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Now showing items 8193-8212 of 8565
  • Aro, Paavo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1949)
  • Saari, Eino (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1954)
  • Jentsch, Fr. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1929)
  • Aaltonen, V. T. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1920)
  • Dahlbo, Helena; Laukka, Jari; Myllymaa, Jari; Koskela, Sirkka; Tenhunen, Jyrki; Seppälä, Jyri; Jouttijärvi, Timo; Melanen, Matti (Finnish Environment Institute, 2005)
  • Lindström, Marianne; Attila, Mikko; Fitch, Terhi; Pennanen, Jaana; Salmenperä, Hanna; Siberil, Thibault (Finnish Environment Institute, 2005)
  • Cajander, A. K. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1923)
  • Solantie, Reijo; Ekholm, Matti (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1985)
    Suomen vesitase 1961-1975 verrattuna vuosien 1931-1960 vesitaseeseen
  • Huttunen, Leena; Kujala, Kauko (National Board of Waters and the Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1994)
    Yhteenveto: Maankosteusvaihtelut talvella hiekkamaassa
  • Heiskanen, Juha-Pekka (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1993)
  • Helenius, Lauri (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1981)
    Vesilaitosten käyttämän veden laatu ja vedenkäsittelylaitosten tehokkuus Suomessa ja Ruotsissa
  • Nyroos, Hannele (National Board of Waters and Environment, Finland, 1994)
    Yhteenveto: Veden laadun arviointi vesiensuojelun suunnittelussa
  • Kallio, Kari (Finnish Environment Institute, 2012)
    Monitoring of lakes is mainly based on collection of water samples, which are transported to a laboratory for analyses. In lake-rich regions gathering of water quality information is challenging, because only a small proportion of the lakes can be assessed each year, often only a few times a year. One of the techniques for improving the temporal and spatial representativeness of lake monitoring is remote sensing.The main objectives of this study were to investigate and test remote sensing interpretation algorithms for water quality estimation in Finnish lakes, to develop optical models for the needs of interpretation and for the estimation of light attenuation, and to study the advantages of the use of remote sensing data as compared to the conventional monitoring methods. The experimental material included detailed optical measurements in 11 lakes, remote sensing measurements with concurrent in situ sampling, automatic raft measurements and a national dataset of routine water quality measurements. Remote sensing data consisted of airborne and satellite measurements (ETM+, ALI and MERIS).The analyses of the spatially high-resolution airborne remote sensing data of eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes showed that one or a few discrete water quality observations of conventional monitoring can yield a clear over- or underestimation of the overall water quality. The use of TM-type satellite instruments in addition to routine monitoring results substantially increases the number of lakes for which water quality information is obtained. The results indicated preliminarily that coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) can be estimated with TM-type satellite instruments, which could be possible  utilised as an aid in the estimation of the role of lakes in global carbon budgets. Based on the results of reflectance modelling and experimental data, MERIS satellite instrument has optimal or near-optimal channels for the estimation of turbidity, chlorophyll a and CDOM in Finnish lakes. MERIS images with 300 m spatial resolution can be utilised in production of water quality information in different parts of large and medium-size lakes, and in filling the gaps of conventional monitoring. Regional algorithms that would not require simultaneous in situ data for algorithm training would increase the amount of remote‑sensing-based information available for lake monitoring.  The MERIS Boreal Lakes processor, trained with the optical data and concentration ranges provided by this study, enabled turbidity estimation with good accuracy without need for algorithm correction with in situ measurements, while chlorophyll a and CDOM estimation requires further development of the processor. The accuracy of interpretation of chlorophyll a via semi‑empirical algorithms can be improved by classifying lakes prior to interpretation by CDOM level and trophic status, and by creating lake-type-specific algorithms. The results of optical modelling showed that spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient can be estimated with reasonable accuracy from the measured water quality concentrations. This provides more detailed information on light attenuation from routine monitoring measurements than is available through the Secchi disk transparency.This study improves the interpretation of water quality by remote sensing and encourages the use of remote sensing in lake monitoring. 
  • Kinnunen, Kari; Nyholm, Bo; Niemi, Jorma; Frisk, Tom; Kylä-Harakka, Tellervo; Kauranne, Tuomo (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1982)
    Vedenlaatumallien soveltaminen eräisiin suomalaisiin vesistöihin
  • Zhulidov, Alexander V.; Robarts, Richard D.; Holmes, Robert M.; Peterson, Bruce J.; Kämäri, Juha; Meriläinen, Jarmo J.; Headley, John V. (Finnish Environment Institute, 2003)
    Monitoring of surface water quality in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the present-day Russian Federation historically held an important place in the hierarchy of science, legal framework and relations between agencies. Sadly, the gap between the intentions, qualification of managers and effective programmes has always been sizeable. Since disintegration of the FSU this gap has become a formidable barrier for collecting reliable monitoring information and producing effective water quality management decisions in the Russian Federation. Updating the federal system for freshwater quality monitoring in the Russian Federation is complicated by several unresolved problems. The principal issues are political, technical, institutional and financial. The existing Russian model of water chemistry data collection inherited from the FSU has proved unreliable, outdated and unrelated to modern national issues of water management. The quality of produced data is one of the greatest weaknesses of the federal monitoring system both in the Russian Federation and in other states of the FSU. A significant cause of the low reliability of the produced information is the analytical methods used in monitoring, their inappropriate use, non-compliance to laboratory practices when following expert recommendations, insufficient training level of managers and laboratory personnel and under-funding of the federal monitoring system. The growing national priorities in the field of surface water quality control and improvement conflict with the capacity of the Russian Federation to provide necessary information of guaranteed high quality. Here we make the first attempt to present a critical analysis of the analytical methods used to assess and control surface water quality, to show the main errors arising when applying the recommended analytical methods, and to assess the degree of reliability of produced monitoring information from 1977-1978 and to the present. Our overall objective is to summarize the current situation in order to facilitate implementation of future improvements.
  • Pulkkinen, Tuija; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Leinonen, Jussi; Toivanen, Petri; Koskinen, Hannu; Andé, Mats; Balasis, Georgios; Boscher, Daniel; Dandouras, Iannis; Grande, Manuel; De Keysier, Johan; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Hapgood, Mike; Horne, Richard; Ivchenko, Nikolay; Santolik, Ondrej; Tokar, Klaus; Trotignon, Jean Gabriel; Vennerstom, Susanne (2007)
  • Salin, Denise (Sage Publications, 2003)
    This paper summarizes literature explaining workplace bullying and focuses on organisational antecedents of bullying. In order to better understand the logic behind bullying, a model discussing different types of explanations is put forward. Thus, explanations for and factors associated with bullying are classified into three groups, i.e. enabling structures or necessary antecedents (e.g. perceived power imbalances, low perceived costs, and dissatisfaction and frustration), motivating structures or incentives (e.g. internal competition, reward systems, and expected benefits), and precipitating processes or triggering circumstances (e.g. downsizing and restructuring, organisational changes, changes in the composition of the workgroup). The paper concludes that bullying is often an interaction between structures and processes from all three groupings.