Yhteistyökumppaneiden julkaisut: Recent submissions

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  • Tolonen, Kimmo T.; Karjalainen, Juha; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Nyholm, Kristiina; Rahkola-Sorsa, Minna; Cai, Yongjiu; Heino, Jani (Springer Link, 2020)
    Aquatic Ecology 54 3 (2020)
    Lake littoral environments are heterogeneous, and different organisms typically show specific responses to this environmental variation. We examined local environmental and spatial factors affecting lake littoral biodiversity and the structuring of assemblages of phytoplankton, zooplankton and macroinvertebrates within and among three basins of a large lake system. We explored congruence of species composition and species richness among the studied organism groups to evaluate their general indicator potential to represent spatial variation in other groups. We expected that effects of water chemistry on plankton assemblages were stronger than effects of habitat characteristics. In contrast, we anticipated stronger effects of habitat on macroinvertebrates due to their mainly benthic mode of life. We also expected that within-basin spatial effects would be strongest on macroinvertebrates and weakest on phytoplankton. We predicted weak congruence in assemblage composition and species richness among the organism groups. Phytoplankton assemblages were mainly structured by the shared effects of water chemistry and large-scale spatial factors. In contrast to our expectations, habitat effects were stronger than water chemistry effects on zooplankton assemblages. However, as expected, macroinvertebrate species composition and richness were mainly affected by habitat conditions. Among-group congruence was weak for assemblage composition and insignificant for richness. Albeit weak, congruence was strongest between phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages, as we expected. In summary, our analyses do not support the idea of using a single organism group as a wholesale biodiversity indicator.
  • Schuster, Romina; Strehse, Jennifer S.; Ahvo, Aino; Turja, Raisa; Maser, Edmund; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Brenner, Matthias (Elsevier, 2021)
    Marine Environmental Research 167 (2021), 105264
    Baltic mussels (Mytilus spp.) were exposed to the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT) for 96 h (0.31–10.0 mg/L) and 21 d (0.31–2.5 mg/L). Bioaccumulation of TNT and its degradation products (2- and 4-ADNT) as well as biological effects ranging from the gene and cellular levels to behaviour were investigated. Although no mortality occurred in the concentration range tested, uptake and metabolism of TNT and responses in antioxidant enzymes and histochemical biomarkers were observed already at the lowest concentrations. The characteristic shell closure behaviour of bivalves at trigger concentrations led to complex exposure patterns and non-linear responses to the exposure concentrations. Conclusively, exposure to TNT exerts biomarker reponses in mussels already at 0.31 mg/L while effects are recorded also after a prolonged exposure although no mortality occurs. Finally, more attention should be paid on shell closure of bivalves in exposure studies since it plays a marked role in definining toxicity threshold levels.
  • Lindholm, Marja; Alahuhta, Janne; Heino, Jani; Hjort, Jan; Toivonen, Heikki (Springer Link, 2020)
    Hydrobiologia 847 (2020)
    Functional homogenisation occurs across many areas and organism groups, thereby seriously affecting biodiversity loss and ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined how functional features of aquatic macrophytes have changed during a 70-year period at community and species levels in a boreal lake district. At the community level, we examined if aquatic macrophyte communities showed different spatial patterns in functional composition and functional richness in relation to main environmental drivers between the time periods. We also observed each species in functional space to assess if species with certain sets of traits have become more common or rare in the 70-year study period. We found changes in the relationship between functional community composition and the environment. The aquatic macrophyte communities showed different patterns in functional composition between the two time periods, and the main environmental drivers for these changes were partly different. Temporal changes in functional richness were only partially linked to concomitant changes in the environment, while stable factors were more important. Species’ functional traits were not associated with commonness or rarity patterns. Our findings revealed that functional homogenisation has not occurred across these boreal lakes, ranging from small oligotrophic forest lakes to larger lakes affected by human impacts.
  • Outinen, Okko; Bailey, Sarah A.; Broeg, Katja; Chasse, Joël; Clarke, Stacey; Daigle, Rémi M.; Gollasch, Stephan; Kakkonen, Jenni E.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Normant-Saremba, Monika; Ogilvie, Dawson; Viard, Frederique (Elsevier, 2021)
    Journal of Environmental Management 293 (2021), 112823
    The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) aims to mitigate the introduction risk of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOP) via ships’ ballast water and sediments. The BWM Convention has set regulations for ships to utilise exceptions and exemptions from ballast water management under specific circumstances. This study evaluated local and regional case studies to provide clarity for situations, where ships could be excepted or exempted from ballast water management without risking recipient locations to new introductions of HAOP. Ships may be excepted from ballast water management if all ballasting operations are conducted in the same location (Regulation A-3.5 of the BWM Convention). The same location case study determined whether the entire Vuosaari harbour (Helsinki, Finland) should be considered as the same location based on salinity and composition of HAOP between the two harbour terminals. The Vuosaari harbour case study revealed mismatching occurrences of HAOP between the harbour terminals, supporting the recommendation that exceptions based on the same location concept should be limited to the smallest feasible areas within a harbour. The other case studies evaluated whether ballast water exemptions could be granted for ships using two existing risk assessment (RA) methods (Joint Harmonised Procedure [JHP] and Same Risk Area [SRA]), consistent with Regulation A-4 of the BWM Convention. The JHP method compares salinity and presence of target species (TS) between donor and recipient ports to indicate the introduction risk (high or low) attributed to transferring unmanaged ballast water. The SRA method uses a biophysical model to determine whether HAOP could naturally disperse between ports, regardless of their transportation in ballast water. The results of the JHP case study for the Baltic Sea and North-East Atlantic Ocean determined that over 97% of shipping routes within these regions resulted in a high-risk indication. The one route assessed in the Gulf of Maine, North America also resulted in a high-risk outcome. The SRA assessment resulted in an overall weak connectivity between all ports assessed within the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, indicating that a SRA-based exemption would not be appropriate for the entire study area. In summary, exceptions and exemptions should not be considered as common alternatives for ballast water management. The availability of recent and detailed species occurrence data was considered the most important factor to conduct a successful and reliable RA. SRA models should include biological factors that influence larval dispersal and recruitment potential (e.g., pelagic larval duration, settlement period) to provide a more realistic estimation of natural dispersal.
  • Wang, Huan; García Molinos, Jorge; Heino, Jani; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Peiyu; Xu, Jun (Pergamon, 2021)
    Environment International 153 (2021), 106494
    Eutrophication is a major problem currently impacting many surface water ecosystems. Impacts of increased nutrient concentrations on biodiversity may differ between different scales, different organism groups, and different trophic states. Surveys at different spatial scales have suggested that biodiversity of different taxa may exhibit significant cross-taxon congruence. In our study, we examined the diversity of zooplankton and zoobenthos across 261 lakes in the Lake Taihu watershed, an area that is undergoing a severe eutrophication process. We tested the cross-taxon congruence in species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity between zooplankton and zoobenthos along a nutrient gradient across the lakes. Our findings were consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, considering nutrient input as the disturbance. Also, we found significant cross-taxon congruence between zooplankton and zoobenthos diversities. Our results confirmed that excess nutrient levels resulted in diversity loss and community simplification. Zoobenthos were more sensitive to nutrient increases compared with zooplankton, which decreased cross-taxon congruence because these organism groups did not respond similarly to the anthropogenic disturbance.
  • Lähteenmäki-Uutela, Anu; Rahikainen, Moona; Camarena-Gómez, María Teresa; Piiparinen, Jonna; Spilling, Kristian; Yang, Baoru (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Aquaculture International 29 (2021), 487–509
    Macroalgae-based products are increasing in demand also in Europe. In the European Union, each category of macroalgae-based products is regulated separately. We discuss EU legislation, including the law on medicinal products, foods including food supplements and food additives, feed and feed additives, cosmetics, packaging materials, fertilizers and biostimulants, as well as biofuels. Product safety and consumer protection are the priorities with any new products. Macroalgae products can be sold as traditional herbal medicines. The novel food regulation applies to macroalgae foods that have not previously been used as food, and organic macroalgae are a specific regulatory category. The maximum levels of heavy metals may be a barrier for macroalgae foods, feeds, and fertilizers. Getting health claims approved for foods based on macroalgae is demanding. In addition to the rules on products, the macroalgae business is strongly impacted by the elements of the general regulatory environment such as agricultural/aquacultural subsidies, maritime spatial planning and aquaculture licensing, public procurement criteria, tax schemes, and trade agreements.
  • Hirvonen, Janne; Heljo, Juhani; Jokisalo, Juha; Kurvinen, Antti; Saari, Arto; Niemelä, Tuomo; Sankelo, Paula; Kosonen, Risto (Elsevier, 2021)
    Sustainable Cities and Society 70 (2021), 102896
    Finland and the European Union aim to reduce CO2 emissions by 80–100 % before 2050. This requires drastic changes in all emissions-generating sectors. In the building sector, all new buildings are required to be nearly zero energy buildings. However, 79 % of buildings in Finland were built before 2000, meaning that they lack heat recovery and suffer from badly insulated facades. This study presents four large-scale building energy retrofit scenarios, showing the emission reduction potential in the whole Finnish building stock. Six basic building types with several age categories and heating systems were used to model the energy demand in the building stock. Retrofitted building configurations were chosen using simulation-based multi-objective optimisation and combined according to a novel building stock model. After large-scale building retrofits, the national district heating demand was reduced by 25–63 % compared to the business as usual development scenario. Despite a large increase in the number of heat pumps in the system, retrofits in buildings with direct electric heating can prevent the rise of national electricity consumption. CO2 emissions in the different scenarios were reduced by 50–75 % by 2050 using current emissions factors.
  • da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Bogoni, Juliano André; Heino, Jani (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021)
    Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9: 670212
  • Salmenperä, Hanna (Elsevier, 2021)
    Journal of Cleaner Production 292 (2021), 125986
    The European Union has set strict recycling targets for municipal solid wastes, but the implementation of circularity is still hindered by a variety of present set-ups. This paper addresses the recycling transitions and their complex nature in Austria, Sweden and Finland and points out the differences that are connected to the level of success in recycling. Furthermore, this study identifies present lock-ins in the waste management regime to provide an understanding on the factors preventing further development towards a recycling society. This is done by analysing different waste policy documents and interviews of national waste experts. The study employs the multilevel perspective (MLP) framework that is a commonly used approach in sustainability transitions research. The results highlight the variety of social, political, technical and economic elements, but also the connections between them that result in a stable regime. The pathways to achieve the recycling society differ between Austria, Sweden and Finland. National waste policy, the division of responsibilities, the variety of infrastructure and collection systems in waste management, the level of general awareness, public-private co-operation and the quality of waste data act as key characteristics that reflect the success in the recycling transition. Identified lock-ins for recycling seem to be slightly stronger in Finland compared to Austria and Sweden, while some of the lock-ins are the same in all countries, such as incineration capacity, malfunction of markets of recyclables or lack of product design for recyclability.
  • Vuorio, Kristiina; Mäki, Anita; Salmi, Pauliina; Aalto, Sanni L.; Tiirola, Marja (Frontiers Media S.A., 2020)
    Frontiers in Microbiology 11 (2020) 96
    The composition of phytoplankton community is the basis for environmental monitoring and assessment of the ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. Community composition studies of phytoplankton have been based on time-consuming and expertise-demanding light microscopy analyses. Molecular methods have the potential to replace microscopy, but the high copy number variation of ribosomal genes and the lack of universal primers for simultaneous amplification of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes complicate data interpretation. In this study, we used our previously developed directional primer-independent high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approach to analyze 16S and 18S rRNA community structures. Comparison of 83 boreal lake samples showed that the relative abundances of eukaryotic phytoplankton at class level and prokaryotic cyanobacteria at order level were consistent between HTS and microscopy results. At the genus level, the results had low correspondence, mainly due to lack of sequences in the reference library. HTS was superior to identify genera that are extensively represented in the reference databases but lack specific morphological characteristics. Targeted metatranscriptomics proved to be a feasible method to complement the microscopy analysis. The metatranscriptomics can also be applied without linking the sequences to taxonomy. However, direct indexing of the sequences to their environmental indicator values needs collections of more comprehensive sample sets, as long as the coverage of molecular barcodes of eukaryotic species remains insufficient.
  • Räihä, Jouni; Ruokamo, Enni (Elsevier, 2021)
    Energy and Buildings 251 (2021), 111366
    Detached house owners can improve energy efficiency in heating by adding a supplementary heating system alongside the primary mode. Whereas research on primary heating mode adoption is wide, studies focusing solely on the determinants of supplementary heating system adoption is limited. This study examines the determinants of supplementary heating system adoption and consideration in Finland with a survey data collected from a sample of newly built detached house owners. We employ discrete choice modeling to investigate the homeowners’ supplementary heating system choices and interpret the results vis-à-vis the diffusion of innovations literature. The supplementary heating systems under study are solar panel, solar thermal heater, air-source heat pump and water-circulating fireplace. Overall, the findings indicate that homeowners are generally receptive to supplementary heating in Finland. The analyses show that several factors such as age, education, primary heating mode, heating system attributes, location, environmental attitudes and information channels impact the supplementary heating system adoption decision.
  • Kahrola, Ari; Reinikainen, Tapio; Johansson, Annika; Finel, Nufar (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2021)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 40/2021
    Selvityksessä tarkastellaan teknologioita ja ratkaisuja, joiden avulla ammattikeittiöiden ilmastoystävällisyyttä voidaan parantaa. Muutoksen peruselementtejä ovat energiatehokkuusparannukset ja matalan ilmastonlämmityspotentiaalin (GWP) kylmäaineisiin siirtyminen. Energiatehokkuusparannukset kohdistuvat sekä valittaviin laitteisiin että koko talotekniikkaan liittyvään suunnitteluun ja toteutukseen. Luonnollisia kylmäaineita, kuten hiilivetyjä, ammoniakkia ja hiilidioksidia tulisi suosia aina kun mahdollista. Työssä laadittiin katsaukset liittyen: i) kylmäaineita ja energiatehokkuutta koskeviin kansainvälisiin sopimuksiin, kotimaiseen ja EU-lainsäädäntöön sekä standardeihin, ii) energiatehokkuusmurrosta tukeviin teknologioihin ja niiden tuomiin mahdollisuuksiin ja haasteisiin, ja iii) uusien teknologioiden integroimiseen talotekniseen suunnitteluun. Lisäksi haastateltiin asiantuntijoita kolmesta suurimmasta Suomessa toimivasta talotekniikkayrityksestä. Haastattelujen tarkoituksena oli selvittää lämmöntalteenoton (LTO) ja hyödyntämisen mahdollisuuksia tyypillisissä ammattikeittiöissä. Haastatteluissa käytiin läpi sitä, miten lämmöntalteenottoa ja hukkalämmön hyödyntämistä toteutetaan tällä hetkellä uudiskohteissa ja toisaalta myös saneerauskohteissa. Samalla kerättiin palautetta nykyisten ratkaisujen toimivuudesta ja etsittiin ideoita lämmön talteenoton tehostamiseksi. Suosituksissa tärkeimmiksi nousivat i) kokonaisvaltainen energiatekniikan suunnittelu ammattikeittiökohteissa, ii) ammattikeittiösuunnittelun integroiminen talotekniikan suunnitteluun ja käyttöön, iii) oleellisena osana kokonaisratkaisua waterloop-, eli nestelauhdutteinen järjestelmä, joka tekee mahdolliseksi ammattikylmälaitteiden tuottaman lämmön kierrättämisen kiinteistön tarpeisiin, ja iv) luonnollisten kylmäaineiden käyttö niissä kohteissa, joihin markkinoilta löytyy sopivia laitteistoja. Lisätietoa tarvitaan ehdotettujen ratkaisujen ja teknologioiden energiansäästö- ja ilmastohyötyjen suuruudesta, ja varsinkin lisähyödyistä niissä ratkaisuissa, joissa matalan GWPn kylmäaineilla toimivat kylmälaitteet liitetään vesikiertoiseen lämmöntalteenottojärjestelmään ja hukkalämpö otetaan talteen koko kiinteistön hyödyksi. Erityisesti ratkaisujen ja teknologioiden integroiminen taloteknisiin suunnitteluratkaisuihin sekä uudiskohteissa että vanhojen kiinteistöjen kunnostushankkeissa vaatii lisätietoa. Sitä saisi parhaiten pilottihankkeilla, joissa kohteina olisivat hyvin mittaroidut uudiskohteet ja kunnostuskohteet.
  • Hietala, Reija; Ijäs, Asko; Pikner, Tarmo; Kull, Anne; Printsmann, Anu; Kuusik, Maila; Fagerholm, Nora; Vihervaara, Petteri; Nordström, Paulina; Kostamo, Kirsi (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Journal of Coastal Conservation 25 (2021), 47
    The Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive was ratified (2014/89/EU) along the Strategy of the European Union (EU) on the Blue Economy to contribute to the effective management of maritime activities and resources and incorporate the principal elements of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) (2002/413/EC) into planning at the land-sea interface. There is a need to develop the ICZM approach throughout Europe to realise the potential for both socio-economic and environmental targets set by the EU and national legislations. In this study, we co-developed different approaches for land-sea interactions in four case areas in Estonia and Finland based on the defined characteristics and key interests derived from local or regional challenges by integrating spatial data on human activities and ecology. Furthermore, four ICZM drafts were co-evaluated by stakeholders and the public using online map-based assessment tools (public participatory GIS). The ICZM approaches of the Estonian cases ranged from the diversification of land use to the enhancement of community-based entrepreneurship. The Finnish cases aimed to define the trends for sustainable marine and coastal tourism and introduce the ecosystem service concept in land use planning. During the project activities, we found that increased communication and exchange of local and regional views and values on the prevailing land-sea interactions were important for the entire process. Thereafter, the ICZM plans were applied to the MSP processes nationally, and they support the sustainable development of coastal areas in Estonia and Finland.
  • Laukka, Vuokko; Katko, Tapio S.; Peltonen, Lasse; Rajala, Riikka (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Hydrogeology Journal 29: 4 (2021), 1369–1378
    In Finland, community water supply has increasingly relied on natural groundwater and artificially recharged groundwater as the raw water source. Several managed aquifer recharge (MAR) projects have been co-created with involved parties and have proceeded well, while some cases have raised considerable resistance among the stakeholders. It seems that success or failure in MAR cooperation is related to management cultures and the ways in which various interests are taken into account, from the very beginning and throughout the process. Empirically, this paper builds on comparison between two conflictual case studies in Finland: one in the Tampere region and the other in the Turku region. The study analyses the major constraints of these projects through the lens of collaborative rationality, also drawing upon discourse analysis and negotiation theory. The material is gathered through thematic interviews of stakeholders, newspaper articles and a stakeholder workshop. The results indicate that conventional management approaches, drawing from expert-based instrumental rationality, were insufficient in both cases. The collaborative rationality framework suggests that legitimacy for the groundwater projects should be gained through joint knowledge production and inclusive multiparty interaction for creating options for collaboration. Both cases lacked the tools and know-how for authentic dialogue and collaboration. The emerging paradigm emphasizes more collaborative approaches for natural resources management and urban planning. While MAR projects operate inside these areas and are highly complex in nature, it is essential to embrace the emerging paradigm in order to promote MAR systems along with their huge potential.
  • Kaikkonen, Laura; Enberg, Sara; Blomster, Jaanika; Luhtanen, Anne-Mari; Autio, Riitta; Rintala, Janne-Markus (Springer Nature, 2020)
    Polar Biology 43 9 (2020)
    Marine microbial communities undergo drastic changes during the seasonal cycle in high latitude seas. Despite the dominance of microbial biomass in the oceans, comprehensive studies on the seasonal changes of microbial plankton during the complete winter period are lacking. To study the seasonal variation in abundance of the microbial community, water samples were collected weekly in the Northern Baltic Sea from October to May. During ice cover from mid-January to April, samples from the sea ice and the underlying water were taken in addition to the water column samples. Abundances of bacteria, virus-like particles, nanoflagellates, and chlorophyll a concentrations were measured from sea ice, under-ice water, and the water column, and examined in relation to environmental conditions. All studied organisms had clear seasonal changes in abundance, and the sea-ice microbial community had an independent wintertime development compared to the water column. Bacteria were observed to have a key role in the biotic interactions in both ice and the water column, and the dormant period during the cold-water months (October–May) was limited to before ice formation. Our results provide the first insights into the temporal dynamics of bacteria and viruses during the whole cold-water season (October–May) in coastal high latitude seas, and demonstrate that changes in the environmental conditions are likely to affect bacterial dynamics and have implications on trophic interactions.
  • Kaihovirta, Matias; Lintunen, Tiina (Työväen historian ja perinteen tutkimuksen seura, 2021)
    Väki Voimakas 34
    Miten työväki ja seksi liittyvät toisiinsa? Miten aihetta on tutkittu ja minkälaisia kysymyksiä nousee esille työväen- ja toisaalta seksuaalisuuden historian ja -tutkimuksen kohdatessa? Tämänvuotinen Väki voimakas -vuosikirja lähestyy seksiin ja seksuaalisuuteen liittyviä kysymyksiä työväen näkökulmasta. Kirjassa tutkitaan, miten ympäröivä yhteiskunta on rajoittanut ja valvonut työväen seksuaalisuutta ja toisaalta miten työväki ja työväenliike ovat käsitelleet seksuaalisuuteen liittyviä kysymyksiä. Tässä kirjassa tarkastellaan, miten vallitsevat siveellisyyskäsitykset ja eri aikakausien sukupuoli-, moraali- ja seksuaalinormit ovat ohjailleet työväestön arkea ja kokemuksia ja ilmenneet työväenliikkeessä ja erilaisissa työväen yhteisöissä. Vuosikirjan artikkeleissa moraaliin ja normeihin keskittyviä näkökulmia lähestytään historia- ja yhteiskuntatieteiden näkökulmista. Artikkeleissa tutkitaan, miten käsitykset seksuaalisuudesta ja seksistä liittyvät työhön, työväenkulttuuriin ja työväenliikkeeseen. Kirjoituksissa pohditaan myös, mitkä ovat olleet häpeällisiä ja vaiettuja kysymyksiä liittyen luokkaan, seksiin ja seksuaalisuuteen.
  • Kujala, Heini; Halme, Panu; Pekkonen, Minna; Ryttäri, Terhi; Raunio, Anne; Kullberg, Peter; Koljonen, Saija; Kostamo, Kirsi; Keränen, Inka (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2021)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja
    Luontokadon hillitsemiseksi eliölajien ja luontotyyppien uhanalaistumiskehitys on saatava pysäytettyä. Vastuuta luonnon monimuotoisuutta heikentävien toimien lieventämisestä ja korjaamisesta ollaan enenevässä määrin siirtämässä heikennysten aiheuttajille. Ekologinen kompensaatio voi tukea luontokadon hillitsemisen tavoitetta. Kompensaatiossa esimerkiksi rakentamis- tai kaivoshankeen aiheuttama luontoarvojen heikennys hyvitetään lisäämällä luonnon monimuotoisuutta muualla. Tähän julkaisuun on koottu luonnonsuojelulain uudistustyön tueksi kootun asiantuntijaryhmän ehdotuksia siitä, mitä ekologisen kompensaation toteutuksessa tulee ottaa huomioon, jotta se tukisi monimuotoisuustavoitteiden saavuttamista ja vähentäisi lajien ja luontotyyppien uhanalaistumista. Asiantuntijaryhmän ehdotukset perustuvat ekologisiin ja luonnonsuojelubiologisiin lähtökohtiin. Raportissa käydään läpi ehdotuksia siitä, mitä luontoarvoja kompensaatio voisi koskea, miten heikennyksen ja hyvityksen luontoarvovastaavuutta tulisi arvioida, miten hyvitys tulisi tuottaa sekä miten hyvityksen tulisi sijoittua paikallisesti ja ajallisesti suhteessa menetettyihin luontoarvoihin. Lisäksi annetaan suosituksia Suomessa toteutettavien ekologisten kompensaatioiden suunnitteluun ja toteutukseen.
  • Bhattacharjee, Joy; Marttila, Hannu; Launiainen, Samuli; Lepistö, Ahti; Kløve, Bjørn (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 779 (2021), 146419
    Maintaining and improving surface water quality requires knowledge of nutrient and sediment loads due to past and future land-use practices, but historical data on land cover and its changes are often lacking. In this study, we tested whether land-use-specific export coefficients can be used together with satellite images (Landsat) and/or regional land-use statistics to estimate riverine nutrient loads and concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and suspended solids (SS). The study area, Simojoki (3160 km2) in northern Finland, has been intensively drained for peatland forestry since the 1960s. We used different approaches at multiple sub-catchment scales to simulate TN, TP, and SS export in the Simojoki catchment. The uncertainty in estimates based on specific export coefficients was quantified based on historical land-use changes (derived from Landsat data), and an uncertainty boundary was established for each land-use. The uncertainty boundary captured at least 60% of measured values of TN, TP, and SS loads or concentrations. However, the uncertainty in estimates compared with measured values ranged from 7% to 20% for TN, 0% to 18% for TP, and 13% to 43% for SS for different catchments. Some discrepancy between predicted and measured loads and concentrations was expected, as the method did not account for inter-annual variability in hydrological conditions or river processes. However, combining historical land-use change estimates with simple export coefficients can be a practical approach for evaluating the influence on water quality of historical land-use changes such as peatland drainage for forest establishment.
  • Korpinen, Samuli; Laamanen, Leena; Bergström, Lena; Nurmi, Marco; Andersen, Jesper H.; Haapaniemi, Juuso; Harvey, E. Therese; Murray, Ciaran J.; Peterlin, Monika; Kallenbach, Emilie; Klančnik, Katja; Stein, Ulf; Tunesi, Leonardo; Vaughan, David; Reker, Johnny (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Ambio 50 (2021), 1325–1336
    Marine ecosystems are under high demand for human use, giving concerns about how pressures from human activities may affect their structure, function, and status. In Europe, recent developments in mapping of marine habitats and human activities now enable a coherent spatial evaluation of potential combined effects of human activities. Results indicate that combined effects from multiple human pressures are spread to 96% of the European marine area, and more specifically that combined effects from physical disturbance are spread to 86% of the coastal area and 46% of the shelf area. We compare our approach with corresponding assessments at other spatial scales and validate our results with European-scale status assessments for coastal waters. Uncertainties and development points are identified. Still, the results suggest that Europe’s seas are widely disturbed, indicating potential discrepancy between ambitions for Blue Growth and the objective of achieving good environmental status within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
  • Böttcher, Kristin; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Zhizhin, Mikhail; Matveev, Alexey; Savolahti, Mikko; Savolahti, Mikko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Väätäinen, Sampsa; Lamberg, Heikki; Karvosenoja, Niko (Elsevier, 2021)
    Atmospheric Environment 254 (2021), 118390
    Gas flaring in the oil and gas industry has been identified as an important source of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) affecting the climate, particularly in the Arctic. Our study provides spatially-explicit estimates of BC emissions from flaring in Russia utilising state-of-the-art methodology for determining the emission factors. We utilised satellite time series of the flared gas volume from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) for the period 2012 to 2017, supplemented with information on the gas and oil field type. BC emissions at flaring locations were calculated based on field type-specific emission factors, taking into account different gas compositions in each field type. We estimate that the average annual BC emissions from flaring in Russia were 68.3 Gg/year, with the largest proportion stemming from oil fields (82%). We observed a decrease in the yearly emissions during the period 2012 to 2017 with regional differences in the trend. Our results highlight the importance of detailed information on gas composition and the stage of oil and gas separation of the flared gas to reduce uncertainties in the BC emission estimates.