Browsing by Subject "Aasia"

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  • Shuibo, Pan; Loukola, Erkki (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, National Board of the Waters and the Environment, 1993)
    Vesi- ja ympäristöhallinnon julkaisuja - sarja A 167
  • Niskanen, Anssi; Luukkanen, Olavi; Saastamoinen, Olli; Bhumibhamon, Suree (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1993)
    The profitability of fast-growing trees was investigated in the northeastern and eastern provinces of Thailand. The financial, economic, and tentative environmental-economic profitability was determined separately for three fast-growing plantation tree species and for three categories of plantation managers: the private industry, the state (the Royal Forest Department) and the farmers. Fast-growing tree crops were also compared with teak (Tectona grandis), a traditional medium or long rotation species, and Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) which presently is the most common cultivated tree in Thailand. The optimal rotation for Eucalyptus camaldulensis pulpwood production was eight years. This was the most profitable species in pulpwood production. In sawlog production Acacia mangium and Melia azedarach showed a better financial profitability. Para rubber was more profitable and teak less profitable than the three fast-growing species. The economic profitability was higher than the financial one, and the tentative environmental-economic profitability was slightly higher than the economic profitability. The profitability of tree growing is sensitive to plantation yields and labour cost changes and especially to wood prices. Management options which aim at pulpwood production are more sensitive to input or output changes than those options which include sawlog production. There is an urgent need to improve the growth and yield data and to study the environmental impacts of tree plantations for all species and plantation types.
  • Turakka, Antti; Luukkanen, Olavi; Bhumibhamon, Suree (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1982)
  • Osmaston, A. E. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1929)
  • Huang, Wending (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1998)
    Productive coexistence and coexistence gain of populations were studied using nine years' data from field experiments of Taxodium ascendens-intercrop systems in Lixiahe, Jiangsu Province, China. A theoretical framework for productive coexistence in agroforestry was developed. Interaction patterns between trees and intercrops were presented within this framework. A model framework was developed to describe the coexistence gain and interaction of populations in T. ascendens-intercrop systems. Facilitation and resource sharing were identified as main contribution to the advantage of species combination in agroforestry. The model of population interaction developed in the present study was accepted for describing the interaction of populations in T. ascendens-intercrop systems, because it explained a high proportion of the variance of experimental data and fitted well the observations in most intercropping types. The model developed in the present study provides flexibility for describing different patterns of intra- and inter-specific interactions. Model coefficients were applied to the determination of the ecological compatibility of species. Managed T. ascendens-intercrop systems were advantageous as compared to a monoculture of trees or arable crops. In T. ascendens stands up to the age of three, arable crops contributed about 50-80 % of the total biomass yield of agroforestry. The diameter or height growth of T. ascendens was not significantly influenced by intercrops, indicating that intercropping under trees produced extra yields but did not depress the tree growth. When the trees were young (during the first three years), T. ascendens did not depress the crop yields, and a land equivalent ratio greater than unity was obtained together with a high yield of both components. The diameter and height of the trees were similar in four spacing configurations with an equal number of trees per hectare up to the age of eight, but wider between-rows open range were beneficial for the intercrops. The relationship between open-ranges and species coexistence was also analysed and the distribution of soil nutrients studied.
  • Sirikul, Winai; Kanninen, Markku (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1990)