Articles from TUHAT CRIS

 

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  • Suonpää, Karoliina Eeva-Maria; Savolainen, Jukka (2019)
    This research revisited the claim that victim precipitation (VP) is especially prevalent in situations where women kill their male intimate partners. Using administrative data from the Finnish Homicide Monitor (N =1,494), we created a typology of homicide incidents to examine variation in VP across three factors: the gender of the offender, the gender of the victim, and the intimacy of the victim–offender relationship. The results from regression models demonstrated strong support for the assumption that killings by women of their male intimate partners are more likely to have been victim precipitated than other types of homicide. This homicide type stood out as having the strongest association with each measure of VP included in the analysis. We did not observe statistically significant differences in VP among other homicide types. For example, we did not observe gender differences in VP in homicides that did not involve intimate partners. This pattern of results contradicts prior evidence suggesting that VP is a general feature of female-perpetrated killings, independent of the gender of the victim and the intimacy of the victim–offender relationship. As such, the present study underscores the importance of replication in studies of interpersonal violence. Theoretically, the results support the gender–partner interaction hypothesis over gender differences hypothesis of VP.
  • Venäläinen, Satu Maarit (2019)
    This paper focuses on ways in which vulnerability is given meaning and related to in narratives of women serving a prison sentence for violent crimes. These women can be seen as inhabiting specifically vulnerable social positions in many respects, while at the same time their vulnerability is often denied. In my analysis I view the past, present, and future vulnerabilities of these women in a dialectical relation with the narratives they tell and the identities they enact through these tellings. In their narratives, vulnerability entwines with agentic orientations towards violence in complex ways. While often figuring as part of the context of doing violence, vulnerability is also refuted, combated, and distanced from the selves constituted in the narratives. In my reading, these ambivalent relations to vulnerability reflect the gendered trouble it poses for being seen as a worthy subject in the context of Western valorization of autonomy and individual agency.
  • Elstad, Jon Ivar; Hermansen, Åsmund; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Martikainen, Pekka Tapani; Östergren, Olof; Tarkiainen, Lasse Hannes (2019)
    Income security when health impairment or other social risks occur is a major objective of welfare states. This comparative study uses register data from four Nordic welfare states for examining equivalized disposable income during the last 12 years alive among men and women who died when aged 55–69 years old. The analysed outcome indicates the aggregate result of a varied set of income maintenance mechanisms. Median income increased in the Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish samples, but decreased somewhat in Denmark, probably due to relatively frequent transitions to retirement and larger income drops after retirement than in the other Nordic countries. Analyses of comparison samples weighted by propensity scores indicated a better income development among those who lived beyond the observation period than among those who died. The higher educated had a more favourable income development during the years prior to death than those with low education.
  • Pyrhönen, Niko; Wahlbeck, Östen Ragnar (Technische Universität Chemnitz, 2018)
    CEASEVAL Research on the Common European Asylum System
    This report addresses the politicization of common European policy for refugee relocation, with particular focus on the question of responsibility for the so-called “refugee crisis”. As Finland faced the tenfold increase in the annual number of asylum seekers in 2015, public debate on the topic was rapidly electrified. The media attention culminated in September, when Finland decided as the only member state to abstain from voting on the issue of relocation. The decision was widely considered to be imposed on the Finnish government by the Eurosceptic, right-wing populist Finns party, whose path to the coalition government was paved with the party’s highly mediatized anti-immigration political rhetoric during the past decade. This report defines politicization as a practice of competitive claims-making in in the public sphere. Politicization is analyzed within two distinct corpora: a mainstream news corpus of 127 articles in Finland’s largest daily newspaper, and a parliamentary debates corpus consisting of 26 addresses by Finnish MPs to the floor during 10 plenary sessions. On the basis of quantitative and qualitative analysis, we conclude that while both arenas exerted strong influence on public opinion and heavily politicized the issue of refugee relocation, there are important differences in how the question of responsibility was framed within the two contexts. The articles published during the first episode of contention (March – November 2015) focus on the strife between Visegrád countries and other member states. The articles underline EU’s shortcomings in mediating the conflicted interests among member states, presenting Finland’s decision to abstain as tacit support to the bloc opposing common relocation mechanisms, and decrying the ensuing impact to Finland’s previously conciliatory reputation within the EU. On the other hand, the parliamentary debates taking place in the turn of the year are largely dominated by Finns party MPs. The debates emphasize Finland’s sovereign responsibility to prevent crime and protect the autochthonous population’s welfare from irregular migration, often framed in terms of “illegal refugees.” While refugees plight is repeatedly presented as the responsibility of the sending countries, the MPs commonly assert that the EU is responsible for letting in “the wave of refugees”.
  • Kostamo, Katri Helena; Jallinoja, Piia; Vesala, Kari Mikko; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Hankonen, Nelli Elisa (2019)
    Rationale Trials evaluating interventions to promote health behavior change rarely embed investigations that assess participant perceptions of crucial triggers of change. Objective The "Let's Move It” (LMI) randomized trial evaluated a theorybased whole school system intervention aiming to increase physical activity (PA) of adolescents attending vocational schools. This article serves two main purposes: to describe how to use the critical incident technique (CIT) to conduct in qualitative process evaluation to identify events, including intervention elements, which LMI trial participants perceived to enable or support behavior change. Method Semi-structured interviews (n = 34) conducted immediately post intervention from intervention and control arms were analyzed using the CIT. Results The analysis identified altogether 39 critical incidents. Most of the critical incidents were related to the LMI in the intervention arm and the findings are partly aligned with the LMI intervention theory. Analysis revealed several critical incidents also in the control arm, including gaining insights regarding PA and mere measurement effects, illustrating challenges facing real-world trials. Conclusion The CIT seems a promising approach for directing analysis towards potentially crucial intervention elements as described by the participants themselves, helping in focusing and limiting the text corpus to accounts relevant to change. Qualitative evaluations in trials may add valuable understanding to complement quantitative assessments.
  • Mehl, Nora; Morys, Filip; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette (2019)
    Obesity is associated with automatically approaching problematic stimuli, such as unhealthy food. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) could beneficially impact problematic approach behavior. However, it is unclear which mechanisms are targeted by CBM in obesity. Candidate mechanisms include: (1) altering reward value of food stimuli; and (2) strengthening inhibitory abilities. Thirty-three obese adults completed either CBM or sham training during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. CBM consisted of implicit training to approach healthy and avoid unhealthy foods. At baseline, approach tendencies towards food were present in all participants. Avoiding vs. approaching food was associated with higher activity in the right angular gyrus (rAG). CBM resulted in a diminished approach bias towards unhealthy food, decreased activation in the rAG, and increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Relatedly, functional connectivity between the rAG and right superior frontal gyrus increased. Analysis of brain connectivity during rest revealed training-related connectivity changes of the inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyri. Taken together, CBM strengthens avoidance tendencies when faced with unhealthy foods and alters activity in brain regions underpinning behavioral inhibition.
  • Häkli, Jouni; Kallio, Kirsi Pauliina; Ruokolainen, Olli; Bäcklund, Pia (Aalto University, 2019)
    Aalto yliopisto crossover
  • Häkli, Jouni; Kallio, Kirsi Pauliina; Ruokolainen, Olli; Bäcklund, Pia (Aalto University, 2019)
    Aalto yliopiston crossover julkaisuja
  • Tammeorg, Priit; Mykkänen, Anna; Rantamäki, Tomi; Lakkala, Minna; Muukkonen, Hanni (2019)
    Trialogical learning, a collaborative and iterative knowledge creation process using real-life artefacts or problems, familiarizes students with working life environments and aims to teach skills required in the professional world. We target one of the major limitation factors for optimal trialogical learning in university settings, inefficient group work. We propose a course design combining effective group working practices with trialogical learning principles in life sciences. We assess the usability of our design in (a) a case study on crop science education and (b) a questionnaire for university teachers in life science fields. Our approach was considered useful and supportive of the learning process by all the participants in the case study: the students, the stakeholders and the facilitator. Correspondingly, a group of university teachers expressed that the trialogical approach and the involvement of stakeholders could promote efficient learning. In our case in life sciences, we identified the key issues in facilitating effective group work to be the design of meaningful tasks and the allowance of sufficient time to take action based on formative feedback. Even though trialogical courses can be time consuming, the experience of applying knowledge in real-life cases justifies using the approach, particularly for students just about to enter their professional careers.
  • Charitsis, Vassilis (2019)
  • Broadbent, Jeff; Sonnett, John; Botetzagias, Iosef; Carson, Marcus; Carvalho, Anabela; Chien, Yu-Ju; Edling, Christofer; Fisher, Dana; Giouzepas, Georgios; Haluza-DeLay, Randolph; Hasegawa, Koichi; Hirschi, Christian; Horta, Ana; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Jin, Jun; Ku, Dowan; Lahsen, Myanna; Lee, Ho-Ching; Lin, Tze-Luen Alan; Malang, Thomas; Ollmann, Jana; Payne, Diane; Pellissery, Sony; Price, Stephan; Pulver, Simone; Sainz, Jaime; Satoh, Keiichi; Saunders, Clare; Schmidt, Luisa; Stoddart, Mark C.J.; Swarnakar, Pradip; Tatsumi, Tomoyuki; Tindall, David; Vaughter, Philip; Wagner, Paul; Yun, Sun-Jin; Zhengyi, Sun (2016)
    Reducing global emissions will require a global cosmopolitan culture built from detailed attention to conflicting national climate change frames (interpretations) in media discourse. The authors analyze the global field of media climate change discourse using 17 diverse cases and 131 frames. They find four main conflicting dimensions of difference: validity of climate science, scale of ecological risk, scale of climate politics, and support for mitigation policy. These dimensions yield four clusters of cases producing a fractured global field. Positive values on the dimensions show modest association with emissions reductions. Data-mining media research is needed to determine trends in this global field.
  • Birindelli, Pierluca (2019)
    This article analyses literary sources that have influenced interpretations of the Italian collective identity, focusing on the conceptual pairing ‘familism-particularism’. In 1958 Edward Banfield coined the term ‘amoral familism’, generating an intense, persistent debate among Italian and foreign scholars. However, by expanding the analytical focus, similar explanations for Italian social, economic and political ‘backwardness’ can be traced much further back: to Alberti’s ‘land of self-interest’ or Guicciardini’s particulare. Representations of the cultural absence of civicness in Italy developed over the centuries, stemming initially from Italians’ own recognition of their self-image. It was only later, through the diaries of travellers on the Grand Tour, that this image was incorporated into the hetero-recognition of Italians by Northern Europeans and North Americans. When an identity feature maintains this ‘dual recognition’ for such a long historical period, it becomes a recurrent cardinal point in individual and collective representation of a people. Attempts to sustain theories conflicting with Banfield’s are confronted by other obstacles: the absence of comparable ethnographic studies translated into English and the rhetorical force of the expression ‘amoral familism’. The symbolic power of Banfield’s interpretation, which might be considered a stereotype, goes beyond its (in)ability to reflect social reality.
  • Valkeapää, Taina Jenni Marika; Tanaka, Kimiko; Lindholm, Camilla Christina; Weiste, Elina Hannele; Stevanovic, Tuire Melisa (2019)
    This paper investigates how two ideologies of mental health rehabilitation—recovery ideology and communal approach—are realized in interactional practices associated with psychosocial rehabilitation. More spesifically, the paper discusses employee selection in the context of the Clubhouse-created Transitional Employment (TE) programme, which offers employment opportunities for rehabilitants. The paper describes how joint decisions are established during the moment-by-moment interactional processes at the Clubhouse. Drawing from the data set of 29 video-recorded rehabilitation group meetings, and Conversation Analysis as a method, the paper analyzes two questions: (1) How do the participants talk about the decision-making process associated with the TE on a “meta” level? And (2) how are the TE employees actually selected in the turn-by-turn sequential unfolding of interaction? When discussing the TE employee selection procedure on a “meta” level, the values of recovery ideology focusing on client empowerment and self-determination are prevalent. Also, the central ideals of the communal approach—openness and collaboration—are defended as decision-making guidelines. However, in the meetings where decisions on the TE employees are concretely made, there is a mismatch between the two ideological approaches to rehabilitation and the actual practices observable in the relevant interactional encounters.
  • Singh, Brij; Malinowski, Michal; Hlousek, Felix; Koivisto, Emilia; Heinonen, Suvi; Hellwig, Olaf; Buske, Stefan; Chamarczuk, Michal; Juurela, Sanna (2019)
  • Silva, S. J.; Heald, C. L.; Ravela, S.; Mammarella, I.; Munger, J. William (2019)
    The loss of ozone to terrestrial and aquatic systems, known as dry deposition, is a highly uncertain process governed by turbulent transport, interfacial chemistry, and plant physiology. We demonstrate the value of using Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in predicting ozone dry deposition velocities. We find that a feedforward DNN trained on observations from a coniferous forest site (Hyytiala, Finland) can predict hourly ozone dry deposition velocities at a mixed forest site (Harvard Forest, Massachusetts) more accurately than modern theoretical models, with a reduction in the normalized mean bias (0.05 versus similar to 0.1). The same DNN model, when driven by assimilated meteorology at 2 degrees x 2.5 degrees spatial resolution, outperforms the Wesely scheme as implemented in the GEOS-Chem model. With more available training data from other climate and ecological zones, this methodology could yield a generalizable DNN suitable for global models. Plain Language Summary Ozone in the lower atmosphere is a toxic pollutant and greenhouse gas. In this work, we use a machine learning technique known as deep learning, to simulate the loss of ozone to Earth's surface. We show that our deep learning simulation of this loss process outperforms existing traditional models and demonstrate the opportunity for using machine learning to improve our understanding of the chemical composition of the atmosphere.
  • Nieminen, Kati Marjaana (2019)
    Can human rights law adequately address implicit modes of racism and gender discrimination? This question is discussed in this article through the analysis of the European Court of Human Rights case S.A.S. v. France (2014) concerning the ban on the Islamic full-face veil. The so-called ‘headscarf cases’ have been thoroughly discussed by many scholars, yet they seem to offer an endless source of different points of view. Departing from the previous discussion on the headscarf and full-face veil cases, which have largely concentrated on the questions of personal autonomy, identity and subjectivity, this article approaches S.A.S. v. France from the point of view of discrimination. It is suggested that the Court’s procedural and de-contextualized approach to rights results in eroding the protection against discrimination. Procedural approach refers to the Court’s tendency to emphasize procedural aspects of the Convention rights and not to engage sufficiently with substantive analysis. The de-contextual approach to rights on the other hand refers to lack of sensitivity to empirical information concerning the facts of the case at hand. Together the procedural and de-contextual approaches inadvertently erode the protection against discrimination of vulnerable groups, such as Muslim immigrant women.

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