Cognitive control in auditory working memory is enhanced in musicians

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Pallesen , K J , Brattico , E , Bailey , C J , Korvenoja , A , Koivisto , J , Gjedde , A & Carlson , S 2010 , ' Cognitive control in auditory working memory is enhanced in musicians ' PLoS One , vol. 5 , pp. - . DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011120

Title: Cognitive control in auditory working memory is enhanced in musicians
Author: Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J.; Korvenoja, Antti; Koivisto, Juha; Gjedde, Albert; Carlson, Synnove
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Behavioural Sciences
University of Helsinki, Dep. of Diagnostic and Therapeutic (Intitute of Clinical Medicine) (-2009)
University of Helsinki, Department of Physiology
Date: 2010
Language: eng
Number of pages: 12
Belongs to series: PLoS One
ISSN: 1932-6203
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/165608
Abstract: Musical competence may confer cognitive advantages that extend beyond processing of familiar musical sounds. Behavioural evidence indicates a general enhancement of both working memory and attention in musicians. It is possible that musicians, due to their training, are better able to maintain focus on task-relevant stimuli, a skill which is crucial to working memory. We measured the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activation signal in musicians and non-musicians during working memory of musical sounds to determine the relation among performance, musical competence and generally enhanced cognition. All participants easily distinguished the stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that musicians nonetheless would perform better, and that differential brain activity would mainly be present in cortical areas involved in cognitive control such as the lateral prefrontal cortex. The musicians performed better as reflected in reaction times and error rates. Musicians also had larger BOLD responses than non-musicians in neuronal networks that sustain attention and cognitive control, including regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex, lateral parietal cortex, insula, and putamen in the right hemisphere, and bilaterally in the posterior dorsal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. The relationship between the task performance and the magnitude of the BOLD response was more positive in musicians than in non-musicians, particularly during the most difficult working memory task. The results confirm previous findings that neural activity increases during enhanced working memory performance. The results also suggest that superior working memory task performance in musicians rely on an enhanced ability to exert sustained cognitive control. This cognitive benefit in musicians may be a consequence of focused musical training.
Subject: ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX
GENERAL FLUID INTELLIGENCE
INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES
PREFRONTAL CORTEX
BRAIN ACTIVATION
NEURAL MECHANISMS
PITCH PERCEPTION
BROCAS AREA
NONMUSICIANS
TASK
311 Basic medicine
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