Articles from TUHAT CRIS

 

Recent Submissions

  • Hajializadeh, Parima; Safaie, Mohsen; Naderloo, Reza; Shojaei, Mehdi Ghodrati; Gammal, Johanna; Villnas, Anna; Norkko, Alf (2020)
    Macrofauna play a key role in the functioning of mangrove ecosystems. Nevertheless, our understanding of the diversity and functional structure of macrofaunal communities across different habitats in the mangrove forests of the Persian Gulf is limited. In this study, we investigated species diversity and biological trait patterns of macrofauna in different mangrove-associated habitats, i.e., encompassing actual mangrove forests, and adjacent Beaches and Creeks, which exhibit different levels of habitat heterogeneity. Samples were collected from the different habitats in five different locations, over four seasons. A total of 122 macrofauna taxa were identified. The diversity of species was higher in summer than in winter. In the Beach habitats, species diversity showed an increasing trend from land toward the mangrove, whereas in Creek habitats diversity decreased from the Creek toward the mangrove. Multivariate community analysis showed differences in the distribution of abundant species and biological traits across all habitats. Deposit-feeding, crawlers, medium-size, and free-living were the dominant trait modalities in all habitats. The similarities within habitats over the four seasons had the same specific pattern of species and biological trait abundance in the Beach and the Creek, increasing from the non-covered habitat into the mangrove trees. Although many species shared similar traits, the abundance-driven differences in trait expression between habitats showed the importance of habitat filtering. The results of this study will be useful in the conservation of mangrove forests and they give a deeper understanding of the ecological patterns and functions of benthic macrofaunal communities in the Persian Gulf.
  • Lehmann, Philipp; Westberg, Melissa; Tang, Patrik; Lindstrom, Leena; Kakela, Reijo (2020)
    During winter insects face energetic stress driven by lack of food, and thermal stress due to sub-optimal and even lethal temperatures. To survive, most insects living in seasonal environments such as high latitudes, enter diapause, a deep resting stage characterized by a cessation of development, metabolic suppression and increased stress tolerance. The current study explores physiological adaptations related to diapause in three beetle species at high latitudes in Europe. From an ecological perspective, the comparison is interesting since one species (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is an invasive pest that has recently expanded its range into northern Europe, where a retardation in range expansion is seen. By comparing its physiological toolkit to that of two closely related native beetles (Agelastica alniandChrysolina polita) with similar overwintering ecology and collected from similar latitude, we can study if harsh winters might be constraining further expansion. Our results suggest all species suppress metabolism during diapause and build large lipid stores before diapause, which then are used sparingly. In all species diapause is associated with temporal shifts in storage and membrane lipid profiles, mostly in accordance with the homeoviscous adaptation hypothesis, stating that low temperatures necessitate acclimation responses that increase fluidity of storage lipids, allowing their enzymatic hydrolysis, and ensure integral protein functions. Overall, the two native species had similar lipidomic profiles when compared to the invasive species, but all species showed specific shifts in their lipid profiles after entering diapause. Taken together, all three species show adaptations that improve energy saving and storage and membrane lipid fluidity during overwintering diapause. While the three species differed in the specific strategies used to increase lipid viscosity, the two native beetle species showed a more canalized lipidomic response, than the recent invader. Since close relatives with similar winter ecology can have different winter ecophysiology, extrapolations among species should be done with care. Still, range expansion of the recent invader into high latitude habitats might indeed be retarded by lack of physiological tools to manage especially thermal stress during winter, but conversely species adapted to long cold winters may face these stressors as a consequence of ongoing climate warming.
  • Rehan, Feroze; Sumelius, John; Bäckman, Stefan T (2019)
    This study determines the factors that affect the nature and extent of household income diversification in Bangladesh. The study also investigates whether the motivation for diversification was to support asset accumulation or survival. The findings show that the extent of the diversification index is determined by household endowments of assets such as wealth, a higher number of earners, higher education, easy access to market, and better infrastructure. The motive for overall diversification was accumulation, not survival. An interesting finding was that off-farm income diversification serves a two-fold purpose. Wealthier households are attracted into off-farm self-employment to get a higher return facilitated by easy access to financial assets, and labour endowment. Credit constrained poor households are influenced by endowment in the form of education and labour to diversify into off-farm wage activities as a mean of survival. Investment in infrastructure, electrification and education does and will support income diversification in Bangladesh.
  • Neupane, Subas; Lallukka, Tea; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Leino-Arjas, Päivi (2020)
    Objectives We examined developmental trajectories of multisite musculoskeletal pain in midlife, and their associations with mental well-being. Methods Midlife municipal employees at baseline aged 40, 45, 50, 55 or 60 years (80% women) from the City of Helsinki, Finland, responded to a baseline questionnaire in 2000-02 (N = 8,960; response rate 67%) and follow-ups in 2007 (N = 7,332; 83%) and 2012 (N = 6,809; 78%). Trajectories of the number of pain sites (0-4) were modelled using latent class growth analysis (n = 6,527). Common mental disorders were assessed by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12-item version (trichotomized to low, intermediate or high). Information on health-related behaviour, comorbidity and socioeconomic position was obtained from the questionnaire. Associations of baseline factors with pain trajectories were assessed by multinomial logistic regression. Results We identified four distinct pain trajectories: high (15%), increasing (24%), decreasing (20%) and low (41%). After an initial increase, the high and increasing trajectories stabilized at around 2.5 and 1.5 pain sites respectively. In a multivariable model, high, increasing and decreasing trajectories of pain sites were associated with higher baseline GHQ scores. The association was strongest for the high trajectory (low GHQ: OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.8-4.9; high GHQ: OR 5.4, 95% 4.4-6.6). Trajectory membership also associated with unhealthy behaviours, musculoskeletal comorbidities and a low socioeconomic position at baseline. Average GHQ was consistently highest for the high pain trajectory and decreased in the decreasing trajectory over the follow-up. Conclusions Multisite musculoskeletal pain shows variable developmental patterns among midlife employees. The trajectories are associated with the level of common mental disorders. Significance Four developmental trajectories of multisite pain in midlife were described over 10-12 years of follow-up: low (41% of the sample), increasing (24%), high (15%) and decreasing (20%). Common mental disorders strongly associated with these. Belonging to the highest tertile of mental disorders at baseline increased the risk of membership in the high trajectory more than fivefold. On the other hand, together with a decrease in mental disorders, the number of pain sites decreased to zero.
  • Pirhonen, Jari Pentti Tapio; Blomqvist, Katarina; Harju, Maija Elina; Laakkonen, Riku; Lemivaara, Marjut (2020)
    COVID19-virus levisi nopeasti ympäri maailman keväällä 2020. Maaliskuussa Suomessa valmisteltiin ja toteutettiin pikaisesti valmiuslaki, jossa yhtenä toimenpiteenä viruksen torjumiseksi asetettiin vierailukielto sosiaali- ja terveydenhuollon yksiköihin, ikäihmisten asumispalvelut mukaan lukien. Aiemman tutkimuksen perusteella vierailuilla tiedetään olevan suuri merkitys sekä hoivakotien asukkaiden että vierailevien läheisten hyvinvoinnille. Me kuvasimme läheisten näkökulmasta, millaisin keinoin yhteyttä hoivakodissa asuvaan omaiseen on pidetty vierailukiellon aikana, miten vierailukielto on vaikuttanut hoivakotiasukkaiden läheisiin, millaisia vaikutuksia hoivakodissa asuvan omaisen hyvinvoinnissa on havaittu ja mitä oppia läheisten kokemuksista voitaisiin saada tulevaisuutta ajatellen. Tutkimuksen aineistona on 28 läheisiltä saatua sähköpostikirjettä, jotka analysoitiin laadullisen sisällönanalyysin keinoin teemoittelemalla. Vaikka uusien viestintäteknologioiden käyttöönotto on helpottanut yhteydenpitoa hoivakotiin, on huoli omaisen tilanteesta ja epätietoisuus vierailukiellon kestosta heikentänyt läheisten hyvinvointia. Tulevaisuutta ajatellen tärkeää oppia saatiin erityisesti siitä, että varmuusvarastojen suunnittelussa kannattaa huomioida sosiaaliset tekijät lääketieteellisten lisäksi. Tuloksillaan tutkimus osallistuu poikkeusoloihin varautumiseen, hoivakotien toiminnan kehittämiseen ja vanhojen ihmisten yhteiskunnallisesta asemasta käytävään keskusteluun.
  • Pirhonen, Jari Pentti Tapio; Blomqvist, Katarina; Harju, Maija Elina; Laakkonen, Riku; Pietilä, Ilkka (2020)
    Vanhojen ihmisten kuoleminen tehostetussa palveluasumisessa sairaaloiden ja terveyskeskusten sijaan on Suomessa verrattain uusi ja nopeasti yleistyvä ilmiö, josta emme kuitenkaan tiedä juuri mitään. Aiempi vanhojen ihmisten kuolemaa tarkastellut tutkimus on keskittynyt joko kodin tai laitoksen ympäristöihin, ja palvelutalo sijoittuu instituutiona näiden välimaastoon. Helsingin yliopiston valtiotieteellisessä tiedekunnassa (sosiaaligerontologia) alkoi maaliskuussa 2020 Kuoleman ja kukkaron välissä: muistisairaan vanhuksen elämän loppuvaiheen hoidon haasteet -tutkimushanke, jota rahoittaa Koneen säätiö. Kolmevuotisen hankkeen aikana on tarkoitus paitsi tutkia muistisairaiden ihmisten kuolemisen prosessia ja olosuhteita, myös tehdä näkyväksi, mitä kuoleminen palvelutaloissa tarkoittaa kuoleman prosessiin osallistuvien (asukkaat, läheiset, hoitohenkilöstö) kannalta. Tutkimushankkeen tuloksia tullaan esittämään paitsi tieteellisissä ja muissa kirjallisissa julkaisuissa, myös audiodokumentteina ja taiteellisina esityksinä. Esittelemme tässä kirjoituksessa lyhyesti hankkeen taustan, tavoitteet ja tutkimusmenetelmät. Termillä palvelutalo viittaamme tässä kirjoituksessa tehostetun palveluasumisen yksiköihin.
  • Harjuniemi, Timo (2020)
    Arvio teoksesta: Reunanen, Esa & Väliverronen, Jari (2020). Tupo ja media. Talous- ja työmarkkinapoliittisen julkisuuden toimintahorisontit kolmella vuosikymmenellä. Tampere: Tampere University Press, 207 s.
  • Grön, Kirsikka; Nelimarkka, Matti (Association for Computing Machinery, 2020)
    Proceedings of the ACM Human-Computer Interaction
    While the political nature of any technologies is widely acknowledged in human-computer interaction, such considerations have been less studied when designing for political engagement in social media services. We used speculative design probes to gauge how political elites perceive alternative social media interfaces designed to increase media diversity and decrease political polarisation. We show how elites’ reactions to design probes could be rooted into party ideologies. Based on these, we discuss directions how social media services could be designed. Our underlying contribution is wider. We show how studying elites can provide insights about politics embedded into proposed novel social media services for political engagement. Second, we demonstrate what elites’ perspective provide fruitful way to expand and rethink concepts that have been used to study ordinary people before. Finally, we discuss potential challenges of replacing economic interests with political interest in social media service design and provide a richer account on the discussion about social media regulation. Therefore, we pave the way to more research to critically study elites within social computing scholarship and highlight the importance of understanding political motivations which can guide the development of social media.
  • The CMS collaboration; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, L.; Kirschenmann, H.; Osterberg, K.; Voutilainen, M.; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J. (2020)
    Results are reported from a search for new physics beyond the standard model in proton-proton collisions in final states with a single lepton; multiple jets, including at least one jet tagged as originating from the hadronization of a bottom quark; and large missing transverse momentum. The search uses a sample of proton-proton collision data at root s =13 TeV, corresponding to 137 fb(-1), recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The signal region is divided into categories characterized by the total number of jets, the number of bottom quark jets, the missing transverse momentum, and the sum of masses of large-radius jets. The observed event yields in the signal regions are consistent with estimates of standard model backgrounds based on event yields in the control regions. The results are interpreted in the context of simplified models of supersymmetry involving gluino pair production in which each gluino decays into a top quark-antiquark pair and a stable, unobserved neutralino, which generates missing transverse momentum in the event. Scenarios with gluino masses up to about 2150 GeV are excluded at 95% confidence level (or more) for neutralino masses up to 700 GeV. The highest excluded neutralino mass is about 1250 GeV, which holds for gluino masses around 1850 GeV.
  • Pfau-Kempf, Y.; Palmroth, M.; Johlander, A.; Turc, L.; Alho, M.; Battarbee, M.; Dubart, M.; Grandin, M.; Ganse, U. (2020)
    Dayside magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause, which is a major driver of space weather, is studied for the first time in a three-dimensional (3D) realistic setup using a hybrid-Vlasov kinetic model. A noon-midnight meridional plane simulation is extended in the dawn-dusk direction to cover 7 Earth radii. The southward interplanetary magnetic field causes magnetic reconnection to occur at the subsolar magnetopause. Perturbations arising from kinetic instabilities in the magnetosheath appear to modulate the reconnection. Its characteristics are consistent with multiple, bursty, and patchy magnetopause reconnection. It is shown that the kinetic behavior of the plasma, as simulated by the model, has consequences on the applicability of methods such as the four-field junction to identify and analyze magnetic reconnection in 3D kinetic simulations.
  • Maronga, Bjoern; Banzhaf, Sabine; Burmeister, Cornelia; Esch, Thomas; Forkel, Renate; Froehlich, Dominik; Fuka, Vladimir; Gehrke, Katrin Frieda; Geletic, Jan; Giersch, Sebastian; Gronemeier, Tobias; Gross, Guenter; Heldens, Wieke; Hellsten, Antti; Hoffmann, Fabian; Inagaki, Atsushi; Kadasch, Eckhard; Kanani-Suehring, Farah; Ketelsen, Klaus; Khan, Basit Ali; Knigge, Christoph; Knoop, Helge; Krc, Pavel; Kurppa, Mona; Maamari, Halim; Matzarakis, Andreas; Mauder, Matthias; Pallasch, Matthias; Pavlik, Dirk; Pfafferott, Jens; Resler, Jaroslav; Rissmann, Sascha; Russo, Emmanuele; Salim, Mohamed; Schrempf, Michael; Schwenkel, Johannes; Seckmeyer, Gunther; Schubert, Sebastian; Suehring, Matthias; von Tils, Robert; Vollmer, Lukas; Ward, Simon; Witha, Bjoern; Wurps, Hauke; Zeidler, Julian; Raasch, Siegfried (2020)
    In this paper, we describe the PALM model system 6.0. PALM (formerly an abbreviation for Parallelized Large-eddy Simulation Model and now an independent name) is a Fortran-based code and has been applied for studying a variety of atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers for about 20 years. The model is optimized for use on massively parallel computer architectures. This is a follow-up paper to the PALM 4.0 model description in Maronga et al. (2015). During the last years, PALM has been significantly improved and now offers a variety of new components. In particular, much effort was made to enhance the model with components needed for applications in urban environments, like fully interactive land surface and radiation schemes, chemistry, and an indoor model. This paper serves as an overview paper of the PALM 6.0 model system and we describe its current model core. The individual components for urban applications, case studies, validation runs, and issues with suitable input data are presented and discussed in a series of companion papers in this special issue.
  • Byggmästar, Jesper; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura (2020)
    We develop a set of machine-learning interatomic potentials for elemental V, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W using the Gaussian approximation potential framework. The potentials show good accuracy and transferability for elastic, thermal, liquid, defect, and surface properties. All potentials are augmented with accurate repulsive potentials, making them applicable to radiation damage simulations involving high-energy collisions. We study melting and liquid properties in detail and use the potentials to provide melting curves up to 400 GPa for all five elements.
  • Nevalainen, Terttu; Säily, Tanja; Vartiainen, Turo; Liimatta, Aatu; Lijffijt, Jefrey (2020)
    In this paper, we explore the rate of language change in the history of English. Our main focus is on detecting periods of accelerated change in Middle English (1150–1500), but we also compare the Middle English data with the Early Modern period (1500–1700) in order to establish a longer diachrony for the pace at which English has changed over time. Our study is based on a meta-analysis of existing corpus research, which is made available through a new linguistic resource, the Language Change Database (LCD). By aggregating the rates of 44 individual changes, we provide a critical assessment of how well the theory of punctuated equilibria (Dixon 1997) fits with our results. More specifically, by comparing the rate of language change with major language-external events, such as the Norman Conquest and the Black Death, we provide the first corpus-based meta-analysis of whether these events, which had significant societal consequences, also had an impact on the rate of language change. Our results indicate that major changes in the rate of linguistic change in the late medieval period could indeed be connected to the social and cultural after-effects of the Norman Conquest. We also make a methodological contribution to the field of English historical linguistics: by re-using data from existing research, linguists can start to ask new, fundamental questions about the ways in which language change progresses.
  • Nevalainen, Terttu; Säily, Tanja; Vartiainen, Turo (2020)
    This issue of the Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics aims to contribute to our understanding of language change in real time by presenting a group of articles particularly focused on social and sociocultural factors underlying language diversification and change. By analysing data from a varied set of languages, including Greek, English, and the Finnic and Mongolic language families, and mainly focussing their investigation on the Middle Ages, the authors connect various social and cultural factors with the specific topic of the issue, the rate of linguistic change. The sociolinguistic themes addressed include community and population size, conflict and conquest, migration and mobility, bi- and multilingualism, diglossia and standardization. In this introduction, the field of comparative historical sociolinguistics is considered a cross-disciplinary enterprise with a sociolinguistic agenda at the crossroads of contact linguistics, historical comparative linguistics and linguistic typology.
  • Linnavalli, Tanja; Ojala, Juha; Haveri, Laura; Putkinen, Vesa; Kostilainen, Kaisamari; Seppänen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari (2020)
    CONSONANCE AND DISSONANCE ARE BASIC phenomena in the perception of chords that can be discriminated very early in sensory processing. Musical expertise has been shown to facilitate neural processing of various musical stimuli, but it is unclear whether this applies to detecting consonance and dissonance. Our study aimed to determine if sensitivity to increasing levels of dissonance differs between musicians and nonmusicians, using a combination of neural (electroencephalographic mismatch negativity, MMN) and behavioral measurements (conscious discrimination). Furthermore, we wanted to see if focusing attention to the sounds modulated the neural processing. We used chords comprised of either highly consonant or highly dissonant intervals and further manipulated the degree of dissonance to create two levels of dissonant chords. Both groups discriminated dissonant chords from consonant ones neurally and behaviorally. The magnitude of the MMN differed only marginally between the more dissonant and the less dissonant chords. The musicians outperformed the nonmusicians in the behavioral task. As the dissonant chords elicited MMN responses for both groups, sensory dissonance seems to be discriminated in an early sensory level, irrespective of musical expertise, and the facilitating effects of musicianship for this discrimination may arise in later stages of auditory processing, appearing only in the behavioral auditory task.
  • Hurskainen, Arvi (University of Helsinki, Institute for Asian and African Studies, 2020)
    Technical Reports on Language Technology
    In Technical Report 602, I described the process of converting printed text into machine-readable form. This report is an extension to it, and here I will go into more detail in describing and demonsrating the capabilities of the search system based on analysed text. All the material on Msimulizi (years 1888-1896) that is available on SOAS web page was processed into machine-readable form, including manual editing of the whole text. The second round of editing was done on the basis of computational analysis, which points out the remaining scanning mistakes. The clean text was then converted into an analysed format, which is optimal for information retrieval. The report demonstrates especially such search tasks, which are hardly possible using conventional string search, due to the complex word structure of Swahili.
  • Helanterä, Ilkka; Ibrahim, Hassan N.; Lempinen, Marko; Finne, Patrik (2020)
    Background and objectives Increased donor age is one of the most important risk factors for delayed graft function (DGF), and previous studies suggest that the harmful effect of cold ischemia time is increased in kidneys from older donors. Our aim was to study the association of increased donor age and cold ischemia time with the risk of delayed graft function in a large cohort kidney transplants from the current era. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients was used for this observational, retrospective registry analysis to identify all deceased donor kidney transplantations in the United States between 2010 and September 2018, who were on dialysis pretransplantation (n=90,810). The association of donor age and cold ischemia time with the risk of DGF was analyzed in multivariable models adjusted for recipient characteristics (age, race, sex, diabetes, calculated panel-reactive antibodies, pretransplant dialysis duration) and donor characteristics (cause of death, sex, race, body mass index, creatinine, donation after circulatory death status, history of hypertension, and HLA mismatch). Results Cold ischemia time and donor age were independently associated with the risk of DGF, but the risk of DGF was not statistically significantly lower in donor age categories between 50 and 64 years, compared with donors ?65 years. The harmful association of cold ischemia time was not higher in kidneys from older donors in any age category, not even among donation after circulatory death donors. When donor risk was assessed with kidney donor profile index, although a statistically significant interaction with cold ischemia time was found, no practically meaningful increase in cold-ischemia susceptibility of kidneys with a high kidney donor profile index was found. Conclusions We were unable to demonstrate an association between donor age and DGF. The association of longer cold ischemia time with the risk of DGF was not magnified in older or more marginal donors.
  • Yanes, Manar; Santoni, Giola; Maret-Ouda, John; Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Farkkila, Martti; Lynge, Elsebeth; Nwaru, Bright; Pukkala, Eero; Romundstad, Pal; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lagergren, Jesper (2020)
    Introduction: Airway micro-aspiration might contribute to the proposed associations between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and some lung diseases, including lung cancer. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that antireflux surgery decreases the risk of small cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung differently depending on their location in relation to micro-aspiration. Methods: Population-based cohort study including patients having undergone antireflux surgery during 1980-2014 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway or Sweden. Patients having undergone antireflux surgery were compared with two groups: 1) the corresponding background population, by calculating standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and 2) non-operated GERD-patients, by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs using multivariable Cox regression with adjustment for sex, age, calendar period, country, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obesity diagnosis or type 2 diabetes. Results: Among all 812,617 GERD-patients, 46,996 (5.8%) had undergone antireflux surgery. The SIRs were statistically significantly decreased for small cell carcinoma (SIR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.77) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0.92), but not for adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.76-1.06). The HRs were also below unity for small cell carcinoma (HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.90) and squamous cell carcinoma (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.62-1.03), but not for adenocarcinoma of the lung (HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.84-1.26). Analyses restricted to patients with objective GERD (reflux oesophagitis or Barrett's oesophagus) showed similar results. Conclusions: This all-Nordic study indicates that patients who undergo antireflux surgery are at decreased risk of small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, but not of adenocarcinoma of the lung. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Hussein, Tareq; Alameer, Ali; Jaghbeir, Omar; Albeitshaweesh, Kolthoum; Malkawi, Mazen; Boor, Brandon E.; Koivisto, Antti Joonas; Londahl, Jakob; Alrifai, Osama; Al-Hunaiti, Afnan (2020)
    There is limited research on indoor air quality in the Middle East. In this study, concentrations and size distributions of indoor particles were measured in eight Jordanian dwellings during the winter and summer. Supplemental measurements of selected gaseous pollutants were also conducted. Indoor cooking, heating via the combustion of natural gas and kerosene, and tobacco/shisha smoking were associated with significant increases in the concentrations of ultrafine, fine, and coarse particles. Particle number (PN) and particle mass (PM) size distributions varied with the different indoor emission sources and among the eight dwellings. Natural gas cooking and natural gas or kerosene heaters were associated with PN concentrations on the order of 100,000 to 400,000 cm(-3) and PM2.5 concentrations often in the range of 10 to 150 mu g/m(3). Tobacco and shisha (waterpipe or hookah) smoking, the latter of which is common in Jordan, were found to be strong emitters of indoor ultrafine and fine particles in the dwellings. Non-combustion cooking activities emitted comparably less PN and PM2.5. Indoor cooking and combustion processes were also found to increase concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. In general, concentrations of indoor particles were lower during the summer compared to the winter. In the absence of indoor activities, indoor PN and PM2.5 concentrations were generally below 10,000 cm(-3) and 30 mu g/m(3), respectively. Collectively, the results suggest that Jordanian indoor environments can be heavily polluted when compared to the surrounding outdoor atmosphere primarily due to the ubiquity of indoor combustion associated with cooking, heating, and smoking.
  • Hussein, Tareq; Atashi, Nahid; Sogacheva, Larisa; Hakala, Simo; Dada, Lubna; Petaja, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku (2020)
    We characterized new particle formation (NPF) events in the urban background of Amman during August 2016-July 2017. The monthly mean of submicron particle number concentration was 1.2 x 10(4)-3.7 x 10(4) cm(-3) (exhibited seasonal, weekly, and diurnal variation). Nucleation mode (10-15 nm) concentration was 0.7 x 10(3)-1.1 x 10(3) cm(-3) during daytime with a sharp peak (1.1 x 10(3)-1.8 x 10(3) cm(-3)) around noon. We identified 110 NPF events (approximate to 34% of all days) of which 55 showed a decreasing mode diameter after growth. The NPF event occurrence was higher in summer than in winter, and events were accompanied with air mass back trajectories crossing over the Eastern Mediterranean. The mean nucleation rate (J(10)) was 1.9 +/- 1.1 cm(-3) s(-1) (monthly mean 1.6-2.7 cm(-3) s(-1)) and the mean growth rate was 6.8 +/- 3.1 nm/h (4.1-8.8 nm/h). The formation rate did not have a seasonal pattern, but the growth rate had a seasonal variation (maximum around August and minimum in winter). The mean condensable vapor source rate was 4.1 +/- 2.2 x 10(5) molecules/cm(3) s (2.6-6.9 x 10(5) molecules/cm(3) s) with a seasonal pattern (maximum around August). The mean condensation sink was 8.9 +/- 3.3 x 10(-3) s(-1) (6.4-14.8 x 10(-3) s(-1)) with a seasonal pattern (minimum around June and maximum in winter).

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