Articles from TUHAT CRIS


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Helsingin yliopiston tutkijat voivat rinnakkaistallentaa tutkimusjulkaisujansa HELDAan liittämällä kokotekstin julkaisuun TUHAT-tutkimustietojärjestelmässä. (Toimintaohje tutkijalle)

This collection contains Open Access articles deposited from the University of Helsinki TUHAT CRIS

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  • Carvalho, Jose C.; Cardoso, Pedro; Rigal, Francois; Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V. (JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD, 2015)
    A key challenge in island biogeography is to quantity the role of dispersal in shaping biodiversity patterns among the islands of a given archipelago. Here, we propose such a framework. Dispersal within oceanic archipelagos may be conceptualized as a spatio-temporal process dependent on: (1) the spatial distribution of islands, because the probability of successful dispersal is inversely related to the spatial distance between islands and (2) the chronological sequence of island formation that determines the directional asymmetry of dispersal (hypothesized to be predominantly from older to younger islands). From these premises, directional network models may be constructed, representing putative connections among islands. These models may be translated to eigenfunctions in order to be incorporated into statistical analysis. The framework was tested with 12 datasets from the Hawaii, Azores, and Canaries. The explanatory power of directional network models for explaining species composition patterns, assessed by the Jaccard dissimilarity index, was compared with simpler time-isolation models. The amount of variation explained by the network models ranged from 5.5% (for Coleoptera in Hawaii) to 60.2% (for Pteridophytes in Canary Islands). In relation to the four studied taxa, the variation explained by network models was higher for Pteridophytes in the three archipelagos. By the contrary, small fractions of explained variation were observed for Coleoptera (5.5%) and Araneae (8.6%) in Hawaii. Time-isolation models were, in general, not statistical significant and explained less variation than the equivalent directional network models for all the datasets. Directional network models provide a way for evaluating the spatio-temporal signature of species dispersal. The method allows building scenarios against which hypotheses about dispersal within archipelagos may be tested. The new framework may help to uncover the pathways via which species have colonized the islands of a given archipelago and to understand the origins of insular biodiversity.
  • Videen, Gorden; Muinonen, Karri (PERGAMON, 2015)
  • Vasarainen, Hanna; Salman, Jolanda; Salminen, Heidi; Valdagni, Riccardo; Pickles, Tom; Bangma, Chris; Roobol, Monique J.; Rannikko, Antti (Springer, 2015)
    To evaluate the utility of percentage of free serum PSA (%fPSA) as a predictor of adverse rebiopsy findings, treatment change and radical prostatectomy (RP) findings in a prospective active surveillance (AS) trial. Patients enrolled in the global PRIAS study with baseline %fPSA available were included. Putative baseline predictors (e.g. PSA, %fPSA) of adverse rebiopsy findings were explored using logistic regression analysis. Association of variables with treatment change and RP findings over time were evaluated with Cox regression analysis. Active treatment-free survival was assessed with a Kaplan-Meier method. Of 3701 patients recruited to PRIAS, 939 had %fPSA measured at study entry. Four hundred and thirty-eight of them had %fPSA available after 1 year. Median follow-up was 17.2 months. First rebiopsy results were available for 595 patients and of those, 144 (24.2 %) had adverse findings. A total of 283 (30.1 %) patients discontinued surveillance, of those 181 (64.0 %) due to protocol-based reasons. Although median %fPSA values were significantly lower in patients who changed treatment, according to the multivariate regression analysis, initial %fPSA value was not predictive for treatment change or adverse rebiopsy findings. However, the probability of discontinuing AS was significantly lower in patients with "favourable" initial %fPSA characteristics and %fPSA during follow-up (initial %fPSA a parts per thousand yen15 and positive %fPSA velocity) compared to those with "adverse" %fPSA characteristics (initial %fPSA <15 and negative %fPSA velocity). Diagnostic %fPSA provides no additional prognostic value when compared to other predictors already in use in AS protocols. However, %fPSA velocity during surveillance may aid in predicting the probability for future treatment change.
  • Pöyhönen, Pauli; Hiippala, Anita; Ollila, Laura; Kaasalainen, Touko; Hänninen, Helena; Helio, Tiina; Tallila, Jonna; Vasilescu, Catalina; Kivistö, Sari Marjut; Ojala, Tiina; Holmstrom, Miia (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2015)
    Background: Autosomal dominantly inherited PRKAG2 cardiac syndrome is due to a unique defect of the cardiac cell metabolism and has a distinctive histopathology with excess intracellular glycogen, and prognosis different from sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We aimed to define the distinct characteristics of PRKAG2 using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: CMR (1.5 T) and genetic testing were performed in two families harboring PRKAG2 mutations. On CMR, segmental analysis of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH), function, native T1 mapping, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) were performed. Results: Six individuals (median age 23 years, range 16-48; two females) had a PRKAG2 mutation: five with an R302Q mutation (family 1), and one with a novel H344P mutation (family 2). Three of six mutation carriers had LV mass above age and gender limits (203 g/m2, 157 g/m2 and 68 g/m2) and others (with R302Q mutation) normal LV masses. All mutation carriers had LVH in at least one segment, with the median maximal wall thickness of 13 mm (range 11-37 mm). Two R302Q mutation carriers with markedly increased LV mass (203 g/m2 and 157 g/m2) showed a diffuse pattern of hypertrophy but predominantly in the interventricular septum, while other mutation carriers exhibited a non-symmetric mid-infero-lateral pattern of hypertrophy. In family 1, the mutation negative male had a mean T1 value of 963 ms, three males with the R302Q mutation, LVH and no LGE a mean value of 918 +/- 11 ms, and the oldest male with the R302Q mutation, extensive hypertrophy and LGE a mean value of 973 ms. Of six mutations carriers, two with advanced disease had LGE with 11 and 22 % enhancement of total LV volume. Conclusions: PRKAG2 cardiac syndrome may present with eccentric distribution of LVH, involving focal mid-infero-lateral pattern in the early disease stage, and more diffuse pattern but focusing on interventricular septum in advanced cases. In patients at earlier stages of disease, without LGE, T1 values may be reduced, while in the advanced disease stage T1 mapping may result in higher values caused by fibrosis. CMR is a valuable tool in detecting diffuse and focal myocardial abnormalities in PRKAG2 cardiomyopathy.
  • Silfver-Kuhalampi, Mia (Sosiaalitieteiden laitos, Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Sosiaalitieteen laitoksen julkaisuja
  • Silfver-Kuhalampi, Mia; Kauppinen, Kaisa (Sosiaalitieteiden laitos, Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Sosiaalitieteen laitoksen julkaisuja
  • Helsingin yliopisto, Sosiaalitieteiden laitos; Helsingin yliopisto, Sosiaalitieteiden laitos; Kauppinen, Kaisa; Silfver-Kuhalampi, Mia; ; (Sosiaalitieteiden laitos, Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Sosiaalitieteen laitoksen julkaisuja
  • Elomäki, Anna (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2015)
    Scholarship on gender and the European Union (EU) has consistently pointed out that EU gender equality policies have always been embedded in the logic of the market and that the economic framing has had negative impacts on the content and concepts of these policies. This article provides novel insights into this discussion by combining a discursive approach focused on framings with insights of feminist economists and examining how the relationship between gender equality and the economy has been conceptualized in EU policy documents from the 1980s up until the present day. The article identifies the key actors and processes behind the escalation of economic arguments for gender equality and makes visible the economic assumptions that underpin EU gender equality policy. It argues that in recent years the European institutions have intentionally developed and propagated a market-oriented gender equality discourse, the economic case for gender equality, which highlights the macroeconomic benefits of gender equality. The economic case reaffirms the gender-biased assumptions of neoclassical economic theory and legitimizes the EU’s current economic priorities and policies, many of which are detrimental to gender equality. The European Commission represents the argument that gender equality contributes to economic growth as an innovative way to promote gender equality. However, the economic case represents a risk for gender equality advocates, because it may tame the emerging feminist criticism of the EU’s economic policies and governance.
  • Elomäki, Anna (Lit Verlag, 2009)
    “Sittlichkeit” (siveellisyys) is one of the key concepts used by Finnish women’s rights activists when they in the beginning of 20th century demanded the rights for political participation. But how is the term siveellisyys, the meaning of which a modern Finnish reader easily connects with prudish sexual morality, related to political participation and suffrage? I argue that in the Finnish suffragists’ argumentation for the vote the term has a clear public and political dimension, which can be best understood through the concept of Sittlichkeit as it appears in Johan Vilhelm Snellman's political philosophy influenced by Hegel’s system of concepts, referring to the political nature of action and getting a meaning close to “civic”. I will focus on explicating the interplay of two of the meanings that the term siveellisyys gets in women's texts: that of the Snellmanian idea of the political nature of action, and that of pure sexual morality. I argue that on one hand suffragists use the term siveellisyys similarly to the Snellmanian concept of Sittlichkeit to enable women to be considered as political actors and to construct an idea of political action which they contrast to party politics. On the other hand, in its meaning related to sexual ethics, the term siveellisyys is used to indicate that not all women are capable for political action.
  • Elomäki, Anna (European Women's Lobby, 2012)
    The report assesses the measures adopted and the progress made in nine EU member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK) and in Norway and draws eight evidence-based conclusions, which should act as guidelines for the future EU and national level measures. The report won the European Public Affairs Award for the best report in 2012.
  • Elomäki, Anna (European Women's Lobby, 2012)
    This report considers the evidence on the impact of austerity measures on women’s rights and gender equality in Europe. Based on data from European Women's Lobby (EWL) member organisations in 13 countries and recent research from a range of sources, it reveals that the European austerity policies undermine women’s rights, perpetuate existing gender equalities and create new ones, and hamper the prospects of sustainable and equal economic progress in Europe. The recent cuts in public spending in European Union member states, sanctioned by the European Commission, have the most impact those who have little voice in economic decision-making: women, children, and the elderly.
  • Ojanen, Mikko (Suomen musiikkitieteellinen seura, 2014)
  • Kauppinen, Kaisa; Silfver-Kuhalampi, Mia (Sosiaalitieteiden laitos, Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Sosiaalitieteen laitoksen julkaisuja
  • Kauppinen, Kaisa (Sosiaalitieteiden laitos, Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Sosiaalitieteen laitoksen julkaisuja
    Työssäkäyvän läheisen kuolema, suru ja siitä selviäminen on osa Työsuojelurahaston rahoittamaa tutkimusta, jossa tutkitaan työssäkäynnin sekä omais- ja läheishoivan yhteensovittamista. Perheenjäsenen tai muun läheisen äkillinen tai vakavan sairauden seurauksena kuolema on yksi stressaavimmista elämätapahtumista jonka seurauksia tässä tutkimuksessa tutkitaan työhön liittyvien käytäntöjen ja poissaolojen sekä työn ja työyhteisön merkityksen näkökulmasta. Hankkeessa on haastateltu fokus-, kaksin- ja yksinhaastatteluilla eri aloilla työskenteleviä ihmisiä (n= 16) ja kysytty heidän kokemuksiaan kuolemansairaan läheisensä hoitoon osallistumisesta ja kuolemaan liittyvän surun ja stressin käsittelystä. Missä määrin tämä prosessi on aiheuttanut työstä poissaolon tarvetta ja missä määrin työssäkäynti on tukenut surusta toipumista ja arkeen palaamista? Mikä on työn ja työyhteisön merkitys tässä prosessissa? Antaako työyhteisö lohdutusta ja myötätuntoa? Tulosten pohjalta hahmotellaan työelämän käytäntöjä, jotka takaavat työn ja läheisen kuoleman aiheuttavan suruntyön yhteensovittamisen sekä onnistuneen työhön ja arkeen paluun. Samalla arvioidaan muiden maiden käytäntöjä ja kokemuksia. Kiinnostava esimerkki on Ruotsin närståendepenning(omaishoivaraha), jonka perusteella työntekijä voi olla työstä pois ja saada poissaolon ajalta sairausvakuutuksen kautta korvausta osallistuessaan terminaalivaiheessa olevan läheisensä saattohoitoon. Tutkimuksessa kysytään miten meillä työpaikat ovat varautuneet näihin usein yllätyksellisiin tilanteisiin? Suomessa kuolee vuosittain hieman yli 50 000 henkilöä (v. 2014 yhteensä 52 186), joten kuolema kohtaa monin tavoin myös työssäkäyviä, joiden perheenjäsen tai muu läheinen kuolee joko äkillisesti tai vakavan sairauden murtamana. Monilla työpaikoilla kuolema ja surutyö ovat yhä tabuaiheita, jotka kuuluvat yksityiselämän kriisitilanteisiin. Englannissa ja Kanadassa on tuotu esille uudenlaista näkemystä ja tarkasteltu kuoleman ja surun problematiikkaa myös työelämän organisaatioiden ja johtamisen näkökulmasta. Myös Suomessa on työelämän käytäntöjä (joustavat työajat, hoivavapaa, varhaisen välittämisen malli), joita voidaan soveltaa työpaikolla henkilöstön jäsenten osallistuessa läheisensä saattohoitoon tai kuoleman aiheuttamasta surusta toipumiseen. Parhaimmillaan käytännöt ovat osoitus myötätuntoisesta henkilöstöpolitiikasta ja merkki välittämisen työkulttuurista. On tärkeää, että työpaikan jäsenet kokevat tulevansa tasapuolisesti ja hyvin kohdelluiksi näissä elämänsä kriisitilanteissa, joiden vaikutukset läikkyvät monin tavoin myös työelämän tilanteisiin.
  • Ruckenstein, Minna Susanna (IOS Press,, 2015)
    Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
    This chapter demonstrates how ethnographically-oriented research on emergent technologies, in this case self-tracking technologies, adds to Techno-Anthropology’s aims of understanding techno-engagements and solving problems that deal with human-technology relations within and beyond health informatics. Everyday techno-relations have been a long-standing research interest in anthropology, underlining the necessity of empirical engagement with the ways in which people and technologies co-construct their daily conditions. By focusing on the uses of a food tracking application, MealLogger, designed for photographing meals and visualizing eating rhythms to share with health care professionals, the chapter details how personal data streams support and challenge health care practices. The interviewed professionals, from doctors to nutritionists, have used food tracking for treating patients with eating disorders, weight problems, and mental health issues. In general terms, self-tracking advances the practices of visually and temporally documenting, retrieving, communicating, and understanding physical and mental processes and, by doing so, it offers a new kind of visual mediation. The professionals point out how a visual food journal opens a window onto everyday life, bypassing customary ways of seeing and treating patients, thereby highlighting how self-tracking practices can aid in escaping the clinical gaze by promoting a new kind of communication through visualization and narration. Health care professionals are also, however, acutely aware of the barriers to adopting self-tracking practices as part of existing patient care. The health care system is neither used to, nor comfortable with, personal data that originates outside the system; it is not seen as evidence and its institutional position remains insecure.