Articles from TUHAT CRIS


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  • Räsänen, Syksy (2002)
    This is an introduction to the ekpyrotic scenario, with an emphasis on the two contexts of brane cosmology and primordial universe scenarios. A self-contained introduction to brane cosmology and a qualitative overview and comparison of the inflationary, pre-big bang and ekpyrotic scenarios are given as background. The ekpyrotic scenario is then presented in more detail, stressing various problems.
  • Jyväkorpi, S. K.; Urtamo, A.; Strandberg, T. E. (2019)
    IntroductionSelf-perception of economic means may affect dietary choices, diet quality, and health behavior. We examined these associations in the oldest-old men from the highest socioeconomic class.MethodsThe participants in this cross-sectional analysis were the oldest- old home-dwelling men (n = 314, mean age 87 years, range 82-97 years) from the longitudinal Helsinki Businessmen Study cohort. They responded to a postal health and nutrition questionnaire, whereupon dietary intakes were assessed using 3-day food diaries and two diet quality indices. The questionnaire also included items about health, exercise, falls, and economic means.ResultsHigher self-perception of economic means was linearly associated with higher fish intake (p = 0.021), fruit and vegetable intakes (p = 0.027), use of alcohol (p = 0.003), overall diet quality according to IDQ (p = 0.008), self-perceived physical condition (p = 0.002) and inversely associated with body weight (p = 0.011), weight loss (p = 0.008), blood glucose levels (p = 0.020), and falls (p = 0.029).ConclusionSelf-perception of economic means was associated with dietary choices and physical health even among affluent older men. This information is important, because self-perception of economic means, however real, may affect health and nutrition behavior of older people.
  • Bosch, Sina; Leminen, Alina (2018)
    The aim of this review is to provide a selective overview of priming studies which have employed the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique in order to investigate bilingual language processing. The priming technique can reveal an implicit memory effect in which exposure to one stimulus influences the processing of another stimulus. Behavioral approaches, such as measuring reaction times, may not always be enough for providing a full view on the exact mechanisms and the time-course of language comprehension. Instead, ERPs have a time-resolution of a millisecond and hence they offer a precise temporal overview of the underlying neural processes involved in language processing. In our review, we summarize experimental research that has combined priming with ERP measurements, thus creating a valuable tool for examining the neurophysiological correlates of language processing in the bilingual brain.
  • Räsänen, Syksy (2002)
    We derive the five-dimensional metrics which describe a non-singular boundary brane collision in the ekpyrotic scenario in the context of general relativity, taking into account brane tension. We show that the metrics constrain matter created in the collision to have negative energy density or pressure. In particular, the minimal field content of heterotic M-theory leads to negative energy density. We also consider bulk brane-boundary brane collisions and show that the collapse of the fifth dimension is an artifact of the four-dimensional effective theory.
  • Jelenkovic, Aline; Mikkonen, Janne; Martikainen, Pekka; Latvala, Antti; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Rebato, Esther; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Jooyeon; Lee, Sooji; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; Brescianini, Sonia; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S.; Harris, Jennifer R.; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri (2018)
    Background There is evidence that birth weight is positively associated with education, but it remains unclear whether this association is explained by familial environmental factors, genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. We analysed the association between birth weight and educational years within twin pairs, which controls for genetic factors and the environment shared between co-twins. Methods The data were derived from nine twin cohorts in eight countries including 6116 complete twin pairs. The association between birth weight and educational attainment was analysed both between individuals and within pairs using linear regression analyses. Results In between-individual analyses, birth weight was not associated with educational years. Within-pairs analyses revealed positive but modest associations for some sex, zygosity and birth year groups. The greatest association was found in dizygotic (DZ) men (0.65 educational years/kg birth weight, p=0.006); smaller effects of 0.3 educational years/kg birth weight were found within monozygotic (MZ) twins of both sexes and opposite-sex DZ twins. The magnitude of the associations differed by birth year in MZ women and opposite-sex DZ twins, showing a positive association in the 1915-1959 birth cohort but no association in the 1960-1984 birth cohort. Conclusion Although associations are weak and somewhat inconsistent, our results suggest that intrauterine environment may play a role when explaining the association between birth weight and educational attainment.
  • Enqvist, Kari; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko; Räsänen, Syksy (2001)
    We study brane matter in the ekpyrotic scenario and observe that in order to obtain standard gravity on the visible brane, the tension of the visible brane should be positive. If the sizes of both the fifth dimension and the Calabi–Yau threefold are fixed, the Israel junction conditions do not allow time-dependent brane matter. Relaxing this constraint, it is possible to obtain approximately standard cosmology on the visible brane, with small corrections due to possible time-dependence of the Calabi–Yau threefold.
  • Yang, Nan; Ghislandi, Patrizia; Raffaghelli, Juliana; Ritella, Giuseppe (2019)
    Engagement analytics is a branch of learning analytics (LA) that focuses on student engagement, with the majority of studies conducted by computer scientists.Thus, rather than focusing on learning, research in this field usually treats education as a scenario for algorithms optimization and it rarely concludes with implications for practice. While LA as a research field is reaching ten years, its contribution to our understanding of teaching and learning and its impact on learning enhancement are still underdeveloped. This paper argues that data-driven modeling of engagement analytics is helpful to assess student engagement and to promote reflections on the quality of teaching and learning. In this article, the authors a) introduce four key constructs (student engagement, learning analytics, engagement analytics, modeling and data-driven modeling); b) explain why data-driven modeling is chosen for engagement analytics and the limitations of using a predefined framework; c) discuss how to use engagement analytics to promote pedagogical reflection using a pilot study as a demonstration. As a final remark, the authors see the need of interdisciplinary collaboration on engagement analytics between computer science and educational science. In fact, this collaboration should enhance the use of machine learning and data mining methods to explore big data in education as a means to provide effective insights for quality educational practice.
  • Nemcok, Miroslav (2019)
    Parties can not only actively adjust the electoral rules to reach more favourable outcomes, as is most often recognized in political science, but they also passively create an environment that systematically influences electoral competition. This link is theorized and included in the wider framework capturing the mutual dependence of electoral systems and party systems. The impact of passive influence is successfully tested on one out of two factors closely related to party systems: choice set size (i.e., number of options provided to voters) and degree of ideological polarization. The research utilizes established datasets (i.e., Constituency-Level Elections Archive, Party System Polarization Index, Chapel Hill Expert Survey, and Manifesto Project Database) and via regression analysis with clustered robust standard errors concludes that the choice set size constitutes an attribute with passive influence over electoral systems. Thus, it must be reflected when outcomes of electoral systems are estimated or compared across various contexts.
  • Zheng, Yi; Pearson, Dess (Godel Impresiones Digitales, 2019)
  • Zheng, Yi; Pönkä, Antti Harri Miikka (2018)
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Gouveia, Elvio; Jelenkovic, Aline; Maia, Jose; Antunes, Antonio M.; Pinheiro de Carvalho, Miguel A. A.; Brehm, Antonio M.; Thomis, Martine; Lefevre, Johan; Kaprio, Jaakko; Freitas, Duarte (2017)
    Background: It is well known that metabolic risk factors of cardiovascular diseases are correlated, but the background of this clustering in children is more poorly known than in adults. Thus, we studied the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the clustering of metabolic traits in childhood and adolescence. Data and Methods: Nine metabolic traits were measured in 214 complete twin pairs aged 3-18 years in the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal, in 2007 and 2008. The variation of and covariations between the traits were decomposed into genetic and environmental components by using classical genetic twin modeling. Results: A model, including additive genetic and environmental factors unique for each twin individual, explained the variation of metabolic factors well. Under this model, the heritability estimates varied from 0.47 (systolic blood pressure in children under 12 years of age) to 0.91 (high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol in adolescents 12 years of age or older). The most systematic correlations were found between adiposity (body mass index and waist circumference) and blood lipids (HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides), as well as blood pressure. These correlations were mainly explained by common genetic factors. Conclusions: Our results suggest that obesity, in particular, is behind the clustering of metabolic factors in children and adolescents. Both general and abdominal obesity partly share the same genetic background as blood lipids and blood pressure. Obesity prevention early in childhood is important in reducing the risk of metabolic diseases in adulthood.
  • Stevanovic, Tuire Melisa (John Benjamins, 2017)
    Studies in Language and Social Interaction
  • Lahti, Leo; Vaara, Ville; Marjanen, Jani; Tolonen, Mikko (Studia Humaniora Ouluensia, 2019)
    Studia Humaniora Ouluensia
  • Huhtala, Anne (Puheen ja kielen tutkimuksen yhdistys, 2018)
    Puheen ja kielen tutkimuksen yhdistyksen julkaisuja
  • Koponen, Ismo (Springer International Publishing AG, 2019)
    Communications in Computer and Information Science
  • Koponen, Ismo (Springer International Publishing AG, 2019)
    Springer Proceedings in Complexity
  • Ritella, Giuseppe (2017)
    In this article, I argue that Open Educational Resources (OERs) cancreate opportunities for democratic education by emphasizing collaborative construction, re-vision and updating of knowledge content. This may allow people belonging to different communities and social groups to take collective responsibility for the creation and maintenance of public knowledge content to be used for educational purposes. Such potential is only partially exploited if the practices of reuse favour consumption in place of co-construction. Moreover, although primarily intended for formal education, the potential or OERs is best expressed in hybrid practices where formal and non-formal contexts are not intended as mutually exclusive. A participatory and hybrid framework for the re-use of OERs in the long term might create the conditions of a more democratic management of knowledge in the larger society. However, to fully exploit the potential of OERs there is a need to develop policies and practices able to address a number of challenges raised by the hybrid, participatory, and technology-enabled co-creation, re-use and re-mix of public knowledge.
  • Lavonen, Jari; Korhonen, Tiina (Springer, 2017)
  • Mäkelä, Tiina E.; Peltola, Mikko J.; Nieminen, Pirkko; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Paunio, Tiina; Kylliäinen, Anneli (2018)
    Fragmented sleep is common in infancy. Although night awakening is known to decrease with age, in some infants night awakening is more persistent and continues into older ages. However, the influence of fragmented sleep on development is poorly known. In the present study, the longitudinal relationship between fragmented sleep and psychomotor development (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development [Bayley-III]; Bayley, 2009) was investigated in infants with (>= 3 night awakenings, n = 81) and without fragmented sleep (

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