Browsing by Organization "Svenska handelshögskolan, Institutionen för marknadsföring och företagsgeografi, marknadsföring"

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  • Ojasalo, Jukka (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    What is the nature of customer commitment in business-to-business relationships and what are its antecedents? What Key Account Management practices help to build customer commitment? Commitment is an important element of Key Account Management since customer relationships are built upon a the foundation of commitment. Building long-term key account relationships occurs by enhancing and maintaining their commitment. Customer commitment has various antecedents, and managing commitment involves focusing on these antecedents. This paper explains the nature of commitment and describes its antecedents. It also suggests how to manage each of these antecedents to strengthen customer commitment.
  • Strandvik, Tore; Holmlund, Maria (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    Our paper can be seen as a supplement to Halinen-Kaila and Tähtinen' s (2000) review of different direct research approaches on the ending of exchange relationships. Our purpose is to illuminate the borderline between research explicitly focusing on ending and research implicitly considering ending of relationships. Another purpose is to give an overview of how researchers within the Nordic School of Service Management and Nordic School of Relationship Marketing have approached customer relationship ending. A third purpose is to put forward a managerial perspective and managerial issues related to relationship ending. Finally we present some conclusions regarding further research avenues concerning relationship ending.
  • Korkman, Oskar (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2006)
    This thesis introduces a practice-theoretical approach to understanding customer value formation to be used in the field of service marketing and management. In contrast to current studies trying to understand value formation by analysing customers as independent actors and thinkers, it is in this work suggested that customer value formation can be better understood by analysing how value is formed in the practices and contexts of the customers. The theoretical approach developed in this thesis is applied in an empirical study of family cruises. The theoretical analysis in this thesis results in a new approach for understanding customer value formation. Customer value is, according to this new approach, something that is formed in practice, meaning that value is formed in constellations of the customer and contextual elements like tools, physical spaces and contextually embedded images and know-how. This view is different from the current views that tend to see value as subjectively created, co-created, perceived or experienced by the customer. The new approach has implications on how we view customer value, but also on the methods and techniques we can use to understand customer value in empirical studies. It is also suggested that services could in fact be reconceptualised as practices. According to the stance presented in this thesis the empirical analysis of customer value should not focus on individual customers, but should instead take the contextual entity of practices as its unit of analysis. Therefore, ethnography is chosen as a method for exploring how customer value is formed in practice in the case of family cruises on a specific cruise vessel. The researcher has studied six families, as well as the context of the cruise vessel with various techniques including non-participant observation, participant observation and interviews in order to create an ethnographic understanding of the practices carried out on board. Twenty-one different practices are reported and discussed in order to provide necessary insight to customer value formation that can be used as input for service development.
  • Wägar, Karolina; Björk, Peter; Ravald, Annika; West, Björn (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007)
    Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to explore the practice of marketing in micro firms. Which are the challenges micro firms encounter and how do they handle them? Methodology - The research methodology is based on the theory-in-use approach (Zaltman, Heffring & LeMasters 1982) in order to inductively explore the practice of marketing in micro firms. The empirical findings rest on ten case studies, where data has been generated through repeated interactions with each case. Findings - The empirical findings show that micro firms handle their marketing challenges in a distinctive manner, by creatively using available resources and network relations. Marketing in micro firms is largely about a long-term, gradual development of a position on the market. This process we label germinal marketing. Two key dimensions of germinal marketing were identified: “earning your position” and “being your brand”. Research limitations and implications - The findings rest on an explorative study consisting of ten cases and the general applicability of the results need to be validated by further studies. These cases are however sufficient to illuminate the need for further research into the area. Value of the paper - The value of the paper is twofold. First, it expands the theory-in-use approach, and presents a research method for successful inductive empirical studies of small firm phenomena. Secondly, the paper widens our understanding of the marketing reality and practice of micro firms, identifying new dimensions of marketing and revealing the strategic implications of ordinary business activities.
  • Snellman, Kaisa (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    The purpose of this study was to deepen the understanding of market segmentation theory by studying the evolution of the concept and by identifying the antecedents and consequences of the theory. The research method was influenced by content analysis and meta-analysis. The evolution of market segmentation theory was studied as a reflection of evolution of marketing theory. According to this study, the theory of market segmentation has its roots in microeconomics and it has been influenced by different disciplines, such as motivation research and buyer behaviour theory. Furthermore, this study suggests that the evolution of market segmentation theory can be divided into four major eras: the era of foundations, development and blossoming, stillness and stagnation, and the era of re-emergence. Market segmentation theory emerged in the mid-1950’s and flourished during the period between mid-1950’s and the late 1970’s. During the 1980’s the theory lost its interest in the scientific community and no significant contributions were made. Now, towards the dawn of the new millennium, new approaches have emerged and market segmentation has gained new attention.
  • Rindell, Anne (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2008)
    Images and brands have been topics of great interest in both academia and practice for a long time. The company’s image, which in this study is considered equivalent to the actual corporate brand, has become a strategic issue and one of the company’s most valuable assets. In contrast to mainstream corporate branding research focusing on consumerimages as steered and managed by the company, in the present study a genuine consumer-focus is taken. The question is asked: how do consumers perceive the company, and especially, how are their experiences of the company over time reflected in the corporate image? The findings indicate that consumers’ corporate images can be seen as being constructed through dynamic relational processes based on a multifaceted network of earlier images from multiple sources over time. The essential finding is that corporate images have a heritage. In the thesis, the concept of image heritage is introduced, which stands for the consumer’s earlier company-related experiences from multiple sources over time. In other words, consumers construct their images of the company based on earlier recalled images, perhaps dating back many years in time. Therefore, corporate images have roots - an image heritage – on which the images are constructed in the present. For companies, image heritage is a key for understanding consumers, and thereby also a key for consumer-focused branding strategies and activities. As image heritage is the consumer’s interpretation base and context for image constructions here and now, branding strategies and activities that meet this consumer-reality has a potential to become more effective. This thesis is positioned in the tradition of The Nordic School of Marketing Thought and introduces a relational dynamic perspective into branding through consumers’ image heritage. Anne Rindell is associated to CERS, the Center for Relationship Marketing and Service Management at the Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration.
  • Berndtson, Mikael (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007)
    Det är helt naturligt att konsumenterna sprider marknadsinformation genom att sinsemellan prata om sina konsumtionserfarenheter. Även om man i marknadsföringslitteraturen betonar den konsumentdominerade informella marknadskommunikationens genuina karaktär jämfört med den företagsdominerade formella marknadskommunikationen, så har man rätt dåliga kunskaper om företagets möjligheter att systematiskt utnyttja denna typ av marknadskommunikation. Min analys tyder på att den beteendevetenskapliga och den företagsekonomiska word-of-mouth-forskningen anlägger olika perspektiv som inte möter varandra. Den beteendevetenskapliga word-of-mouth-forskningen har tydligare satt fokus på själva företeelsen informell marknadskommunikation, men perspektivet har inte varit speciellt företagsorienterat. Den företagsekonomiska word-of-mouth-forskningen har i sin tur varit betydligt tydligare fokuserad på möjligheterna att använda informell marknadskommunikation, men däremot har man inte fäst speciellt mycket uppmärksamhet vid själva företeelsen informell marknadskommunikation. Min kontribution till den vetenskapliga diskussionen om företagens möjligheter att systematisera utnyttjandet av informell marknadskommunikation består i att överbrygga denna dualism inom word-of-mouth-forskningen genom att anlägga ett företagsperspektiv på den sociala dynamiken för informell marknadskommunikation. Denna ansats har sin teoretiska förankring hos de s.k. moderna men bortglömda pionjärerna, med vilka jag avser Johan Arndt, Donald Cox och Ernest Dichters kontribution till den företagsorienterade word-of-mouth-forskningen redan i slutet av 1960-talet. Efter det har deras synpunkter och insikter varken förts vidare eller vidareutvecklats, vilket jag betraktar som ett bakslag för den företagsorienterade word-of-mouth-forskningen. Föreliggande studie har bidragit till word-of-mouth-forskningen på tre olika sätt: genom 1) bidrag baserat på litteraturanalys, 2) bidrag baserat på empirianalys och 3) bidrag baserat på begreppsligande av informell marknadskommunikation. Min litteraturanalys framställer word-of-mouth-forskningens uppkomst och utveckling i ny dager. Min empirianalys har genererat empiriska begrepp, dels för att beskriva informell marknadskommunikation som företeelse, dels för att beskriva företagens förfarande för att systematisera utnyttjandet av sådan marknadskommunikation. Den begreppsliga kontributionen accentueras i informell marknadskommunikation som ett samlingsbegrepp för olika typer av interkonsumentkommunikation.
  • Ojasalo, Jukka (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    What are the main elements of successful Key Account Management (KAM)? What is the nature of quality for the company and for the individual in business-to-business relationships? What kind of managerial practices are required at the company and individual level in Key Account Management? This paper focuses on these central aspects of KAM. It describes the main elements of KAM, which is a systematic marketing management approach in the business-to-business context with the objective to build profitable and long-lasting relationships with major accounts. Although paying customers in the business-to-business market are organizations, they are always represented by individuals. Thus, successful KAM requires appropriate handling of both the organizational and the individual levels. This paper describes the nature of quality for the company and for the individual in business-to-business relationships. As a synthesis, this paper suggests a framework for KAM practices deploying the main elements of KAM and the company and individual levels of business-to-business relationships. The weakness of the traditional quality management approach is that it pays little, if any, attention to customer importance. By providing similar quality to each customer, more important customers are penalized and less important customers are rewarded. This paper broadens the traditional quality management approach by introducing the concept of targeted quality based on customer importance.
  • Roos, Inger (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    Denna artikel diskuterar den metodutveckling inom marknadsföring som baseras på den allmänt och mycket frekvent använda kritisk-händelse metod som grundar sig på Flanagen (1954). Genom att forskningen inom nämnda område alltmer handlar om kundrelationer är det naturligt att även metoder som används anpassas till detta. Det finns emellertid flere frågetecken när man fokuserar på kritiska händelser och kundrelationer. Ett sådant är konsekvensen av den kritiska händelsen. Utan att kartlägga en verklig konsekvens av kritiska händelser som inträffat (verkligt beteende) är det emellertid svårt att utveckla metoder för framtida och kommande beteende. Därför diskuteras dessa frågor här i avsikt att föra utvecklingen mot en applicering av kritisk-händelse metoder i pågående kundrelationer.
  • Björk, Peter (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    Kundklubbar och lojalitetsprogram, marknadsföringsåtgärder som snabbt anammats inom de flesta branscher, utgör strategiska och taktiska åtaganden som direkt stöder en relationsmarknadsföringsansats i företag. Turistbranschen är inget undantag och idag ser vi hur även researrangörer utvecklat egna kundklubbar. Den frekvens med vilken finländska turister köper paketresor till "södern" per år ligger långt från den frekvens med vilken affärsresenärerna utnyttjar flygbolagens lojalitetsprogram. Trots det finns det ingen diskussion som belyser frågan hur väl relationsmarknadsföringsteorier utvecklade för marknader med hög köpfrekvens (flygbolagens lojalitetsprogram) är användbara på marknader där köpfrekvensen är lägre (t.ex. researrangörsbranschen). I denna artikel sammankopplas relationsmarknadsföringsteorier med teorier om lojalitetsprogram och kundklubbar. Artikeln syftar till att fördjupa förståelsen för lojalitetsprogrammens och kundklubbarnas relevans i en relationsmarknadsföringsansats. Ur diskussionen härleds forskningsfrågor som kan användas för att identifiera nya centrala forskningsområden. Artikeln fokuserar på den forskning som finner sin empiriska förankring i turistbranschen.
  • Pihlström, Minna (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2008)
    The thesis is positioned in the services marketing field. Previous mobile service research has identified perceived value or relative advantage as a stable predictor of use of services. However, a more detailed view of what customers value in mobile services is needed for marketing diverse types of mobile content and attracting committed customers. The direct relationships between multidimensional value and loyalty constructs have received limited attention in the previous literature, although a multidimensional view is needed for differentiating services. This thesis studies how perceived value of mobile service use affects customer commitment, repurchase intentions, word-of-mouth and willingness to pay. The doctoral thesis consists of three journal articles and one working paper. The four papers have different sub-aims and comprise individual empirical studies. Mixed methods including both personal interviews and survey data collected from end-users of different types of mobile content services are used. The conceptual mobile perceived value model that results from the first explorative empirical study supports a six- dimensional value view. The six dimensions are further categorized into two higher order constructs: content-related perceived value (emotional, social, convenience and monetary value) and context-related (epistemic and conditional value) perceived value. Structural equation modeling is used in the other three studies to validate this framework by analyzing the relationships between context- and content-related value, and how the individual perceived value dimensions affect commitment and behavioral outcomes. Analyzing the direct relationships revealed differences in the effect of perceived value dimensions between information and entertainment mobile service user groups, between effects on commitment, repurchase intentions and word-of-mouth intentions, as well as between effects on commitment to the provider and to the mobile channel as such. This thesis contributes to earlier perceived value literature by structuring the value dimensions into two groups. Most importantly, the thesis contributes to the value and loyalty literature by increasing understanding of how the different dimensions of perceived value directly affect commitment and post-purchase intentions. The results have implications for further theory development in the electronic services field using multidimensional latent constructs, and practical implications for enhancing commitment to content provider and for differentiated marketing strategies in the mobile field. The general conclusion of this thesis is that differentiated value-based marketing of mobile services is essential for attracting committed customers who will use the same providers’ content also in the future. Minna Pihlström is associated with the Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management (CERS) at Hanken.
  • Polsa, Pia (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2002)
    The aim of the current study is to examine the influence of the channel external environment on power, and the effect of power on the distribution network structure within the People’s Republic of China. Throughout the study a dual research process was applied. The theory was constructed by elaborating the main theoretical premises of the study, the channel power theories, the political economy framework and the distribution network structure, but these marketing channel concepts were expanded with other perspectives from other disciplines. The main method applied was a survey conducted among 164 Chinese retailers, complemented by interviews, photographs, observations and census data from the field. This multi-method approach enabled not only to validate and triangulate the quantitative results, but to uncover serendipitous findings as well. The theoretical contribution of the current study to the theory of marketing channels power is the different view it takes on power. First, earlier power studies have taken the producer perspective, whereas the current study also includes a distributor perspective to the discussion. Second, many power studies have dealt with strongly dependent relationships, whereas the current study examines loosely dependent relationships. Power is dependent on unequal distribution of resources rather than based on high dependency. The benefit of this view is in realising that power resources and power strategies are separate concepts. The empirical material of the current study confirmed that at least some resources were significantly related to power strategies. The study showed that the dimension resources composed of technology, know-how and knowledge, managerial freedom and reputation was significantly related to non-coercive power. Third, the notion of different outcomes of power is a contribution of this study to the channels power theory even though not confirmed by the empirical results. Fourth, it was proposed that channel external environment other than the resources would also contribute to the channel power. These propositions were partially supported thus providing only partial contribution to the channel power theory. Finally, power was equally distributed among the different types of actors. The findings from the qualitative data suggest that different types of retailers can be classified according to the meaning the actors put into their business. Some are more business oriented, for others retailing is the only way to earn a living. The findings also suggest that in some actors both retailing and wholesaling functions emerge, and this has implications for the marketing channels structure.
  • Arantola, Heli (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2003)
    The study addressed a phenomenon that has become common marketing practice, customer loyalty programs. Although a common type of consumer relationship, there is limited knowledge of its nature. The purpose of the study was to create structured understanding of the nature of customer relationships from both the provider’s and the consumer’s viewpoints by studying relationship drivers and proposing the concept of relational motivation as a provider of a common framework for the analysis of these views. The theoretical exploration focused on reasons for engaging in customer relationships for both the consumer and the provider. The themes of buying behaviour, industrial and network marketing and relationship marketing, as well as the concepts of a customer relationship, customer loyalty, relationship conditions, relational benefits, bonds and commitment were explored and combined in a new way. Concepts from the study of business-to-business relationships were brought over and their power in explaining the nature of consumer relationships examined. The study provided a comprehensive picture of loyalty programs, which is an important contribution to the academic as well as the managerial discussions. The consumer study provided deep insights into the nature of customer relationships. The study provides a new frame of reference to support the existing concepts of loyalty and commitment with the introduction of the relationship driver and relational motivation concepts. The result is a novel view of the nature of customer relationships that creates new understanding of the forces leading to loyal behaviour and commitment. The study concludes with managerial implications.
  • Virtanen, Henrik (Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, 2002)
    Under senare tid har förekomsten av samarbete mellan konkurrerande sm-företag ökat. Forskningen kring ämnet har dock bedrivits i mindre skala, framför allt om man beaktar finländska (nordiska) förhållanden. Syftet med denna undersökning är att kartlägga förekomsten av samarbete mellan konkurrerande sm-företag i Österbotten (Finland), samt beskriva dessa. Gällande demografiska variabler jämförs dessa företag även med sm-företag som inte samarbetar. Data insamlades genom en enkät utskickad i november 2001 till 345 sm-företag i Österbotten. Svarsprocenten var 35.1. Av de respondenter som besvarade enkäten, var 47.9 procent involverade i ett eller flera samarbeten med ett eller flera företag som var deras konkurrenter. Samarbete mellan konkurrenter är således inte ett ovanligt fenomen, utan innefattar allt från informella, operativa samarbeten till formella, strategiskt viktiga samarbeten. Samarbete inom produktion var den mest vanligt förekommande formen av samarbete. Partnern kom från Finland, även om målmarknaderna för samarbetet fanns både i Finland och i utlandet. Denna undersökning kunde inte identifiera någon större skillnad mellan de sm-företag som samarbetade med konkurrenter och de sm-företag som inte samarbetade. Det intressanta är således att det inte verkar finnas några skillnader vad gäller ålder, omsättning, omsättningsökning, underleverans- och exportverksamhet mellan de samarbetande och de icke samarbetande företagen. Skillnaderna bör således sökas i andra variabler. Den enda signifikanta skillnaden kunde upptäckas i upplevelsen av konkurrens. Tidigare forskning har identifierat att osäkerhet i konkurrensen är ett incitament till att börja samarbeta med konkurrenter. Denna undersökning förstärker detta antagande. De samarbetande företagen upplevde att konkurrensen var hårdare än de icke samarbetande företagen. Bland de samarbetande företagen var det speciellt de mindre (med en personalstyrka mellan 10 och 50 arbetstagare) som upplevde att konkurrensen var hård. Undersökningen har finansierats med stipendiemedel från Sparbanksstiftelsen i Vasa och Handlande Gustav Svanljungs fond.
  • Grönroos, Christian; Ojasalo, Katri (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    The productivity of a process is related to how effectively input resources are transformed into value for customers. For the needs of manufacturers of physical products there are widely used productivity concepts and measurements instruments. However, in service processes the underlying assumptions of these concepts and models do not hold. For example, manufacturing-based productivity models assume that an altered configuration of input resources in the production process does not lead to quality changes in outputs (the constant-quality assumption). However, in a service context changes in the production resources and productions systems do affect the perceived quality of services. Therefore, using manufacturing-oriented productivity models in service contexts are likely to give managers wrong directions for action. Research into the productivity of services is still scarce, because of the lack of viable models. The purpose of the present article is to analyse the requirements for the development of a productivity concept for service operations. Based on the analysis, a service productivity model is developed. According to this model, service productivity is a function of 1) how effectively input resources into the service (production) process are transformed to outputs in the form of services (internal or cost efficiency), 2) how well the quality of the service process and its outcome is perceived (external or revenue efficiency), and 3) how effectively the capacity of the service process is utilised (capacity efficiency). In addition, directions for developing measurement models for service productivity are discussed.
  • Lerviks, Alf-Erik (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2004)
    A diffusion/replacement model for new consumer durables designed to be used as a long-term forecasting tool is developed. The model simulates new demand as well as replacement demand over time. The model is called DEMSIM and is built upon a counteractive adoption model specifying the basic forces affecting the adoption behaviour of individual consumers. These forces are the promoting forces and the resisting forces. The promoting forces are further divided into internal and external influences. These influences are operationalized within a multi-segmental diffusion model generating the adoption behaviour of the consumers in each segment as an expected value. This diffusion model is combined with a replacement model built upon the same segmental structure as the diffusion model. This model generates, in turn, the expected replacement behaviour in each segment. To be able to use DEMSIM as a forecasting tool in early stages of a diffusion process estimates of the model parameters are needed as soon as possible after product launch. However, traditional statistical techniques are not very helpful in estimating such parameters in early stages of a diffusion process. To enable early parameter calibration an optimization algorithm is developed by which the main parameters of the diffusion model can be estimated on the basis of very few sales observations. The optimization is carried out in iterative simulation runs. Empirical validations using the optimization algorithm reveal that the diffusion model performs well in early long-term sales forecasts, especially as it comes to the timing of future sales peaks.
  • Wägar, Karolina (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007)
    The starting point of this thesis is the notion that in order for organisations to understand what customers value and how customers experience service, they need to learn about customers. The first and perhaps most important link in an organisation-wide learning process directed at customers is the frontline contact person. Service- and sales organisations can only learn about customers if the individual frontline contact persons learn about customers. Even though it is commonly recognised that learning about customers is the basis for an organisation’s success, few contributions within marketing investigate the fundamental nature of the phenomenon as it occurs in everyday customer service. Thus, what learning about customers is and how it takes place in a customer-service setting is an issue that is neglected in marketing research. In order to explore these questions, this thesis presents a socio-cultural approach to understanding learning about customers. Hence, instead of considering learning equal to cognitive processes in the mind of the frontline contact person or learning as equal to organisational information processing, the interactive, communication-based, socio-cultural aspect of learning about customers is brought to the fore. Consequently, the theoretical basis of the study can be found both in socio-cultural and practice-oriented lines of reasoning, as well as in the fields of service- and relationship marketing. As it is argued that learning about customers is an integrated part of everyday practices, it is also clear that it should be studied in a naturalistic and holistic way as it occurs in a customer-service setting. This calls for an ethnographic research approach, which involves direct, first-hand experience of the research setting during an extended period of time. Hence, the empirical study employs participant observations, informal discussions and interviews among car salespersons and service advisors at a car retailing company. Finally, as a synthesis of theoretically and empirically gained understanding, a set of concepts are developed and they are integrated into a socio-cultural model of learning about customers.
  • Björk, Peter (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    The unique characteristics of marketspace in combination with the fast growing number of consumers interested in e-commerce have created new research areas of interest to both marketing and consumer behaviour researchers. Consumer behaviour researchers interested in the decision making processes of consumers have two new sets of questions to answer. The first set of questions is related to how useful theories developed for a marketplace are in a marketspace context. Cyber auctions, Internet communities and the possibilities for consumers to establish dialogues not only with companies but also with other consumers make marketspace unique. The effects of these distinctive characteristics on the behaviour of consumers have not been systematically analysed and therefore constitute the second set of questions which have to be studied. Most companies feel that they have to be online even though the effects of being on the Net are not unambiguously positive. The relevance of the relationship marketing paradigm in a marketspace context have to be studied. The relationship enhancement effects of websites from the customers’ point of view are therefore emphasized in this research paper. Representatives of the Net-generation were analysed and the results show that companies should develop marketspace strategies while Net presence has a value-added effect on consumers. The results indicate that the decision making processes of the consumers are also changing as a result of the progress of marketspace
  • Heinonen, Kristina (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2004)
    Since the emergence of service marketing, the focus of service research has evolved. Currently the focus of research is shifting towards value co-created by the customer. Consequently, value creation is increasingly less fixed to a specific time or location controlled by the service provider. However, present service management models, although acknowledging customer participation and accessibility, have not considered the role of the empowered customer who may perform the service at various locations and time frames. The present study expands this scope and provides a framework for exploring customer perceived value from a temporal and spatial perspective. The framework is used to understand and analyse customer perceived value and to explore customer value profiles. It is proposed that customer perceived value can be conceptualised as a function of technical, functional, temporal and spatial value dimensions. These dimensions are suggested to have value-increasing and value-decreasing facets. This conceptualisation is empirically explored in an online banking context and it is shown that time and location are more important value dimensions relative to the technical and functional dimensions. The findings demonstrate that time and location are important not only in terms of having the possibility to choose when and where the service is performed. Customers also value an efficient and optimised use of time and a private and customised service location. The study demonstrates that time and location are not external elements that form the service context, but service value dimensions, in addition to the technical and functional dimensions. This thesis contributes to existing service management research through its framework for understanding temporal and spatial dimensions of perceived value. Practical implications of the study are that time and location need to be considered as service design elements in order to differentiate the service from other services and create additional value for customers. Also, because of increased customer control and the importance of time and location, it is increasingly relevant for service providers to provide a facilitating arena for customers to create value, rather than trying to control the value creation process. Kristina Heinonen is associated with CERS, the Center for Relationship Marketing and Service Management at the Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration
  • Finne, Åke; Grönroos, Christian (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2006)
    In order to bring insight into the emerging concept of relationship communication, concepts from two research traditions will be combined in this paper. Based on those concepts a new model, the dynamic relationship communication model, will be presented. Instead of a company perspective focusing on the integration of outgoing messages such as advertising, public relations and sales activities, it is suggested that the focus should be on factors integrated by the receiver. Such factors can be historical, future, external and internal factors. Thus, the model put a strong focus on the receiver in the communication process. The dynamic communication model is illustrated empirically using it as a tool on 78 short stories about communication. The empirical findings show that relationship communication occurs in some cases; in some cases it does not occur. The model is a useful tool in displaying relationship communication and how it differs from other communication. The importance of the time dimension, historical and future factors, in relationship communications is discussed. The possibility of reducing communications costs by the notion of relationship communication is discussed in managerial implications.