Refugees, Resource Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Future Feature of Social Violence in Africa

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Title: Refugees, Resource Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Future Feature of Social Violence in Africa
Author: Ogola, Winfrith Hikloch
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science
Date: 2002-12-02
Language: en
Thesis level: master's thesis
Abstract: A vicious circle of refugee influxes, resource scarcities and violent conflicts characterises most of the current social violence in Africa. How does large refugee influxes cause severe resource scarcity in the refugee host countries? How do the resource scarcities lead to violent conflicts which eventually turn both refugees and poor rural hosts against the states of host countries? Using both qualitative methods and participatory approaches, this research argues that large refugee influxes exacerbate scarcity of natural and social resources in a refugee host country. The resulting resource scarcities in the host country lead to failures to invent solutions to intertwined development problems. This ingenuity gap in turn disrupts market forces, prevents technological innovations and renders the host country incapable of adapting to resource scarcities. Although the research associates violent conflict to resource scarcity, it concludes that resource-induced violent conflicts usually occur in conjunction with other factors such as: (1) A total neglect of rural agricultural producers; (2) State failure to meet development expectations of its people; (3) A widespread of small arms in the hands of opposing groups and ; (4) A history of repeated internal violent conflicts. Resource-induced conflicts tend to be persistent either because of slow action from the international community or due to exploitative political and economic interests of external countries gaining from the conflict situation. Two comparative case studies are used to illustrate why and how very large refugee influxes from Rwanda led to high resource scarcities and eventually violent conflict that changed the regime in the neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo (former Zaire) but did not do so in neighbouring Tanzania.
Description: Endast sammandrag. Inbundna avhandlingar kan sökas i Helka-databasen ( Elektroniska kopior av avhandlingar finns antingen öppet på nätet eller endast tillgängliga i bibliotekets avhandlingsterminaler.Only abstract. Paper copies of master’s theses are listed in the Helka database ( Electronic copies of master’s theses are either available as open access or only on thesis terminals in the Helsinki University Library.Vain tiivistelmä. Sidottujen gradujen saatavuuden voit tarkistaa Helka-tietokannasta ( Digitaaliset gradut voivat olla luettavissa avoimesti verkossa tai rajoitetusti kirjaston opinnäytekioskeilla.
Subject: Refugees
Africa - Rwanda

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