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  • Balcik, Burcu; Beamon, Benita (2008)
    International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications
  • Bhatti, Khalid M. (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2012)
    Economics and Society – 238
    International strategic alliances (ISAs) have become increasingly important for the stability, growth, and long-term viability of modern business organizations. Alliance partnerships as inter-firm cooperative ventures represent an influential mechanism for asserting corporate strategic control among autonomous multinational enterprises. These different cooperative arrangements are made of equity investments or contractually-based partnerships. Different alliance forms represent different approaches that partner firms adopt to control their mutual dependence on the alliance and on other partners. Earlier research shows that the partner characteristics could provide an explanation for alliance strategic behavior and see alliances as alternative forms to markets or hierarchies for addressing specific strategic needs linked to partners’ characteristics and their subsequent strategic motives. These characteristics of the partners’ and subsequent strategic motives are analyzed as knowledge sharing factors and how these influence inter-firm control in alliances within the context of the focal-firm STMicroelectronics and its alliance partners Nokia, Ericsson and IBM. This study underline that as contracts are incomplete, they are therefore required to maintain mutual dependence based control mechanisms in addition to a contract. For example, mutual dependence based control mechanisms could be joint financial investments and the building of an ownership structure between the parties (e.g., JVs). However, the present study clarifies that subsequent inter-firm control is also exercised through inter-firm knowledge sharing. The present study contributes by presenting a dynamic interplay between competitive and cooperative rent seeking behavior. Such coopetition behavior describes the firm's strategic orientation to achieve a dynamic balance between competitive and cooperative strategies. This balance is seen in knowledge sharing based cooperation and competition behavior. Thus this study clarifies coopetition strategies by introducing the role of inter-firm cooperation and the competitive nature of knowledge sharing. Simultaneous cooperative and competitive behavior is also seen as synergetic rent-seeking behavior. Therefore, this study extends the perspective of previous studies on competitive and cooperative seeking behavior.
  • Ripatti, Pekka (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1996)
    Questions of the small size of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) holdings in Finland are considered and factors affecting their partitioning are analyzed. This work arises out of Finnish forest policy statements in which the small average size of holdings has been seen to have a negative influence on the economics of forestry. A survey of the literature indicates that the size of holdings is an important factor determining the costs of logging and silvicultural operations, while its influence on the timber supply is slight. The empirical data are based on a sample of 314 holdings collected by interviewing forest owners in the years 1980-86. In 1990-91 the same holdings were resurveyed by means of a postal inquiry and partly by interviewing forest owners. The principal objective in compiling the data is to assist in quantifying ownership factors that influence partitioning among different kinds of NIPF holdings. Thus the mechanism of partitioning were described and a maximum likelihood logistic regression model was constructed using seven independent holding and ownership variables. One out of four holdings had undergone partitioning in conjunction with a change in ownership, one fifth among family owned holdings and nearly a half among jointly owned holdings. The results of the logistic regression model indicate, for instance, that the odds on partitioning is about three times greater for jointly owned holdings than for family owned ones. Also, the probabilities of partitioning were estimated and the impact of independent dichotomous variables on the probability of partitioning ranged between 0.02 and 0.10. The low value of the Hosmer-Lemeshow test statistic indicates a good fit of the model and the rate of correct classification was estimated to be 88 per cent with a cutoff point of 0.5. The average size of holdings undergoing ownership changes decreased from 29.9 ha to 28.7 ha over the approximate interval 1983-90. In addition, the transition probability matrix showed that the trends towards smaller size categories mostly involved in the small size categories, less than 20 ha. The results of the study can be used in considering the effects of the small size of holdings for forestry and if the purpose is to influence partitioning through forest or rural policy.
  • Nykänen, Marja-Leena; Peltola, Heli; Quine, Christopher; Kellomäki, Seppo; Broadgate, Marianne (The Finnish Society of Forest Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1997)
    Within the European Community snow damage affects an estimated 4 million m3 of timber every year, causing significant economic losses to forest owners. In Northern Europe, for example, the occurrence of snow damage has increased over the last few decades mainly due to the increase in total growing stock. The most common form of damage is stem breakage, but trees can also be bent or uprooted. Trees suffering snow damage are also more prone to consequential damage through insect or fungal attacks. Snow accumulation on trees is strongly dependent upon weather and climatological conditions. Temperature influences the moisture content of snow and therefore the degree to which it can accumulate on branches. Wind can cause snow to be shed, but can also lead to large accumulations of wet snow, rime or freezing rain. Wet snow is most likely in late autumn or early spring. Geographic location and topography influence the occurrence of damaging forms of snow, and coastal locations and moderate to high elevations experience large accumulations. Slope plays a less important role and the evidence on the role of aspect is contradictory. The occurrence of damaging events can vary from every winter to once every 10 years or so depending upon regional climatology. In the future, assuming global warming in northern latitudes, the risk of snow damage could increase, because the relative occurrence of snowfall near temperatures of zero could increase. The severity of snow damage is related to tree characteristics. Stem taper and crown characteristics are the most important factors controlling the stability of trees. Slightly tapering stems, asymmetric crowns, and rigid horizontal branching are all associated with high risk. However, the evidence on species differences is less clear due to the interaction with location. Management of forests can alter risk through choice of regeneration, tending, thinning and rotation. However, quantification and comparison of the absolute effect of these measures is not yet possible. An integrated risk model is required to allow the various locational and silvicultural factors to be assessed. Plans are presented to construct such a model, and gaps in knowledge are highlighted.
  • Pietilä, Jukka (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1989)
  • Vaartaja, Olli (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1955)
  • Pasternack, Daniel (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2002)
    Working Papers
    This study contributes to the executive stock option literature by looking at factors driving the introduction of such a compensation form on a firm level. Using a discrete decision model I test the explanatory power of several agency theory based variables and find strong support for predictability of the form of executive compensation. Ownership concentration and liquidity are found to have a significant negative effect on the probability of stock option adoption. Furtermore, I find evidence of CEO ownership, institutional ownership, investment intensity, and historical market return having a significant and a positive relationship to the likelihood of adopting a executive stock option program.
  • Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina (Finnish Environment Institute, 1998)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 8
  • Tanyi, Eric (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2011)
  • Hetemäki, Lauri (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1990)
    The sensitivity was analysed of factor demand in the Finnish pulp and paper industry to changes in relative factor prices and technical change. Factor demand equations were derived using neoclassical production theory, and factor demand was then analysed using annual time series data for 1960-86. The relations of factor demands and their prices were examined in terms of own price, cross price and substitution elasticities. It was assumed that the 'representative firm' in the pulp and paper industry minimizes its costs of production at a given output level. In addition, a number of other assumptions were made which enabled production technology to be represented by a cost function, in which the inputs are capital, labour, energy and raw materials. Ten data categories were used for pulp industry estimates, including roundwood input in million msuperscript 3 and roundwood stumpage price index, a weighted average (by cost shares) of prices for pine, spruce and non-coniferous pulpwood, and wood chips/particles; nine categories were used for paper industry estimates. From the cost function, the factor demand equations, i.e. the cost share equations, were derived by applying Shephard's lemma. The study differs from previous factor demand studies by applying the error correction model based on the Granger Representation Theorem and the results of the cointegration literature to model the dynamics of the factor demand. This approach provides a statistically consistent method for estimating the long-run static factor demand equations and the corresponding short-run equations. The results indicate that the error correction approach can be applied to estimations of the factor demands for the pulp and paper industry. In both industry sectors, the adjustment to short run disequilibrium (price shocks) appears to be fairly rapid. The factor demands of the pulp and paper industries clearly react to changes in factor prices and there are significant substitution possibilities between the different inputs. The absolute values of the elasticities are, on average, larger than have been obtained in previous studies.