Confronting the vicinity of the surface water and sea shore in a shallow glaciogenic aquifer in southern Finland

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dc.contributor.author Luoma, S.
dc.contributor.author Okkonen, J.
dc.contributor.author Korkka-Niemi, K.
dc.contributor.author Hendriksson, N.
dc.contributor.author Backman, B.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-05-13T08:04:01Z
dc.date.available 2016-05-13T08:04:01Z
dc.date.issued 2015
dc.identifier.citation Luoma , S , Okkonen , J , Korkka-Niemi , K , Hendriksson , N & Backman , B 2015 , ' Confronting the vicinity of the surface water and sea shore in a shallow glaciogenic aquifer in southern Finland ' , Hydrology and Earth System Sciences , vol. 19 , no. 3 , pp. 1353-1370 . https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-19-1353-2015
dc.identifier.other PURE: 49707981
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: f390186d-3132-4856-b43b-d28705687ac6
dc.identifier.other WOS: 000352160600016
dc.identifier.other Scopus: 84924589109
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/161976
dc.description.abstract The groundwater in a shallow, unconfined, low-lying coastal aquifer in Santala, southern Finland, was chemically characterised by integrating multivariate statistical approaches, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), based on the stable isotopes delta H-2 and delta O-18, hydrogeochemistry and field monitoring data. PCA and HCA yielded similar results and classified groundwater samples into six distinct groups that revealed the factors controlling temporal and spatial variations in the groundwater geochemistry, such as the geology, anthropogenic sources from human activities, climate and surface water. High temporal variation in groundwater chemistry directly corresponded to precipitation. With an increase in precipitation, KMnO4 consumption, EC, alkalinity and Ca concentrations also increased in most wells, while Fe, Al, Mn and SO4 were occasionally increased during spring after the snowmelt under specific geological conditions. The continued increase in NO3 and metal concentrations in groundwater indicates the potential contamination risk to the aquifer. Stable isotopes of delta O-18 and delta H-2 indicate groundwater recharge directly from meteoric water, with an insignificant contribution from lake water, and no seawater intrusion into the aquifer. Groundwater geochemistry suggests that local seawater intrusion is temporarily able to take place in the sulfate reduction zone along the freshwater and seawater mixed zone in the low-lying coastal area, but the contribution of seawater was found to be very low. The influence of lake water could be observed from higher levels of KMnO4 consumption in wells near the lake. The integration of PCA and HCA with conventional classification of groundwater types, as well as with the hydrogeochemical data, provided useful tools to identify the vulnerable groundwater areas representing the impacts of both natural and human activities on water quality and the understanding of complex groundwater flow system for the aquifer vulnerability assessment and groundwater management in the future. en
dc.format.extent 18
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Hydrology and Earth System Sciences
dc.rights cc_by
dc.rights.uri info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject GROUNDWATER RECHARGE
dc.subject CLIMATE-CHANGE
dc.subject COASTAL AQUIFERS
dc.subject GEOCHEMICAL DATA
dc.subject ISOTOPE RATIOS
dc.subject LEVEL RISE
dc.subject INTRUSION
dc.subject IMPACTS
dc.subject BASIN
dc.subject LAKE
dc.subject 1172 Environmental sciences
dc.subject 114 Physical sciences
dc.title Confronting the vicinity of the surface water and sea shore in a shallow glaciogenic aquifer in southern Finland en
dc.type Article
dc.contributor.organization Department of Geosciences and Geography
dc.contributor.organization Teachers' Academy
dc.description.reviewstatus Peer reviewed
dc.relation.doi https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-19-1353-2015
dc.relation.issn 1027-5606
dc.rights.accesslevel openAccess
dc.type.version publishedVersion

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