Selected Aspects in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases

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Gyoergy Nagy , G , Huszthy , P C , Fossum , E , Konttinen , Y , Nakken , B & Szodoray , P 2015 , ' Selected Aspects in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases ' Mediators of Inflammation . DOI: 10.1155/2015/351732

Title: Selected Aspects in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases
Author: Gyoergy Nagy, Gyoergy; Huszthy, Peter C.; Fossum, Even; Konttinen, Yrjo; Nakken, Britt; Szodoray, Peter
Contributor: University of Helsinki, I kirurgian klinikka (-2009)
Date: 2015
Language: eng
Number of pages: 11
Belongs to series: Mediators of Inflammation
ISSN: 0962-9351
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/162293
Abstract: Autoimmune processes can be found in physiological circumstances. However, they are quenched with properly functioning regulatory mechanisms and do not evolve into full-blown autoimmune diseases. Once developed, autoimmune diseases are characterized by signature clinical features, accompanied by sustained cellular and/or humoral immunological abnormalities. Genetic, environmental, and hormonal defects, as well as a quantitative and qualitative impairment of immunoregulatory functions, have been shown in parallel to the relative dominance of proinflammatory Th17 cells in many of these diseases. In this review we focus on the derailed balance between regulatory and Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Additionally, we depict a cytokine imbalance, which gives rise to a biased T-cell homeostasis. The assessment of Th17/Treg-cell ratio and the simultaneous quantitation of cytokines, may give a useful diagnostic tool in autoimmune diseases. We also depict the multifaceted role of dendritic cells, serving as antigen presenting cells, contributing to the development of the pathognomonic cytokine signature and promote cellular and humoral autoimmune responses. Finally we describe the function and role of extracellular vesicles in particular autoimmune diseases. Targeting these key players of disease progression in patients with autoimmune diseases by immunomodulating therapy may be beneficial in future therapeutic strategies.
Subject: SYSTEMIC-LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS
CONNECTIVE-TISSUE DISEASE
REGULATORY T-CELLS
PRIMARY SJOGRENS-SYNDROME
PLASMACYTOID DENDRITIC CELLS
TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR
ANTIGEN CROSS-PRESENTATION
NONOBESE DIABETIC MOUSE
CYTOKINE ARRAY SYSTEM
ALPHA-PRODUCING CELLS
3111 Biomedicine
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