Kutsuminen, siunaaminen ja lähettäminen : Ordinaatiokaavojen käsitys pappisvihkimyksestä ja -virasta Suomen evankelis-luterilaisessa kirkossa 1963 - 2003

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http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN: 978-951-51-0001-6
Title: Kutsuminen, siunaaminen ja lähettäminen : Ordinaatiokaavojen käsitys pappisvihkimyksestä ja -virasta Suomen evankelis-luterilaisessa kirkossa 1963 - 2003
Author: Pohjola, Juhana
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Theology
Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
Date: 2014-08-15
URI: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN: 978-951-51-0001-6
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/135522
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (monograph)
Abstract: Calling, blessing and sending. Understanding of ordination and the pastoral office in the ordination rites of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland 1963 - 2003 The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of ordination and the pastoral office in the ordination rites of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (ELCF) from 1963 to 2003. The method is systematic analysis of the Agendas of the ELCF: T 1963, T 1984 and T 2003, which detail the ordination rites during that period. The rites were placed in their historical and ecumenical context by analysing the ordination rites of the churches of Rome and England (PR 1990; CW 2006), Martin Luther s rite of 1533/39 and three modern Lutheran rites: ELCA (Os 1982), VELKD (Ag 1987) and the Church of Sweden (HB 1987). In the ELCF, ordination is understood as a liturgico-theologico-juridical process, which is distinguished by three parts: the call (vocatio), the blessing (benedictio) and the sending (missio). In the vocation, the Church s need and assessment are primary, rather than ordinand s inner call. The pastoral office requires a concrete office for the pastor. In the ELCF, the bishop and the diocesan chapter examine, select and call the ordinands. The local parish has an advisory role in the process. The ordination takes place by means of word, prayer, and the laying on of hands. The act of ordination has not been understood demonstratively, as merely a public confirmation of the call, but as an instrumental act, where the office is given through a blessing. Ordination is seen as sacramental and effective. The central element is the preached and read word of God. The word constitutes the office, the ordination, and the ministration of the office. At the heart of ordination are prayer and the laying on of hands. The rites of the ELCF have retained the declarative part of the rite in which the office is given and a formula of blessing is used. In recent times, many churches have removed this declarative giving of the office, because research has led to the view that the heart of ordination is the anamnetic-epicletic prayer with the laying on of hands. In the intercession for the newly ordained in T 2003 the epiclesis has developed in the direction of this view on the charism of the office. The prayers ask for the gift of the Holy Spirit for the ordained. With regard to the mission, the relationship between ordination and installation has been characterised by tension in Lutheranism. There is an absolute theological distinction in T 2003 between ordination, which gives the office and the pneumatological gift, and installation, which can be repeated and sends the ordained to the ministration of the office with intercessions. The rites of ordination reveal several perspectives on the theology of the pastoral office. In discussions concerning the institution of the office, an institutional and a functional understanding of the office have been prominent. In the ELCF, the pastoral office is understood as a divine ordinance, and not a congregational transfer derived from the common priesthood. The office is christologico-pneumatologico-ecclesiological. Christ instituted the office, holds it and himself works through it in the Holy Spirit through the administration of the means of grace for the creation of justifying faith and the building up of the Church. Views on the institutional character of the office have been in a state of tension from 1963 to 2003. In the ELCF, with the acceptance of the ordination of women in 1986, the Christological and apostolic mandate were separated from what is mandated concerning the gender of the ordinand. In the discussion concerning the diaconate, the office and its mandated tasks were separated such that functions belonging to the pastoral office could be administered without ordination into it. This has been seen in the shaping of the office of the lector, the licensing of lay preachers and the grounds given for the office of deacon. The Lutheran Confession holds the office as an institutional-personal-functional whole. Likewise, the Lutheran Confession emphasises the unity of the office (iure divino). There has been discussion in the ELCF over the tripartite division of the ministry (iure humano), over the relationship between the offices of bishop, pastor and deacon. In the ELCF, the episcopal office has had an important role as the ordaining office. When the bishop ordains, he or she acts on the authority of Christ and his Church (in persona Christi, in persona ecclesiae). The possibility of presbyteral ordinations has been known in the ELCF, but according to T 2003, only a bishop can ordain. Behind this change is the Porvoo Common Statement (PCS), signed in 1995. In the ELCF, the significance of the episcopate has been focused on what the bishop has done for the unity and spiritual edification of the church as the ordainer, the overseer of teaching and the shepherd of congregations and pastors. Because of the acceptance of the PCS, the institutional nature of the episcopate is emphasised. The episcopal constitution is not only beneficial for the Church, but also necessary for its apostolic fullness. In the ELCF, the place of diaconal office has been unclear. There has been discussion on whether it is part of the divinely instituted office, a lay office, or something in between. Under the influence of BEM and PCS, T 2003 exemplifies the notion of three ordained offices. The question of the gift of grace given in ordination has been ecumenically difficult. Until the 1970s, the ELCF was dominated by an aversion to a charismatic view of the ordination. There was a desire to stand apart from the Roman Catholic view of the office, in which an ontological distinction is maintained between the ordained priesthood and the common priesthood. From a Lutheran point of view, such a distinction has been understood to undermine the significance of Baptism. Another influence behind this aversion to the charismatic view of the office has been post-Kantian neo-Protestantism, which avoids ontological qualifiers of being. Instead of pneumatic effectiveness, it emphasises the juridical and confirming character of ordination. A change has taken place in the ELCF. Ordination is now understood sacramentally. The charism of ordination is both the office instituted by Christ and the Holy Spirit s act of equipping of the ordained for the ministration of the office. In the ELCF, the priesthood is irrevocable and re-ordination is excluded, even though the local church can dismiss a person from the rights of the office. The missio is to the whole Church of Christ, even though in practical and juridical terms it only applies to the local church. It has become the view in the ELCF that the ordination returns to this: that God as self-giving love can communicate himself and the gifts of salvation in the world through the ministration of the pastoral office that is part of the Church s mission. The office is given in ordination in accordance with God s Trinitarian essence. In ordination, the Father gives the person he has created with all his gifts, Christ gives his own office, and the Holy Spirit sanctifies and equips with his gifts of grace for the ministration of the office in the Church. Thus the office and the ordination into it are structured for the communal life of the Church, which arises out of the unity of the persons of the Trinity. The office of the Church and the universal priesthood both function according to their own calling together in the mission of God s eschatological people.Tutkimus selvittää Suomen evankelis-luterilaisen kirkon ordinaatiokaavojen käsitystä pappisvihkimyksestä ja -virasta 1963 - 2003. Metodina on systemaattinen analyysi. Päälähteinä ovat Kirkollisten toimitusten kirjat T 1963, T 1984 ja T 2003. Tutkimus asetettiin liturgian historialliseen ja ekumeeniseen kontekstiin. Ordinaatio käsitetään kutsusta, siunaamisesta ja lähettämisestä muodostuvaksi teologis-liturgis-juridiseksi prosessiksi, jossa vihittävä saa kolmiyhteiseltä Jumalalta kirkon kutsun kautta uuden ja pysyvän aseman sekä palvelutehtävän. Vihkimys antaa viran ja liittää vihityn osaksi papistoa. Vihittävä saa Raamatun sanan ja rukouksen kautta Pyhän Hengen lahjan ja uuden tehtävän sekä vastuun Jumalan edessä. Papiksi vihkimistä ei ole ymmärretty demonstratiivisesti yksinomaan kutsun julkisena vahvistamisena vaan instrumentaalisena sakramentaalis-efektiivisenä toimena. Ordinaation keskuksessa on rukous ja kättenpäällepano. Kaavoissa ei ole seurattu uutta ordinaatiotutkimusta eikä ekumeenista kehitystä, jossa viran antamisen formulan tai vihkijän lausuman siunauksen sijasta käytetään epikleettistä rukousta. T 2003:ssa on tehty teologisesti selkeä ero kertakaikkisen ordinaation ja esirukouksin tehtävänhoitoon saattelevan ja toistettavankin installaation välillä. Vihkimyskaavat ovat noudattaneet yleistä liturgista kehitystä, jossa liturgisten symbolien määrä kasvaa, seurakunnan läsnäolon merkitys vahvistuu ja toimitukset liitetään messuun. Pappisvirkaa on painotettu selvemmin jumalallisena säätämyksenä eikä yhteisestä pappeudesta johdettuna seurakunnallisena siirtämyksenä tehtävien hoitamiseksi. Kiistanalaista on ollut jumalallisesti asetetun viran suhde niin viranhaltijan sukupuoleen kuin viranhoidon tehtäviin. Tutkimusajanjaksolla esillä oli viran kolmijako piispan, papin ja diakonian virkaan. Piispuuden merkitys vahvistuu Porvoon sopimuksen seurauksena. T 2003:ssa pappisvihkimyksen voi toimittaa ainoastaan piispa. T 2003 ilmenee kolmisäikeinen virkakäsitys, vaikka diakonian viran liittäminen yhdeksi vihkimysviraksi sisältää virkateologisia ongelmia. Pappisviran ja -vihkimyksen sakramentaalinen ymmärrys vahvistui tutkimusaikana. Vihkimyksen armolahjaksi ymmärretään sekä virka että Pyhän Hengen vahvistus ja varustus vihitylle viranhoitoa varten. Pappeus on purkamaton ja uudelleen vihkiminen poissuljettu, vaikka virkaan valtuutuksesta voidaan paikalliskirkossa erottaa. Virka annetaan ordinaatiossa Jumalan trinitaarisen olemuksen mukaisesti. Ordinaatiossa Isä antaa luomansa ihmisen kaikkine lahjoineen, Kristus lahjoittaa oman virkansa ja Pyhä Henki pyhittää ja varustaa armolahjoillansa palvelutehtävää varten Jumalan eskatologisen kansan keskellä.
Subject: teologia
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