Articles from TUHAT CRIS

 

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  • Karhunmaa, Kamilla (2020)
    The linear model of science-policy interaction presents scientific knowledge as a necessary and straightforward requirement for rational decision-making. While the practices related to the linear model have been criticized by science policy actors and research funders, who promote more participatory arrangements, the linear model persists in both research policy and practice. This study investigates why and in which form the linear model continues to exist. I focus on the "professor group on energy policy", a voluntary and bottom-up science-policy initiative active in Finnish energy policy debates during 2013-2017. The analysis is based on interviews, reports, news articles and observations. I assess both the engagement practices of the group and how they are justified and evaluated. The study demonstrates the prevalence of the linear model as a repertoire that different actors employ to order science and policy. The results point to the need to critically assess the context, politics and expectations related to science-policy interaction.
  • Tekoniemi, Timo (2020)
    The MT reflects in 2 Kings a text form that has in at least eight different instances (verses 2,14, 3,14, 4,4.41, 5,18, 8,11, 13,14–21, 13,21) been subjected to a slight but noteworthy revision, interested in an ideologically more orthodox depiction of the prophet Elisha. This revision is lacking in the Old Greek edition. The more original readings of the OG indicate that, unlike in the Masoretic version, the original Elisha narrative was closer to a tragedy than a story of insuperable prophetic prowess.
  • Hänninen, Laura; Norring, Marianna (2020)
    The fate of experimental animals represents an ethical dilemma and a public concern. In the EU, Directive 2010/63/EUallows the rehoming of former experimental animals instead of euthanasia.However, to our knowledge, there are no previous reports of rehoming Beagles in Finland. This study aimed to describe the process behind the first rehoming of laboratory Beagles at the University of Helsinki and evaluate its success. In total, 16 former laboratory Beagles were rehomed in collaboration with animal protection organisations and the University of Helsinki. The dogs had participated in animal cognition studies and had undergone minor procedures during the development of a veterinary drug. While the dogs were still in the laboratory, a socialisation training programme lasting several months was undertaken. Through surveying of the adoptive owners, and interviewing the various stakeholders involved (researchers, animal protection organisations and animal caretakers), the overall process was evaluated, including: the socialisation training programme; the comparative success of rehoming younger compared to older animals; the criteria that were used for the selection of the adoptive owners; and the eventual success of rehoming the dogswith the newowners. Themajority of the dogs adjustedwell to their newhomeenvironment. Euthanasia at the end of their experimental use would have been unnecessary and possibly against the objectives of European directives.
  • Salama, Essi S.; Castaneda, Anu E.; Lilja, Eero; Suvisaari, Jaana; Rask, Shadia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Niemela, Solja (2020)
    Background and aims The associations between traumatic events, substance use and perceived discrimination have been rarely studied among migrants in host countries. We examined whether pre-migration potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) or perceived discrimination (PD) are associated with substance use among migrants with voluntary (Russians) and forced (Kurds) migration backgrounds. Design Cross-sectional interview and health examination data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study were used. The target sample (n = 1000 for each group) was drawn from the national population register using stratified random sampling by participants' country of birth and native language. Setting Population-based data were collected from six cities in Finland during 2010-12. Participants The participation rates were 68% (Russians) and 59% (Kurds). The analytical sample size varied (Russians n = 442-687, Kurds n = 459-613), as some participants completed only interview, health examination or short interview. The majority of Kurds had a refugee background (75%) while Russians had mainly migrated for other reasons (99%). Measurements The three main outcomes were self-reported binge drinking, daily smoking and life-time cannabis use. PTEs and PD were self-reported in the interview. Socio-demographic background, migration-related factors and current affective symptoms were adjusted for. Findings Among Kurds, PTEs were associated with binge drinking [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-5.42] and PD was associated with life-time cannabis use (aOR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.38-10.97) after adjusting for contextual factors. Among Russians, PTEs were associated with life-time cannabis use adjusting for contextual factors (aOR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.12-4.18). Conclusions In Finland, pre-migration traumatic experiences appear to be associated with life-time cannabis use among the Russian migrant population (voluntary migration) and binge drinking among the Kurdish migrant population (forced migration). Perceived discrimination in Finland appears to be associated with life-time cannabis use among Kurdish migrants.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Novitzky, N.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Rasanen, S. S.; Rytkonen, H.; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Zhou, Z. (2020)
    The measurements of the (anti)deuteron elliptic flow (v(2)) and the first measurements of triangular flow (v(3)) in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon collision root S-NN = 5.02 TeV are presented. A mass ordering at low transverse momentum (p(T)) is observed when comparing these measurements with those of other identified hadrons, as expected from relativistic hydrodynamics. The measured (anti)deuteron v(2) lies between the predictions from the simple coalescence and blast-wave models, which provide a good description of the data only for more peripheral and for more central collisions, respectively. The mass number scaling, which is violated for v(2), is approximately valid for the (anti)deuterons v(3). The measured v(2) and v(3) are also compared with the predictions from a coalescence approach with phase-space distributions of nucleons generated by IEBE-VISHNU with AMPT initial conditions coupled with URQMD, and from a dynamical model based on relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to the hadronic afterburner SMASH. The model predictions are consistent with the data within the uncertainties in midcentral collisions, while a deviation is observed in the most central collisions.
  • Breneman, A. W.; Halford, A. J.; Millan, R. M.; Woodger, L. A.; Zhang, X. -J.; Sandhu, J. K.; Capannolo, L.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Cully, C. M.; Murphy, K. R.; Brito, T.; Elliott, S. S. (2020)
    We present observations of similar to 10-60 min solar wind dynamic pressure structures that drive large-scale coherent similar to 20-100 keV electron loss from the outer radiation belt. A combination of simultaneous satellite and Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) observations on 11-12 January 2014 shows a close association between the pressure structures and precipitation as inferred from BARREL X-rays. Specifically, the structures drive radial ExB transport of electrons up to 1 Earth radii, modulating the free electron energy available for low-frequency plasmaspheric hiss growth, and subsequent hiss-induced loss cone scattering. The dynamic pressure structures, originating near the Sun and commonly observed advecting with the solar wind, are thus able to switch on scattering loss of electrons by hiss over a large spatial scale. Our results provide a direct link between solar wind pressure fluctuations and modulation of electron loss from the outer radiation belt and may explain long-period modulations and large-scale coherence of X-rays commonly observed in the BARREL data set. Plain Language Summary The Earth's low-density magnetosphere is a region of enclosed magnetic field lines that contains energetic electrons ranging from eV to MeV energies. These populations can be greatly enhanced in response to solar driving. Following enhancements, energetic electron populations are depleted on timescales of hours to days by various processes. One important depletion process occurs when an electromagnetic plasma wave called plasmaspheric hiss, which exists within a high plasma density region called the plasmasphere and its (occasional) radial extension called the plume, scatters energetic electrons into the atmosphere. In this paper, we show that these hiss waves can be switched on by compressions of the magnetosphere which occur in response to similar to 1 hr long pressure structures in the solar wind. These structures originate at or near the Sun and are very common in the solar wind at 1 AU. The newly excited hiss waves scatter electrons into the atmosphere where they are observed on balloon-borne X-ray detectors. Our results suggest that magnetospheric models that predict the loss of electrons from hiss waves may be improved by consideration of solar wind pressure-driven dynamics.
  • Kivelä, Laura; Hekkala, Sointu; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2020)
    Background Follow-up of coeliac disease is recommended to prevent complications associated with unsuccessful treatment. Objective The objective of this article is to evaluate the implementation and significance of long-term follow-up. Methods Medical data were collected from 585 and follow-up questionnaires sent to 559 current adult coeliac disease patients diagnosed in childhood. Diagnostic features and adulthood health outcomes were compared between those with and without adulthood follow-up. Results Of paediatric patients, 92% were followed up 6-24 months after diagnosis. A total of 235 adults responded to the questionnaires a median of 18 years after diagnosis, and 25% of them reported regular follow-up. They were diagnosed more recently than those without follow-up (median year 2001 vs 1995, p = 0.001), being otherwise comparable at diagnosis. Those with follow-up were less often smokers (5% vs 16%, p = 0.042) and relatives of coeliac patients (48% vs 66%, p = 0.018), and more often students (48% vs 28%, p = 0.005) and type 1 diabetics (19% vs 4%, p = 0.001). Lack of follow-up was not associated with complications, ongoing symptoms, poorer general health or dietary adherence. All completely non-adherent patients were without follow-up. Conclusions Most coeliac disease patients diagnosed in childhood were not followed up according to recommendations in adulthood. The individual effect of this on long-term treatment outcomes varied markedly.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Novitzky, N.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Rasanen, S. S.; Rytkonen, H.; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Zhou, Z. (2020)
    The first measurements of dielectron production at midrapidity (vertical bar eta(e)vertical bar <0.8) in proton-proton and proton-lead collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV at the LHC are presented. The dielectron cross section is measured with the ALICE detector as a function of the invariant mass m(ee) and the pair transverse momentum p(T,ee) in the ranges m(ee) <3.5 GeV/c(2) and p(T,ee) <8 GeV/c, in both collision systems. In proton-proton collisions, the charm and beauty cross sections are determined at midrapidity from a fit to the data with two different event generators. This complements the existing dielectron measurements performed at root s = 7 and 13 TeV. The slope of the root s dependence of the three measurements is described by FONLL calculations. The dielectron cross section measured in proton-lead collisions is in agreement, within the current precision, with the expected dielectron production without any nuclear matter effects for e(+)e(-) pairs from open heavy-flavor hadron decays. For the first time at LHC energies, the dielectron production in proton-lead and proton-proton collisions are directly compared at the same root s(NN) via the dielectron nuclear modification factor R-pPb. The measurements are compared to model calculations including cold nuclear matter effects, or additional sources of dielectrons from thermal radiation.
  • Tapio, Jenni (2018)
    Prompted by the new space activities, the Government of Finland has promulgated its first national space law setting conditions for operators concerning inter alia licensing, registration and liability for their space activities. This article looks at the legislative process leading to the Space Act and provides an overview of the Finnish Space Act in the light of the international obligations of a State. Moreover, issues concerning sustainable uses of outer space and international soft law instruments in the context of national licensing will be discussed.
  • Waris, Pekka; Huusko, Tiina; Niskanen, Leo (2020)
    Osteoporoosihoitojen kohdentamisessa on keskeistä murtumien sekundaaripreventio heti ensimmäisen pienienergiaisen murtuman jälkeen. Jos tämä laiminlyödään, uusi murtuma olisi korvattava ­potilasvahinkona.
  • Tapio, Jenni; Soucek, Alexander (2019)
    Non-legally binding instruments are increasingly influencing the contemporary international approach towards the development of regulation of space activities. The example of space debris mitigation was - and remains - a prominent paradigm that has not only given way to a set of international non-legally binding guidelines and standards, but also reinforced the standing of 'soft law' as an alternative format for global norm setting. However, the successful development and proliferation of non-legally binding instruments for space debris mitigation is neither a proof, nor a guarantee, that such non-traditional approaches to norm setting can ultimately provide a necessary level of legal certainty in space law, as such an approach comes with challenges. Those are also relevant for the national implementation of the Guidelines on the Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities adopted in June 2019 by the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. This article discusses the levels of national implementation of non-legally binding instruments and their effectiveness in reaching the purpose and objectives of such instruments. In doing so, it shall shed light on the contribution of soft law and its national implementation to the development of space law at large.
  • Nagatsu, Michiru; Põder, Kaire (2019)
    Economists and philosophers disagree about the concept of choice used in economics. Some behavioural economists argue that economic models of choice will improve as they become more and more psychologically realistic. Don Ross argues that this argument fails because its hidden assumption – that the economic concept of choice is the same as the psychological counterpart – is false. Ross conjectures that the economic concept of choice concerns a population-scale pattern of behavioural changes in response to incentives. We conduct a survey experiment to test two predictions that Ross’s conjecture generates. The statistical analysis of our data confirms our predictions, although with some qualifications. In interpreting our results, we distinguish two versions of commonsensible realism, strong and weak, and propose the weak one as a plausible explanation of our results. Weak commonsensible realism also produces further testable hypotheses. Some methodological implications of our study are discussed.
  • Ylivinkka, Ilona; Itämies, Juhani; Klemola, Tero; Ruohomäki, Kai; Kulmala, Markku; Taipale, Ditte (2020)
    Laboratory studies have shown that heibivory-induced biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions might enhance aerosol formation and growth. To increase understanding of the atmospheric relevance of this enhancement, we analyzed 25 years of data from SMEAR I (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) in northern Finland, where autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) larvae are prominent defoliators of mountain birch. We did not find a direct correlation between the autumnal moth density and aerosol processes, nor between the total number concentration and temperature, and hence the basal BVOC emissions. Instead, there is some evidence that the total particle concentration is elevated even for a few years after the infestation due to delayed defense response of mountain birch. The low total biomass of the trees concomitantly with low autumnal moth densities during most of the years of our study, may have impacted our results, hindering the enhancement of aerosol processes.
  • Nagatsu, Michiru; Ruzzene, Attilia (T & T Clark, 2019)
  • Kiljunen, Mikko; Peltonen, Heikki; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Uusitalo, Laura; Sinisalo, Tuula; Norkko, Joanna; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Torniainen, Jyrki; Rissanen, Antti J.; Karjalainen, Juha (2020)
    Understanding marine ecosystem structure and functioning is crucial in supporting sustainable management of natural resources and monitoring the health of marine ecosystems. The current study utilized stable isotope (SI) mixing models and trophic position models to examine energy flow, trophic relationships, and benthic-pelagic coupling between food web components. Roughly 1900 samples from different trophic levels in the food web, collected during 2001-2010 from four northern and central sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, were analyzed for SI ratios of carbon and nitrogen. Trophic structure of the food webs among the sub-basins was consistent, but there were differences between the proportions of energy in different trophic levels that had originated from the benthic habitat. Mysids and amphipods served as important links between the benthic and pelagic ecosystems. Much (35-65%) of their energy originated from the benthic zone but was transferred to higher trophic levels in the pelagic food web by consumption by herring (Clupea harengus). One percent to twenty-four percent of the energy consumption of apex seal predators (Halichoerus grypus and Pusa hispida) and predatory fish (Salmo salar) was derived from benthic zone. Diets of mysids and amphipods differed, although some overlap in their dietary niches was observed. The food web in the Gulf of Finland was more influenced by the benthic subsystem than food webs in the other sub-basins. The baseline levels of delta C-13 and delta N-15 differed between sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, indicating differences in the input of organic matter and nutrients to each sub-basin.
  • Hedlund, Johanna; Ehrnsten, Eva; Hayward, Christina; Lehmann, Philipp; Hayward, Alex (2020)
    Tropical America is currently experiencing the establishment of a new apex insect predator, the Paleotropical dragonfly Hemianax ephippiger (Odonata: Aeshnidae). H. ephippiger is migratory and is suggested to have colonised the eastern Neotropics by chance Trans-Atlantic displacement. We report the discovery of H. ephippiger at three new locations in the Caribbean, the islands of Bonaire, Isla de Coche (Venezuela), and Martinique, and we review its reported distribution across the Neotropics. We discuss the establishment of H. ephippiger as a new apex insect predator in the Americas, both in terms of ecological implications and the possible provision of ecosystem services. We also provide an additional new species record for Bonaire, Pantala hymenaea (Odonata: Libellulidae).
  • Wang, Fang; Israel, David; Ramírez-Valiente, José-Alberto; Sanchez-Gomez, David; Aranda, Ismael; Aphalo, Pedro J.; Robson, T Matthew (2021)
    Warming temperatures and altered precipitation patterns threaten plant populations worldwide. European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is a species that expresses both high phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation among populations. Beech seedlings’ susceptibility to prolonged drought may be dictated by their immediate light environment. We tested whether seedlings of four beech provenances, from contrasting edaphoclimatic environments, expressed differences in trait responses to imposed water stress under sun and shade treatments. Populations from the southern range margin were expected to display greater water-stress tolerance and core populations’ faster growth rates in the absence of abiotic limitations. Both high light and water stress induced differences in trait responses among provenances, but traits that failed to respond to our experimental treatments likewise did not segregate at the provenance level. Hence, those traits responding to light, e.g., increasing leaf flavonol index and leaf mass area, also tended to differ among rovenances. Similarly, there was evidence of local adaptation among provenances in traits, like midday leaf water potential, responding to water stress. Exceptionally, there was a three way interaction water- × -light- × -provenance for stomatal conductance which converged among provenances under water stress. Leaf chlorophyll content also varied both with light and water in a provenance-specific manner. We found core provenances’ growth traits to outperform others under favourable onditions, whereas southern and high-elevation populations displayed traits adapted to tolerate high irradiance. Only stomatal conductance produced a complementary interactive response between light- × -water across provenances, whereas other traits responded less to combined water stress and high irradiance than to either treatment alone.
  • Lavikainen, Piia; Aarnio, Emma; Niskanen, Leo; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Martikainen, Janne (2020)
    A new reimbursement scheme for non-insulin medications used for treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D) was implemented in Finland on January 1, 2017. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of this co-payment increase (i.e. + 35 percentage points) on patient-reported satisfaction for diabetes care, diabetes medication use, and financial difficulties. Baseline data were collected in 114 pharmacies, where patients with T2D were asked to fill in a questionnaire in November 2016. Follow-ups were conducted at 6 and 12 months. In total, 955 participants with T2D attended the baseline examination. During the follow-up, satisfaction with diabetes care decreased significantly (p <0.001). Use of insulin increased (OR 1.16, 95 % CI 1.06-1.27) whereas use of metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors decreased (metformin: OR 0.80,95 % CI 0.70-0.90; DPP-4 inhibitors: OR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.73-0.93). Financial difficulties with the purchase of diabetes medications were reported more often both at 6 (OR 2.44,95 % CI 1.96-3.03) and at 12 months (OR 2.70, 95 % CI 2.18-3.35) than at baseline. These negative short-term effects require future studies. If persistent, the long-term effects of lower treatment satisfaction and increased financial difficulties may imply impaired metabolic control and increased diabetes complication risk and health care costs. Patient perspective should be taken into account in future policy making. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Saksman, Eero; Webb, Christian (2020)
    We prove that if omega is uniformly distributed on [0, 1], then as T -> infinity, t bar right arrow zeta (i omega T + it + 1/2) converges to a nontrivial random generalized function, which in turn is identified as a product of a very well-behaved random smooth function and a random generalized function known as a complex Gaussian multiplicative chaos distribution. This demonstrates a novel rigorous connection between probabilistic number theory and the theory of multiplicative chaos-the latter is known to be connected to various branches of modern probability theory and mathematical physics. We also investigate the statistical behavior of the zeta function on the mesoscopic scale. We prove that if we let delta(T) approach zero slowly enough as T -> infinity, then t bar right arrow zeta (1/2 + i delta(T)t + i omega T) is asymptotically a product of a divergent scalar quantity suggested by Selberg's central limit theorem and a strictly Gaussian multiplicative chaos. We also prove a similar result for the characteristic polynomial of a Haar distributed random unitary matrix, where the scalar quantity is slightly different but the multiplicative chaos part is identical. This says that up to scalar multiples, the zeta function and the characteristic polynomial of a Haar distributed random unitary matrix have an identical distribution on the mesoscopic scale.

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