Microbial ecology in atrazine and terbutryn dissipation in surface soils and subsurface sediments

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http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-1892-9
Julkaisun nimi: Microbial ecology in atrazine and terbutryn dissipation in surface soils and subsurface sediments
Tekijä: Liu, Xinxin
Muu tekijä: Helsingin yliopisto, bio- ja ympäristötieteellinen tiedekunta, ympäristötieteiden laitos
Julkaisija: Helsingin yliopisto
Päiväys: 2016-02-26
Kieli: en
URI: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-1892-9
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/160114
Opinnäytteen taso: Väitöskirja (artikkeli)
Tiivistelmä: The worldwide use of triazines as pesticides has resulted in their widespread occurrence in groundwater. Within the northern boreal region in Southern Finland, 30% of groundwater sampling points contained pesticides, and acceptable drinking water limits were exceeded in 11%. Atrazine and its degradation products were among the most common pesticides observed. Chemical pesticide degradation in soil is slower than microbial degradation. Biodegradation often decreases with increasing depth. Nutritional factors and soil physicochemical properties affect microbial pesticide degradation. However, their effects on separate microorganisms, and the genetic basis of these responses, are not well documented. The aim of this thesis was to isolate and characterize atrazine-degrading microorganisms, and to find appropriate microbial, physicochemical, and nutritional demands for pesticide degradation. Microbial community composition was studied in farmland, forested farmland, and primary forest soils by pyrosequencing and in gardens, groundwater deposits, and vadose zone sediments by cultivation on mineral medium with atrazine or terbutryn as the nitrogen source. Atrazine dissipation efficiency was additionally compared under stagnant and circulating water conditions. The dominant phyla that increased in atrazine-treated farmland, gardens, deposits, and sediments were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The overlap in genera was less than in phyla, while the isolated Pseudomonas strains only slightly overlapped between isolates from surface soils and subsurface deposits and sediments. Atrazine dissipation was better in circulating than in stagnant water, and aerobic microbes from genera known to have atrazine degradation genes, all from phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, were simultaneously enriched,. Based on the results, the application of microbial remediation of atrazine and terbutryn requires special attention to soil physicochemical properties and selection of proper microbial strains.The world-wide use of triazines as pesticides has resulted in their widespread occurrence in groundwater. In South Finland 30 % of groundwater sampling points contained pesticides, and limits accepted for the drinking water were exceeded in 11 %. The most common pesticides were atrazine and its degradation products. The chemical pesticide degradation in soil is slow, in contrast to microbial degradation in few months. Biodegradation often decreases with increasing depth. The nutritional factors and soil physical properties have been found to affect the pesticide microbial degradation. However, their effects on separate microorganisms, and genetic basis of responses is poorly known. The aim of this study is to isolate and characterize atrazine degrading microorganisms, find appropriate microbes and conditions for remediation, and determine physical and nutritional demands for pesticide degradation. Pesticide degradation is studied in environmental samples from surface soils, groundwater deposits, and in subsurface sediments from contaminated areas. Microbial strains were isolated by mineral medium with atrazine or terbutryn as nitrogen source from northern boreal region. In addition, atrazine dissipation rate in subsurface sediments was up to 89.7% in lab bio-reactors. The results provide information on microbial ecology of atrazine and terbutryn dissipation in surface and subsurface soils. Based on the results application of microbial remediation of atrazine and terbutryn requires special attention on soil physicochemical properties and selection of proper microbial strains.
Avainsanat: environmental ecology
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