Cosmic Rays Report from the Structure of Space

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/161461

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Annila , A 2015 , ' Cosmic Rays Report from the Structure of Space ' , Advances in astronomy , vol. 2015 , 135025 . https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/135025

Title: Cosmic Rays Report from the Structure of Space
Author: Annila, A.
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Physics
Date: 2015
Language: eng
Number of pages: 11
Belongs to series: Advances in astronomy
ISSN: 1687-7969
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/161461
Abstract: Spectrum of cosmic rays follows a broken power law over twelve orders of magnitude. Since ubiquitous power laws are manifestations of the principle of least action, we interpret the spectrum accordingly. Our analysis complies with understanding that low-energy particles originate mostly from rapidly receding sources throughout the cosmos. The flux peaks about proton rest energy whereafter it decreases because fewer and fewer receding sources are energetic enough to provide particles with high enough velocities to compensate for the recessional velocities. Above 10(15.6) eV the flux from the expanding Universe diminishes below the flux from the nearby nonexpanding part of the Universe. In this spectral feature, known as the "knee," we relate to a distance of about 1.3 Mpc where the gravitational potential tallies the energy density of free space. At higher energies particles decelerate in a dissipative manner to attain thermodynamic balance with the vacuum. At about 10(17.2) eV a distinct dissipative mechanism opens up for protons to slow down by electron-positron pair production. At about 10(19.6) eV a more effective mechanism opens up via pion production. All in all, the universal principle discloses that the broad spectrum of cosmic rays probes the structure of space from cosmic distances down to microscopic details.
Subject: AIR-SHOWER ARRAY
ENERGY-SPECTRUM
HELIUM SPECTRA
ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION
DARK ENERGY
LOCAL-GROUP
PROTON
BESS
LIGHT
VELOCITY
115 Astronomy, Space science
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