Yhteistyökumppaneiden julkaisut: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 13235
  • Uimonen, Heikki (Taideyliopiston Sibelius-Akatemia, 2017)
    This article presents the historical transformation of Finnish commercial radio popular music policies from 1985–2005 and contemplates the role of terrestrial radio in contemporary digital age. It argues that a sender-centred paradigm of early commercial radio was replaced swiftly by receiver-centered paradigm, which has been applied since the early 1990s. The change of radio music cultures is described in detail by dividing it into three different eras: Block Radio, Format Radio, and Media Convergence. The study draws on the research project consisting of case studies analysing the music content of various radio stations. The primary empirical data is composed of thirty-two interviews of radio personnel and the analysis of 4,500 individual songs broadcast by popular music radio stations with newspaper and journal articles supporting the primary data. Radio music culture is approached theoretically from the ethnomusicological perspective and thus defined as all practices that have an effect on broadcast music, including the processes of acquiring, selecting, and governing music. The empirical results of the study show that the transformation of radio music cultures is affected by economic, technological, legal, organisational, and cultural factors.
  • Westergård, Maiju (2019)
    Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastelen 12–16-vuotiaiden nuorten pop/jazz-laulunopetusta kolmen pop/jazz-laulupedagogin kokemusten pohjalta. Pyrin selvittämään, minkälaisia erityispiirteitä nuorten laulunopetukseen liittyy, sekä millä tavoin nuoria opetetaan laulutunneilla. Koska laulu on niin kokonaisvaltainen instrumentti, käyn sen opettamista läpi niin fyysiseltä, psyykkiseltä kuin sosiaaliseltakin kannalta. Tutkielmani on laadullinen tapaustutkimus, jonka olen toteuttanut keräämällä aineistoni kolmella teemahaastatte- lulla. Kaikki kolme haastateltavaa ovat pop/jazz-laulunopettajia, jotka opettavat pääkaupunkiseudulla sijaitsevissa musiikkioppilaitoksissa. Heillä kaikilla on useamman vuoden kokemus nuorten laulunopetuksesta. Olen analysoi- nut aineistoni teoriasidonnaisesti, mikä tarkoittaa, että olen käsitellyt aineistostani esiin nousseita teemoja myös jo tutkitun tiedon valossa. Tutkielmani tuloksista nousi selkeästi esiin, että perusperiaatteet ovat kaikenikäisten laulunopetuksessa samat. Opetustapoihin ja laulutunnin etenemiseen vaikuttaakin ikää enemmän ihmisen persoona. Siksi opetus ja sen tavoitteet tulee suunnitella jokaiselle oppilaalle henkilökohtaisesti. Opettajan on kuitenkin hyvä olla tietoinen siitä, että nuoren oppilaan keho ja mieli ovat vielä kehittyviä. Voimakkaiden äänenkäyttötapojen kanssa on syytä olla varovainen, jottei nuoren kehittyvälle äänelle aiheutuisi haittaa. Nuori ei myöskään välttämättä löydä laulamisessa tarvittavia lihaksia yhtä nopeasti kuin aikuinen, ja kokonaisvaltainen heittäytyminen erilaisiin harjoitteisiin saattaa vaatia enemmän rohkaisua. Näissäkin asioissa on kuitenkin yksilöllisiä eroja ihmisten välillä, oli kyse minkä ikäisistä tahansa. Selkein nuorten laulunopetukseen merkittävästi vaikuttava asia on etenkin pojilla äänenmurros. Tutkielmani mukaan ääntä voidaan, ja on jopa suotavaa harjoittaa myös äänenmurroksen aikana. Rumia ääniä ei pidä pelätä, vaan äänen tulee antaa toimia luonnollisesti, kuten se äänenmurroksen aikana toimii. Tärkeintä on muistaa, että laulamisen tulisi aina tuntua mukavalta, ja opettajan olisikin hyvä kehottaa nuoria oppilaitaan tarkkailemaan omia tuntemuksiaan.
  • Miettinen, Jukka O. (2018)
    Teatterikorkeakoulun julkaisusarja
    This vastly illustrated web-based material is an introduction to Asian theatre and dance traditions. It can be used as a virtual textbook for university students as well as a handbook for general readers. With its search-by-word facility it also serves as an encyclopaedia of names and terms related to the Asian performing arts. Twelve countries are included in the present, second edition of this on-line material (India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Korea, and Japan). The focus is on the traditional forms of theatre and dance. The chapters that discuss the developments that have taken place in the 20th century in each country, however, include short descriptions of how the influx of Western theatrical aesthetics and conventions has influenced the traditional forms of theatrical arts of the country in question. The introductory chapter discusses those specific aspects of Asian traditions that differ from the Western ones, while the origins of theatrical traditions are also examined. Geographically, the material proceeds from west to east. Each chapter starts with a country profile and provides a map and essential information on population, ethnicities, languages, and religions. This profile is followed by a general introduction to the theatre and dance traditions of the particular country. Special attention is paid on the kind of information that early visual evidence, such as sculptures, gives about the early forms of Asian theatrical arts. The core chapters, dedicated to specific theatre and dance styles or traditions, describe what is known about their early developments as well as their present state. Altogether some 120 theatrical genres are introduced, each in its own chapter. Special attention is paid to the literary contents and acting techniques. Pop-up texts give further information about specific features, such as masks, costumes, and make-up conventions. Furthermore, synopses of important epics and dramas are provided in order to give the reader an overall view of the ideas the performances generate as well as the background to their cultural contexts. Additional articles give further in-depth information. The final article, "From East to West, from West to East" by Dr Anna Thuring focuses on the controversies in cultural exchanges between Asia and the Western world. Dozens of video clips and some 1200 photographs have been provided in order to visualise these colourful traditions with their intricate acting techniques and masks or make-up practices. Research and the compilation of information stretch back over three decades. I published my first book on Asian theatre in 1984 (Jumalia, sankareita, demoneja, Teak). Its section on Southeast Asia was further elaborated in my book published in 1992 (Classical Dance and Theatre in South-east Asia, Oxford University Press). The "forerunner" of this present material was the web-based material I compiled together with Mr. Veli Rosenberg in 1996 (Aasialaisen teatterin ja tanssin historia, Theatre Academy, Helsinki). My continual festival work in Finland and research abroad have also enabled me to study and document living Asian dance traditions further. My deepest thanks go to those numerous artists, colleagues, and photographers who have, through their various contributions, helped in creating this vast collection of material.
  • Khoramshahi, Ehsan; Campos, Mariana Batista; Tommaselli, Antonio Maria Garcia; Viljanen, Niko; Mielonen, Teemu; Kaartinen, Harri; Kukko, Antero; Honkavaara, Eija (MDPI, 2019)
    Remote Sensing
    Mobile mapping systems (MMS) are increasingly used for many photogrammetric and computer vision applications, especially encouraged by the fast and accurate geospatial data generation. The accuracy of point position in an MMS is mainly dependent on the quality of calibration, accuracy of sensor synchronization, accuracy of georeferencing and stability of geometric configuration of space intersections. In this study, we focus on multi-camera calibration (interior and relative orientation parameter estimation) and MMS calibration (mounting parameter estimation). The objective of this study was to develop a practical scheme for rigorous and accurate system calibration of a photogrammetric mapping station equipped with a multi-projective camera (MPC) and a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for direct georeferencing. The proposed technique is comprised of two steps. Firstly, interior orientation parameters of each individual camera in an MPC and the relative orientation parameters of each cameras of the MPC with respect to the first camera are estimated. In the second step the offset and misalignment between MPC and GNSS/IMU are estimated. The global accuracy of the proposed method was assessed using independent check points. A correspondence map for a panorama is introduced that provides metric information. Our results highlight that the proposed calibration scheme reaches centimeter-level global accuracy for 3D point positioning. This level of global accuracy demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed technique and has the potential to fit accurate mapping purposes.
  • Jaakonaho, Liisa; Junttila, Kristina (Routledge, 2019)
    Routledge Research in Education
  • Zhu, Lingli; Kukko, Antero; Virtanen, Juho-Pekka; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Hannu; Turppa, Tuomas (MDPI, 2019)
    Remote Sensing
    As data acquisition technology continues to advance, the improvement and upgrade of the algorithms for surface reconstruction are required. In this paper, we utilized multiple terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (Lidar) systems to acquire point clouds with different levels of complexity, namely dynamic and rigid targets for surface reconstruction. We propose a robust and effective method to obtain simplified and uniform resample points for surface reconstruction. The method was evaluated. A point reduction of up to 99.371% with a standard deviation of 0.2 cm was achieved. In addition, well-known surface reconstruction methods, i.e., Alpha shapes, Screened Poisson reconstruction (SPR), the Crust, and Algebraic point set surfaces (APSS Marching Cubes), were utilized for object reconstruction. We evaluated the benefits in exploiting simplified and uniform points, as well as different density points, for surface reconstruction. These reconstruction methods and their capacities in handling data imperfections were analyzed and discussed. The findings are that (i) the capacity of surface reconstruction in dealing with diverse objects needs to be improved; (ii) when the number of points reaches the level of millions (e.g., approximately five million points in our data), point simplification is necessary, as otherwise, the reconstruction methods might fail; (iii) for some reconstruction methods, the number of input points is proportional to the number of output meshes; but a few methods are in the opposite; (iv) all reconstruction methods are beneficial from the reduction of running time; and (v) a balance between the geometric details and the level of smoothing is needed. Some methods produce detailed and accurate geometry, but their capacity to deal with data imperfection is poor, while some other methods exhibit the opposite characteristics.
  • Franzese, Giulio; Linty, Nicola; Dovis, Fabio (MDPI, 2020)
    Applied Sciences
    This work focuses on a machine learning based detection of iono-spheric scintillation events affecting Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals. We here extend the recent detection results based on Decision Trees, designing a semi-supervised detection system based on the DeepInfomax approach recently proposed. The paper shows that it is possible to achieve good classification accuracy while reducing the amount of time that human experts must spend manually labelling the datasets for the training of supervised algorithms. The proposed method is scalable and reduces the required percentage of annotated samples to achieve a given performance, making it a viable candidate for a realistic deployment of scintillation detection in software defined GNSS receivers.
  • Siponen, Hemmo (2019)
  • Kähkönen, Jaana (2019)
  • Uimonen, Heikki (2017)
    Sound Preference Tests were applied at Strathdevon Primary School in the Scottish village of Dollar to study the preferences on the everyday sound and local sonic environments. The study draws on theory of acoustic communication and anthropological concept of dirt concentrating on the liked and disliked environmental sound. The answers elicited by questionnaires were analyzed and contextualized with previous research. The research shows that personal preferences are affected by the enculturation of the individuals, shared values of the community and the changes in acoustic and electroacoustic sound sources. Sound Preference Test and other methods presented in the article can be used for pedagogical purposes, too.
  • Aittola, Inkeri (2019)
    Tämän kirjallisen työn tarkoitus on tutkia, millä tavoin säveltäjä Pekka Kostiainen (s. 1944) on sisällyttänyt Suomen evankelis-luterilaisen kirkon virsikirjan (1986) virsiä ja erityisesti niiden koraaleita kolmiosaiseen Triduum Paschale -nimiseen pääsiäisoratorioonsa (2000). Kyseessä on laadullinen tutkimus, jonka menetelmät ovat aineistolähtöinen analyysi ja säveltäjän avoin haastattelu. Työn empiriaosuus koostuu Triduum Paschalen neljän koraalipohjaisen osan tarkastelusta. Kostiaisen näihin osiin valitsemat virret ovat 222a, 67, 100 ja 727. Pekka Kostiainen on käyttänyt virsiä monin eri tavoin sävellystyönsä aineksina. Kuorolla on keskeinen rooli virsiosuuksissa, mutta myös solistit osallistuvat niiden esittämiseen. Lauletut koraalipohjaiset jaksot seurailevat kolorointia ja rytmistä muuntelua lukuunottamatta alkuperäistä sävelmää, mutta orkesteriosuuksissa Kostiainen hyödyntää virsielementtejä vapaammin. Virsien säkeistöt poikkeavat tyypillisesti toisistaan sekä satsin että kokoonpanon osalta. Säveltäjä on yhdistänyt kolmeen neljästä tutkittavasta osasta yhden tai useamman tekstin virren lisäksi, joka usein limittyy säkeistöjen väleihin.
  • Brusila, Pekka (Vesihallitus, 1986)
    Vesihallituksen monistesarja 436
  • Björkqvist, Jan-Victor (2020)
    Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions 159
    Waves are important for both the leisure and safety of the human population. Open-sea waves have been studied since the 1940’s and their central properties are known. The wave field is described by the so called wave spectrum, which is a decomposition of the wave energy with respect to the wave frequency. In practice, the wave field is still often reduced to a few parameters, most importantly the dominant frequency (so called peak frequency) and the significant wave height. These parameters, however, does not sufficiently describe an archipelago wave field, but waves in archipelagos have still received rela - tively little attention from the scientific community. This thesis focuses on waves in archipelagos, and the study was carried out by using both numerical models and instrumental observations from the Helsinki archipelago and the Archipelago Sea in the Baltic Sea. Waves in archipelagos are heavily affected by the numerous small islands; they attenuate long waves arriving from the open sea, while also defining new fetches for local waves. As a result, the wave spectrum has a wide frequency range where the energy is practically constant. The existence of this energy carrying range is in contrast to open sea measurements where the energy is concentrated around one dominant frequency. This study proposed a characteristic frequency that quantified the centre of the energy carrying range. For a traditional open sea spectrum the characteristic frequency closely resembled the dominant frequency, thus making it suitable for a wide range of wave conditions. The height of single waves in the archipelago were lower relative to the significant wave height. As a consequence, there was a large (10-15%) discrepancy between two definitions of the significant wave height; in the open sea this discrepancy is typically only 7-8%. The three numerical models of this study simulated the archipelago wave field well. The largest discrepancy with the observations was found in an area just outside the archipelago that was sheltered by a peninsula. Inside the archipelago the models disagreed slightly on the energy distribution within the energy carrying range. These small differences strongly affected the dominant frequency in a way that was not representative of the good model performance. The differences were inconsequential for the significant wave height. During certain conditions the energy of the shortest waves were underestimated when using more advanced methods to calculate the energy transfer from the wind to the waves, most probably because a too small friction velocity. A simple older method to determine the friction velocity reproduced the shorter waves well. Coarse operational wind products were sufficient to force the high-resolution coastal wave models. Providing wind data only every third hour reduced the variability in the modelled wave field in the time scales between 2 and 10 hours. An hourly wind product captured all variations well, except for the statistical sampling variability in the measurements. Spatial properties of the wave field were inferred from high-frequency wave staff measurements taken by R/V Aranda. These measurements were used to form a new wave spectrum where the waves are decomposed according to their inverse phase-speed. The new spectrum agreed well with the spatial wavenumber spectrum for the shortest waves, while the frequency spectrum did not. The good agreement between the inverse phase-speed spectrum and the wavenumber spectrum meant that the effect of the Doppler shift was small. The reason for the disparate results of the frequency domain were attributed to wave non-linearities. Using direct measurements to determining the waves as a function of their phase speed can be useful when studying the interaction between the wind and the waves, since no additional current measurements are needed to quantify the real wave speed relative to the wind. *** Havsvågor är viktiga för människor både ur ett rekreations- och säkerhetsperspektiv. Det öppna havets vågor har studerats sedan 1940-talet och deras centrala egenskaper är kända. Vågfältet beskrivs av det så kallade vågspektrumet, i vilket vågornas energi bryts med avseende på deras frekvens. I praktiken reduceras vågfältet ofta till några beskrivande parametrar, varav de viktigaste är den dominanta vågfrekvensen och den signifikanta våghöjden. Dessa parametrar beskriver inte vågorna i skärgården tillräckligt bra, men skärgårdens vågor har ändå fått tämligen lite vetenskaplig uppmärksamhet. Denna avhandling undersökte skärgårdens vågor både med numeriska modeller och observationer från Helsingfors skärgård och Skärgårdshavet. Skärgårdens vågor påverkas i betydande grad av skärgårdens otaliga små öar; de dämpar längre vågor som anländer från det öppna havet, medan de samtidigt skapar nya svepsträckor för lokala vågor. Därför har vågspektrumet ett brett frekvensband där vågenergin är praktiskt taget konstant. Existensen av ett sådant här energibärande frekvensband står i kontrast till observationer från det öppna havet där energin är starkt koncentrerad kring en dominant frekvens. I detta arbete definierades en ny karakteristisk frekvens vilken beskriver medelpunkten av det energibärande frekvensbandet för skärgårdsvågor. För de typiska vågorna i öppna havet var denna nya karakteristiska frekvens nära den traditionella dominanta frekvensen, vilket gjorde denna nya parameter lämplig för att beskriva vågfält under vitt skilda omständigheter. I skärgården var höjden på de enskilda vågorna (i förhållande till den signifikanta våghöjden) lägre än på det öppna havet. Som en följd skilde sig de två traditionella definitionerna på den signifikanta våghöjden starkt (10-15%); på öppna havet är denna skillnad oftast bara 7-8%. De tre numeriska vågmodellerna simulerade vågfältet i skärgården väl. De största felen fanns i ett område utanför skärgården som var delvis skyddat av Porkala udden. Inom skärgården betonade modellerna energidistributionen i det energibärande frekvensbandet på olika vis. För den traditionella dominanta frekvensen införde de små skillnaderna en stark avvikelse gentemot observationerna, även om denna avvikelse inte stod i proportion till de egentliga skillnaderna mellan modellerna och observationerna. För beräknandet av den signifikanta våghöjden var skillnaderna obetydliga. Under vissa omständigheter underbetonades energin för de korta vågorna ifall energiflödet från vinden till vågorna beräknades enligt en mera avancerad metod. Detta var troligen ett resultat av en för låg friktionshastighet. En äldre metod för att beräkna energiflödet till vågorna uppvisade inte en liknande avvikelse. De grova operativa vindprodukterna var tillräckliga för att driva vågmodellerna vid kusten, men modellerna kunde inte simulera vågfältets variationer med en tidsskala på 2–10 timmar ifall vindinformationen uppdaterades bara var tredje timme. Med vinddata som gavs varje timme kunde modellen fånga alla variationer, förutom den statistiska variabiliteten i vågobservationerna. Genom att använda R/V Arandas högfrekventa vågobservationer tagna med kapacitiva trådar kunde även spatiell information deduceras. Dessa observationer användes för att definiera ett nytt vågspektrum i vilket vågorna beskrivs genom deras (inverterade) fashastighet istället för deras frekvens eller vågnummer (inversen av våglängden). Detta nya vågspektrum stämde överens med det rent spatiella vågnummerspektrumet för de kortaste vågorna, medan frekvensspektrumet gav olika resultat. Dopplereffekten bedömdes vara liten, eftersom den skulle ha påverkat fashastighetsspektrumet. Orsaken till skillnaderna var vågornas icke-linjära egenskaper, vilka påverkade den högfrekventa delen av frekvensspektrumet. Att beskriva vågorna med hjälp av den direkt observerade fashastigheten kan vara användbar då man undersöker interaktionen mellan vinden och vågorna, eftersom man då inte behöver skilda vattenströmningsmätningar för att bestämma vågornas verkliga hastighet i förhållande till vindhastigheten.
  • Saponaro, Giulia (2020)
    Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions 156
    Clouds play a vital role in Earth’s energy balance by modulating atmospheric processes, thus it is crucial to have accurate information on their spatial and temporal variability. Furthermore, clouds are relevant in those processes involved in aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions. The work conducted and presented herein concentrates on the retrievals of cloud properties, as well as their application for climate studies. While remote sensing observation systems have been used to analyze the atmosphere and observe its changes for the last decades, climate models predict how climate will change in the future. Altogether, these sources of observations are needed to better understand cloud processes and their impact on climate. In this thesis aerosol and cloud properties from the three above mentioned sources are applied to evaluate their potential in representing cloud properties and applicability in climate studies on local, regional and global scales. One aim of this thesis focuses on evaluating cloud parameters from ground-based remote-sensing sensors and from climate models using the MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data as a reference dataset. It is found that ground-based measurements of liquid clouds are in good agreement with MODIS cloud droplet size while poor correlation is found in the amount of cloud liquid water due to the management of drizzle. The comparison of the cloud diagnostic from three climate models with MODIS data, enabled through the application of a satellite simulator, helped to understand discrepancies among models, as well as discover deficiencies in their simulation processes. These findings are important to further improve the parametrization of atmospheric constituents in climate models, therefore enhancing the accuracy of climate projections. In this thesis it is also assessed the impact of aerosol particles on clouds. Satellite data can be used to derive climatically crucial quantities that are otherwise not directly retrieved (such as aerosol index and cloud droplet number concentration) which can be used to infer the sensitivity of clouds to aerosols changes. Results on the local and regional scales show that contrasting aerosol backgrounds indicate a higher sensitivity of clouds to aerosol changes in cleaner ambient air and a lower sensitivity in polluted areas, further corroborating the notion that anthropogenic emission modify clouds. On the global scale, the estimates of the aerosol-cloud interaction present, overall, a good agreement between the satellite- and model-based values which are in line with the results from other models.
  • Hallikainen, Markus (2019)
    Seminaarityössä tutkittiin mielikuvien ja vertauskuvien käyttöä sellonsoiton opetuksessa. Tutkimuksen kohderyhmä oli 7–12-vuotiaat oppilaat. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tarkastella jo olemassa olevaa kirjallisuutta etsien näiden pedagogisten työkalujen käyttöä tukevaa tietoa myös ikäryhmän kehitysvaiheeseen liittyen. Kirjallisuuden avulla selvitettiin myös, mitkä erilaiset taustatekijät tukevat mielikuvien ja vertauskuvien käyttöä. Tutkimusta varten haastateltiin suomalaisia sellopedagogeja, joilla on kokemusta juuri tämän ikäryhmän kanssa työskentelystä. Tutkimuksella haettiin vastauksia kysymyksiin, mitkä ovat mielikuvien ja vertauskuvien mahdollisuudet auttaa oppilaita ja millaisia mielikuvia ja vertauskuvia haastateltavat opettajat ovat käyttäneet opetuksessaan. Tutkimuksessa haastateltavina oli kaksi arvostettua sellopedagogia: Anja Maja ja Tapani Heikinheimo. Kolmas pedagogi, Helli Seppä, otti osaa vain taulukon luomiseen. Heidän avullaan kerättiin myös liitteenä oleva käytännönläheinen taulukko ideoista, joita opettajat voivat käyttää oppilaidensa kanssa. Tutkimuksessa hyödynnettiin myös tutkijan omaa kokemusta muusikkona. Tutkimus vahvisti tutkijan omaa käsitystä, että mielikuvien ja vertauskuvien käyttö on äärimmäisen tärkeää. Haastatteluissa esille tulleet tiedot vahvistivat myös tutkimuksen ikäryhmän kehityspsykologisia piirteitä ja näiden avulla voitiin todeta, että mielikuvat ja vertauskuvat tuovat konkretiaa 7–12-vuotiaiden oppilaiden opettamiseen. Taulukon kokoaminen osoittautui hyväksi tiedon koontitavaksi ja siihen saatiin laajasti tutkimuksen ikäryhmälle sopivia neuvoja. Tutkimuksen lopputulemana oli, että tämän ikäryhmän opetuksen olisi perusteltua painottua mielikuvien ja vertauskuvien kautta opettamiseen ja liittää ongelmien ratkaisut siten lasten omaan maailmaan ja tuttuihin asioihin ja tuntemuksiin. Tutkimuksen perusteella oppilaskeskeisyys ja luovuus ovat vahvasti liittyneitä mielikuvien ja vertauskuvien käyttöön opetuksessa. Mielikuvat on hyvä yhdistää juuri lapsen omiin kiinnostuksen ja ymmärryksen kohteisiin, ja opettajalla on tässä prosessissa tärkeä rooli.