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  • Leppäjärvi, Raija; Vehviläinen, Bertel (National Board of Waters and the Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1994)
    Yhteenveto: Talvivirtaamien redukointi vesistömallien avulla
  • Gripenberg, Pernilla (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2005)
    This thesis explores the relationship between humans and ICTs (information and communication technologies). As ICTs are increasingly penetrating all spheres of social life, their role as mediators – between people, between people and information, and even between people and the natural world – is expanding, and they are increasingly shaping social life. Yet, we still know little of how our life is affected by their growing role. Our understanding of the actors and forces driving the accelerating adoption of new ICTs in all areas of life is also fairly limited. This thesis addresses these problems by interpretively exploring the link between ICTs and the shaping of society at home, in the office, and in the community. The thesis builds on empirical material gathered in three research projects, presented in four separate essays. The first project explores computerized office work through a case study. The second is a regional development project aiming at increasing ICT knowledge and use in 50 small-town families. In the third, the second project is compared to three other longitudinal development projects funded by the European Union. Using theories that consider the human-ICT relationship as intertwined, the thesis provides a multifaceted description of life with ICTs in contemporary information society. By oscillating between empirical and theoretical investigations and balancing between determinist and constructivist conceptualisations of the human-ICT relationship, I construct a dialectical theoretical framework that can be used for studying socio-technical contexts in society. This framework helps us see how societal change stems from the complex social processes that surround routine everyday actions. For example, interacting with and through ICTs may change individuals’ perceptions of time and space, social roles, and the proper ways to communicate – changes which at some point in time result in societal change in terms of, for example, new ways of acting and knowing things.
  • Kowalkowski, Christian; Kindström, Daniel; Gebauer, Heiko (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2013)
    Purpose – Information and communication technology (ICT) is a key enabler for new product- and process-oriented services. The article investigates how ICT can enable service differentiation and in doing so act as a catalyst for a service business orientation. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative, multi-case research design with eight multinational goods manufacturers. Findings –Two distinct types of service-oriented differentiation are identified; services in support of the product (SSP), and services in support of the client’s actions (SSC). The study finds that SSC have the largest positive impact on firms’ service business orientation. Research limitations/implications – Western firms in a limited sample of industries are studied. Furthermore, the service business orientation construct does not include any measurements of service profitability or impact on overall competitive advantage. Practical implications – To various extend, successful firms are likely to pursue both SSP and SSC differentiation traits through ICT. The two options are interdependent and the framework presented helps managers to understand both key specificities and their interrelatedness. Originality/value – The study contributes to theory on service strategies by specifically focusing on the enabling role of ICT for new services and its effects on each of the three dimensions of the service business orientation construct.
  • Haarlaa, Rihko (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1970)
  • Manninen, Kaisa; Antikainen, Riina; Soimakallio, Sampo; Simola, Antti; Thun, Rabbe (Finnish Environment Institute, 2012)
    The indirect effects of bioenergy and transport biofuels with a special focus on indirect land use changes (ILUC) and indirect impacts on resource use was studied. Three case studies were examined. First, a literature review of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol production is presented. Second, it was assessed how the increase in liquid biofuel production alters the allocation of land use patterns and other sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions in Finland by using general equilibrium (CGE) modeling. Third, the influence of forest-based transportation biofuel production on the resource use in energy system and carbon stocks of forests in Finland was assessed by using partial equilibrium (PE) modeling. A variety of definitions, identification and quantification methods related to indirect effects presented in literature were compiled. However, in practice, it is often difficult to recognize the type of the effect in question, and what is the actual driver behind the change. The methods to assess the significance of ILUC were also reviewed. The monitoring data alone cannot be used to distinguish direct and indirect land use change emissions from each other, but it serve as a basis for various scenarios and assumptions on expected future development trends. To conclude, main problem in ILUC is the fact that deforestation mainly takes place in countries that are currently not committed to the binding targets for GHG emission limitations or reductions. Furthermore, ILUC is mainly promoted by increasing global demand and trade of agricultural products. Without effective policy measures there is a significant risk that the current biofuel promotion policies will increase ILUC and respective negative impacts. Both methodology to identify and quantify ILUC and management and policy approaches to mitigate negative LUC and ILUC impacts need to be further developed. System-level modeling can provide useful information on potential impacts of various policies and measures but probably too many uncertainties and inaccuracies are included in such modeling to be used to quantify the impacts in practice.
  • Häggman, K (FPA, 1997)
    Samhällsstrukturerna i Finland har under Folkpensionsanstaltens sextio år långa tillvaro förändrats grundligt och obestridligen i riktning mot det bättre. Välfärden och den sociala tryggheten har förbättrats på ett sätt som åtminstone den äldre generationen av finländare uppfattar som århundradets stora mirakel. Folkpensionsanstaltens historia är ett centralt kapitel i det finska välfärdssamhällets historia. Denna anstalt som grundades för att verkställa lagen om folkpensionering har efter många utvecklingsetapper blivit landets centrala institution för sociala trygghet. I boken betraktas utvecklingen på skilda nivåer, med inriktning på de beslutsfattande såväl som på de vanliga befattningshavarna. "I de stora förändringarnas Finland" återger FPAs historia och samtidigt en del av arbetets och vardagens historia i vårt land.
  • Pietarinen, Juhani (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1987)
  • Jutila, K. T. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1929)
  • Rautio, Mikko (Etelä-Savon ympäristökeskus, 2007)
    Julkaisu sisältää tietoa Etelä-Savon ympäristökeskuksen toiminta-alueella (Etelä-Savon maakunta) aiheutuvasta ympäristökuormituksesta. Tiedot on koottu Ympäristöhallinnon ylläpitämästä Valvonta- ja kuormitustietojärjestelmästä (VAHTI), jonne ympäristölupavelvolliset vuosittain ilmoittavat tiedot mm. ilma- ja vesipäästöistä sekä jätemääristä. Raportti keskittyy vuoden 2005 tietoihin, mutta osa tiedoista on aikaisemmilta vuosilta, jos vuoden 2005 tietoja ei ole ollut saatavilla. Raporttiin on koottu tietoa myös aikaisempien vuosien kuormituksesta, jotta voidaan seurata kuormituksen kehittymistä. Ihmisen aiheuttama ympäristökuormitus Etelä-Savossa on erittäin vähäistä verrattuna muuhun Suomeen. Etelä- Savosta puuttuu lähes kokonaan suuret teollisuuslaitokset, jotka ovat suuria piste-kuormittajia. Maakunnan asukasmäärä ja –tiheys ovat pieniä verrattuna keskimäärin muuhun Suomeen, jolloin yhdyskuntien pistekuormittajat (esim. voimalaitokset ja jätevedenpuhdistamot) ovat kooltaan melko pieniä ja kuormitus vähäistä.