematic were cut trees belonging to the ingrowth or sample enlargement classes. It is nevertheless thought that the system is appropriate for monitoring forest changes and making sensitivity analyses with permanent sample plots.
  • Mattinen, Maija; Hildén, Mikael; Petäjä, Jouko (Finnish Environment Institute, 2012)
    The UN’s climate agreement and European Union necessitate evaluation of the policy sectors, the implementation of policy measures, and the achievement of the set goals. Last reporting about policies and measures for EU was done in 2011. In this report the emission impact calculations of policies and measures targeting on waste sector and F-gases are described. Policy measures of these sectors fall in the remit of ministry of environment in Finland. The procedure of calculations in waste sector is explained in detail from methods and required input data. The calculations include emissions related to solid wastes, waste waters and composting. The scenario calculations are done with the aid of Excel-spreadsheet at the Finnish Environment Institute. In addition, the report discusses briefly the economical assessment of waste sector that has been identified as a target for development. In the second part of the report, the data collection, calculation and reporting process of the F-gases are explained. More detailed explanation of emission scenario calculations has been documented in two reports written at the Finnish Environment Institute. This report presents briefly the main sources in sub-sector emission scenarios and gives and overview about the calculations.
  • Korhonen, Kari T. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1992)
  • Perko-Mäkelä, Päivikki (Evira, 2011)
    Campylobacter, mainly Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, are worldwide recognized as a major cause of bacterial food-borne gastroenteritis (World Health Organization 2010). Epidemiological studies have shown handling or eating of poultry to be significant risk factors for human infections. Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry meat production cycle. In summer 1999, every broiler flock from all three major Finnish poultry slaughterhouses was studied during a five month period. Caecal samples were taken in the slaughterhouses from five birds per flock. A total of 1 132 broiler flocks were tested and 33 (2.9%) of those were Campylobacter-positive. Thirty-one isolates were identified as C. jejuni and two isolates were C. coli. The isolates were serotyped for heat-stable antigens (HS) and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The most common serotypes found were HS 6,7, 12 and 4-complex. Using a combination of SmaI and KpnI patterns, 18 different PFGE types were identified. Thirty-five Finnish C. jejuni strains with five SmaI/SacII PFGE types selected among human and chicken isolates from 1997 and 1998 were used for comparison of their PFGE patterns, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) patterns, HaeIII ribotypes, and HS serotypes. The discriminatory power of PFGE, AFLP and ribotyping with HaeIII were shown to be at the same level for this selected set of strains, and these methods assigned the strains into the same groups. The PFGE and AFLP patterns within a genotype were highly similar, indicating genetic relatedness. An HS serotype was distributed among different genotypes, and different serotypes were identified within one genotype. From one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms (together 12 flocks) and from 11 stages at the slaughterhouse a total of 456 samples were collected during one and the half year. For the detection of Campylobacter both conventional culture and a PCR method were used. No Campylobacter were detected in either of the samples from the turkey parent flock or from the hatchery samples using the culture method. Instead PCR detected DNA of Campylobacter in five faecal samples from the turkey parent flock and in one fluff and an eggshell sample. Six out of 12 commercial turkey flocks were found negative at the farm level but only two of those were negative at slaughter. Campylobacter-positive samples within the flock at slaughter were detected between 0% and 94%, with evisceration and chilling water being the most critical stages for contamination. All of a total of 121 Campylobacter isolates were shown to be C. jejuni using a multiplex PCR assay. PFGE analysis of all isolates with KpnI restriction enzyme resulted in 11 PFGE types (I-XI) and flaA-SVR typing yielded nine flaA-SVR alleles. Three Campylobacter-positive turkey flocks were colonized by a limited number of Campylobacter genotypes both at the farm and slaughter level.In conclusion, in our first study in 1999 a low prevalence of Campylobacter in Finnish broiler flocks was detected and it has remained at a low level during the study period until the present. In the turkey meat production, we found that flocks which were negative at the farm became contaminated with Campylobacter at the slaughter process. These results suggest that proper and efficient cleaning and disinfection of slaughter and processing premises are needed to avoid cross-contamination. Prevention of colonization at the farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of Campylobacter-positive poultry meat in Finland. In Finland, with a persistent low level of Campylobacter-positive flocks, it could be speculated that the use of logistic slaughtering, according to Campylobacter status at farm, might have be advantageous in reducing Campylobacter contamination of retail poultry products. However, the significance of the domestic poultry meat for human campylobacteriosis in Finland should be evaluated.
  • Rikula, Ulla (Evira, 2008)
    Canine distemper (CD) is one of the longest-known infectious diseases of dogs and is still prevalent in many parts of the world. Vaccination combined with biosecurity measures is the most productive way to prevent and control infectious diseases. The beneficial effects of vaccination are realized not only on the individual but also on the population level, the latter in the form of herd immunity (HI). Control of CD among dogs relies heavily on vaccination, while in fur farms and zoos with several species or large numbers of CD-susceptible animals in close contact, biosecurity measures in some cases offer the only available means for CD control. Modified live CD virus vaccines have been successfully used to control CD among farmed mink, and since no licensed vaccines for other species kept for fur exist, mink CD vaccines have also been used for foxes and raccoon dogs in CD emergency situations. CD vaccines for dogs (Canis familiaris) and mink (Mustela vison) were studied in experimental settings for their ability to induce virus-neutralising (VN) antibodies in target species. Mink vaccines were also assessed in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes), blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Purpose-bred beagle dogs were vaccinated twice with one of three CD vaccines: Candur® SHP, Canlan®-3 or Dohyvac® DA2P, and the levels of VN antibodies were determined at the time of vaccination and one month after the second vaccination. Fur animals were vaccinated once with Distemink®, Distem®-R-TC or vaccine 3 (which was not licensed in Finland) and the levels of VN antibodies were determined at vaccination and 2-4 times 1-4 months afterwards. Significant differences among vaccine groups were found both in the proportion of animals with measurable levels of VN antibodies and in the mean titres of antibodies. The levels of VN antibodies were also determined from a large field sample (n = 4 627) of vaccinated dogs. In addition to the three CD vaccines in the seroconversion study above, additional two vaccines, Duramune®-4 and Nobivac® DHP, had been used in the field. Each dog with a known vaccination history, date of birth, sex and breed was sampled once. Based on the overall geometric mean titre of the dogs vaccinated with a single vaccine brand, vaccines were divided into high-take (Candur®, Nobivac® and Duramune®) and low-take (Dohyvac® and Canlan®) groups. The vaccine groups differed significantly among dogs less than two years of age both in the proportion of dogs with detectable VN antibodies and in the mean titres. Both the number of vaccinations and age were associated with the titre and vaccine usage. To control for possible confounding factors, the comparison of titres among vaccine usage groups was adjusted by classifying them according to the number of vaccinations (one to four) and the age group (less than one, one to two, or over two years old). The same division into low- and high-take vaccines was observed, irrespective of the number of vaccinations the dogs had received. The observations of this seroprevalence study regarding Candur® , Canlan® and Dohyvac® were consistent with the results of the seroconversion study. CD was reintroduced into Finland in 1990 after 16 years of absence. The disease remained at a low endemic level in 1990-1994, reached epidemic proportions in 1994-1995 and disappeared during 1995. The epidemic also involved vaccinated dogs. Among the virologically-confirmed cases the proportion of Dohyvac®-vaccinated dogs was higher than expected from the market shares on the assumption that all the vaccines had an equal take. As a result of this observation, Dohyvac® was withdrawn from and Nobivac® and Duramune® introduced to the market during 1995. A drastic redistribution of the market shares between the low-take and high-take vaccines took place, and this coincided with the decline and dying out of the outbreak. The observed occurrence pattern of CD from 1990-1996 was largely attributed to the changes in the level of HI, although the possible contribution of other factors, such as developments in the dog demographics, was also recognized. It was concluded that an HI above 75% is needed to keep CD in check, i.e., only sporadic cases of CD, at most, can occur. With the currently used vaccines an HI of 80% corresponds to a vaccine coverage of some 94%. It was concluded that the development of vaccine-induced immunity is a multifactorial process depending on the properties of the vaccine, on the individual variation, age, species and other factors influencing the immunocompetence of the host. On the individual level the prevention of clinical signs is sufficient, but on the population level, halting the circulation of the virus is crucial for the definitive control of CD. The ultimate test and criterion for a vaccine is its contribution to herd immunity. Heterogeneity in the dog population contributes to the occurrence of CD.
  • Rikula, Ulla (Evira, 2008)
    Canine distemper (CD) is one of the longest-known infectious diseases of dogs and is still prevalent in many parts of the world. Vaccination combined with biosecurity measures is the most productive way to prevent and control infectious diseases. The beneficial effects of vaccination are realized not only on the individual but also on the population level, the latter in the form of herd immunity (HI). Control of CD among dogs relies heavily on vaccination, while in fur farms and zoos with several species or large numbers of CD-susceptible animals in close contact, biosecurity measures in some cases offer the only available means for CD control. Modified live CD virus vaccines have been successfully used to control CD among farmed mink, and since no licensed vaccines for other species kept for fur exist, mink CD vaccines have also been used for foxes and raccoon dogs in CD emergency situations. CD vaccines for dogs (Canis familiaris) and mink (Mustela vison) were studied in experimental settings for their ability to induce virus-neutralising (VN) antibodies in target species. Mink vaccines were also assessed in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes), blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Purpose-bred beagle dogs were vaccinated twice with one of three CD vaccines: Candur® SHP, Canlan®-3 or Dohyvac® DA2P, and the levels of VN antibodies were determined at the time of vaccination and one month after the second vaccination. Fur animals were vaccinated once with Distemink®, Distem®-R-TC or vaccine 3 (which was not licensed in Finland) and the levels of VN antibodies were determined at vaccination and 2-4 times 1-4 months afterwards. Significant differences among vaccine groups were found both in the proportion of animals with measurable levels of VN antibodies and in the mean titres of antibodies. The levels of VN antibodies were also determined from a large field sample (n = 4 627) of vaccinated dogs. In addition to the three CD vaccines in the seroconversion study above, additional two vaccines, Duramune®-4 and Nobivac® DHP, had been used in the field. Each dog with a known vaccination history, date of birth, sex and breed was sampled once. Based on the overall geometric mean titre of the dogs vaccinated with a single vaccine brand, vaccines were divided into high-take (Candur®, Nobivac® and Duramune®) and low-take (Dohyvac® and Canlan®) groups. The vaccine groups differed significantly among dogs less than two years of age both in the proportion of dogs with detectable VN antibodies and in the mean titres. Both the number of vaccinations and age were associated with the titre and vaccine usage. To control for possible confounding factors, the comparison 8 of titres among vaccine usage groups was adjusted by classifying them according to the number of vaccinations (one to four) and the age group (less than one, one to two, or over two years old). The same division into low- and high-take vaccines was observed, irrespective of the number of vaccinations the dogs had received. The observations of this seroprevalence study regarding Candur® , Canlan® and Dohyvac® were consistent with the results of the seroconversion study. CD was reintroduced into Finland in 1990 after 16 years of absence. The disease remained at a low endemic level in 1990-1994, reached epidemic proportions in 1994-1995 and disappeared during 1995. The epidemic also involved vaccinated dogs. Among the virologically-confirmed cases the proportion of Dohyvac®-vaccinated dogs was higher than expected from the market shares on the assumption that all the vaccines had an equal take. As a result of this observation, Dohyvac® was withdrawn from and Nobivac® and Duramune® introduced to the market during 1995. A drastic redistribution of the market shares between the low-take and high-take vaccines took place, and this coincided with the decline and dying out of the outbreak. The observed occurrence pattern of CD from 1990-1996 was largely attributed to the changes in the level of HI, although the possible contribution of other factors, such as developments in the dog demographics, was also recognized. It was concluded that an HI above 75% is needed to keep CD in check, i.e., only sporadic cases of CD, at most, can occur. With the currently used vaccines an HI of 80% corresponds to a vaccine coverage of some 94%. It was concluded that the development of vaccine-induced immunity is a multifactorial process depending on the properties of the vaccine, on the individual variation, age, species and other factors influencing the immunocompetence of the host. On the individual level the prevention of clinical signs is sufficient, but on the population level, halting the circulation of the virus is crucial for the definitive control of CD. The ultimate test and criterion for a vaccine is its contribution to herd immunity. Heterogeneity in the dog population contributes to the occurrence of CD.
  • Kellomäki, Seppo; Oker-Blom, Pauline (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Mattinen, Maija; Nissinen, Ari (Finnish Environment Institute, 2011)
    There is growing interest in public organizations to take into account the climate impacts of the products and services they procure. Furthermore, in Finland a Government Resolution  exists that provides a framework and sets aims for sustainable public procurement. Several municipalities in the Helsinki region together with the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority and several expert organizations initiated an EU Life project, JULIA2030, to develop calculators for different sectors in municipalities. Our subproject deals with the procurement of products, and we developed carbon footprint calculators for six product groups: office and tissue paper, laptop computers, office seating solutions, incontinence products, and outdoor lighting products. The developed calculators are intended for use in tender calls, as attachments that the bidders must deliver together with their bid. The carbon footprint would be used as an award criterion. The results of the sub-project include: this report, calculators, instructions for each calculator, a guidebook on climatically sound public procurement, and an internet-site: www.hsy.fi/julia2030/en.
  • Bergström, Irina (Finnish Environment Institute, 2011)
    The carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes from aquatic sediments have recently received considerable interest because of the role of these gases in enhancing climate warming. CO2 is the main end product of aerobic respiration and CH4 is produced in large amounts under anaerobic conditions. Shallow, vegetated sediments are an important source of both gases. CH4 may be transported via rhizomes and aerenchymal tissues of aquatic plants from the sediment to the atmosphere, thus avoiding oxidation in the aerated sediment surface and water column. Temperature is known to be a key factor affecting benthic CO2 and CH4 flux rates, but the interplay between other factors that may affect the fluxes from sediments is still poorly known. In order to study the spatial and temporal variability of carbon gas fluxes in boreal aquatic sediments, the area-based CO2 production rates in lake and brackish water sediments and CH4 emissions in vegetated lake littorals were measured in this work. The effects of temperature, sediment quality, plant species, zoobenthos and seasonal variation on flux rates were also estimated. The range of CO2 production rates measured in the field was 0.1–12.0 mg C m–2 h–1 and that of CH4 emission rates 0–14.3 mg C m–2 h–1. When incubated at elevated temperatures (up to 30 °C) in the laboratory, the CO2 production rates increased up to 70 mg C m–2 h–1. Temperature explained 70–94% of the temporal variation in the CO2 production in lake sites and 51% in a brackish water site. In the lake mesocosm, temperature explained 50–90% of the variation of CH4 emission. By contrast, CH4 oxidation rate was not dependent on temperature. The CH4 fluxes through the plants of six emergent and floating-leaved plant species were studied in the field (temperature range 20.4–24.9 °C). Stands of the emergent macrophyte Phragmites australis emitted the largest amounts of CH4 (mean emission 13.9 ± 4.0 (SD) mg C m-2 h–1), the mean emission rate being correlated with mean net primary production (NPP) and mean solar radiation. In the stands of floating-leaved Nuphar lutea the mean CH4 efflux (0.5 ± 0.1 (SD) mg C m–2 h–1) was negatively correlated with mean fetch and positively with percentage cover of leaves on the water surface. On a regional level, stands of the emergents P. australis and Equisetum fluviatile emitted 32% more CH4 than natural open peatland during the growing season, although their areal coverage in the study region was only 41% of that of peatland area. Climate warming will presumably increase the carbon gas emission from vegetated littorals. The model-based estimated increase of CO2 production rate in June was 29% and for CH4 emissions as much as 65% for the time interval of 110 years from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100. The results indicate that carbon gas fluxes from aquatic sediments, especially from vegetated littorals, are significant at the landscape level. They are linked to temperature but also to several other interacting factors such as e.g. water and bottom quality and ecosystem composition. Detailed investigation of the overall links between the causes and effects is urgently needed in order to understand and predict the changes caused by warming climate.
  • Kauppi, Pekka E.; Posch, Maximilian; Hänninen, Pekka; Henttonen, Helena M; Ihalainen, Antti; Lappalainen, Eino; Starr, Michael; Tamminen, Pekka (The Finnish Society of Forest Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1997)
    The carbon reservoir of ecosystems was estimated based on field measurements for forests and peatlands on an area in Finland covering 263 000 km2 and extending about 900 km across the boreal zone from south to north. More than two thirds of the reservoir was in peat, and less than ten per cent in trees. Forest ecosystems growing on mineral soils covering 144 000 km2 contained 10–11 kg C m–2 on an average, including both vegetation (3.4 kg C m–2) and soil (uppermost 75 cm; 7.2 kg C m–2). Mire ecosystems covering 65 000 km2 contained an average of 72 kg C m–2 as peat. For the landscape consisting of peatlands, closed and open forests, and inland water, excluding arable and built-up land, a reservoir of 24.6 kg C m–2 was observed. This includes the peat, forest soil and tree biomass. This is an underestimate of the true total reservoir, because there are additional unknown reservoirs in deep soil, lake sediments, woody debris, and ground vegetation. Geographic distributions of the reservoirs were described, analysed and discussed. The highest reservoir, 35–40 kg C m–2, was observed in sub regions in central western and north western Finland. Many estimates given for the boreal carbon reservoirs have been higher than those of ours. Either the Finnish environment contains less carbon per unit area than the rest of the boreal zone, or the global boreal reservoir has earlier been overestimated. In order to reduce uncertainties of the global estimates, statistically representative measurements are needed especially on Russian and Canadian peatlands.
  • Hallaksela, Anna-Maija (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1984)