The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia

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Schuijt , T J , Lankelma , J M , Scicluna , B P , e Melo , F D S , Roelofs , J J T H , de Boer , J D , Hoogendijk , A J , de Beer , R , de Vos , A , Belzer , C , de Vos , W M , van der Poll , T & Wiersinga , W J 2016 , ' The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia ' , Gut , vol. 65 , no. 4 , pp. 575-583 . https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309728

Title: The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia
Author: Schuijt, Tim J.; Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; e Melo, Felipe de Sousa; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; de Boer, J. Daan; Hoogendijk, Arjan J.; de Beer, Regina; de Vos, Alex; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M.; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W. Joost
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Medicum
Date: 2016-04
Language: eng
Number of pages: 9
Belongs to series: Gut
ISSN: 0017-5749
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/161140
Abstract: Objective Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia, however, is unknown. Here, we investigate the function of the gut microbiota in the host defence against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. Design We depleted the gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently infected them intranasally with S. pneumoniae. We then performed survival and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments and measured parameters of inflammation and alveolar macrophage whole-genome responses. Results We found that the gut microbiota protects the host during pneumococcal pneumonia, as reflected by increased bacterial dissemination, inflammation, organ damage and mortality in microbiota-depleted mice compared with controls. FMT in gut microbiota-depleted mice led to a normalisation of pulmonary bacterial counts and tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 levels 6 h after pneumococcal infection. Whole-genome mapping of alveolar macrophages showed upregulation of metabolic pathways in the absence of a healthy gut microbiota. This upregulation correlated with an altered cellular responsiveness, reflected by a reduced responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. Compared with controls, alveolar macrophages derived from gut microbiota-depleted mice showed a diminished capacity to phagocytose S. pneumoniae. Conclusions This study identifies the intestinal microbiota as a protective mediator during pneumococcal pneumonia. The gut microbiota enhances primary alveolar macrophage function. Novel therapeutic strategies could exploit the gut-lung axis in bacterial infections.
Subject: INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA
INNATE IMMUNITY
INFECTION
BACTERIAL
SEPSIS
LUNG
COLONIZATION
RESPONSES
RECOVERY
YOUNG
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
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