Articles from TUHAT CRIS


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This collection contains Open Access articles deposited from the University of Helsinki TUHAT CRIS

Recent Submissions

  • Seppä, Laila Elisabet; Tahvonen, Risto; Tuorila, Hely Margareetta (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, 2016)
  • Gel'man, Vladimir (BELLWETHER PUBLISHING, LTD, 2015)
    Since the collapse of Communism, Russia and some other post-Soviet states have attempted to pursue socio-economic reforms while relying upon the political institutions of neopatrimonialism. This politico-economic order was established to serve the interests of ruling groups and establish the major features of states, political regimes, and market economies. It provided numerous negative incentives for governing the economy and the state due to the unconstrained rent seeking behavior of major actors. Policy reform programs discovered these institutions to be incompatible with the priorities of modernization, and efforts to resolve these contradictions through a number of partial and compromise solutions often worsened the situation vis-à-vis preservation of the status quo. The ruling groups lack incentives for institutional changes, which could undermine their political and economic dominance, and are caught in a vicious circle: reforms often result in minor returns or cause unintended and undesired consequences. What are the possible domestic and international incentives to reject the political institutions of neopatrimonialism in post-Soviet states and replace them with inclusive economic and political ones?
  • Punttila, Pekka; Autio, Olli; Kotiaho, Janne S.; Kotze, D. Johan; Loukola, Olli J.; Noreika, Norbertas; Vuori, Anna; Vepsäläinen, Kari (Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura, 2016)
    Habitat loss and degradation are the main threats to biodiversity worldwide. For example, nearly 80% of peatlands in southern Finland have been drained. There is thus a need to safeguard the remaining pristine mires and to restore degraded ones. Ants play a pivotal role in many ecosystems and like many keystone plant species, shape ecosystem conditions for other biota. The effects of mire restoration and subsequent vegetation succession on ants, however, are poorly understood. We inventoried tree stands, vegetation, water-table level, and ants (with pitfall traps) in nine mires in southern Finland to explore differences in habitats, vegetation and ant assemblages among pristine, drained (30-40 years ago) and recently restored (1-3 years ago) pine mires. We expected that restoring the water-table level by ditch filling and reconstructing sparse tree stands by cuttings will recover mire vegetation and ants. We found predictable responses in habitat structure, floristic composition and ant assemblage structure both to drainage and restoration. However, for mire-specialist ants the results were variable and longer-term monitoring is needed to confirm the success of restoration since these social insects establish perennial colonies with long colony cycles. We conclude that restoring the water-table level and tree stand structure seem to recover the characteristic vegetation and ant assemblages in the short term. This recovery was likely enhanced because drained mires still had both acrotelm and catotelm, and connectedness was still reasonable for mire organisms to recolonize the restored mires either from local refugia or from populations of nearby mires.
  • Ilmakunnas, Johanna (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2016)
  • Cowley, Benjamin; Holmstrom, Edua; Juurmaa, Kristiina; Kovarskis, Levas; Krause, Christina M. (Frontiers Media, 2016)
    Background: We report a randomized controlled clinical trial of neurofeedback therapy intervention for ADHD/ADD in adults. We focus on internal mechanics of neurofeedback learning, to elucidate the primary role of cortical self-regulation in neurofeedback. We report initial results; more extensive analysis will follow. Methods: Trial has two phases: intervention and follow-up. The intervention consisted of neurofeedback treatment, including intake and outtake measurements, using a waiting-list control group. Treatment involved 40 h-long sessions 2-5 times per week. Training involved either theta/beta or sensorimotor-rhythm regimes, adapted by adding a novel "inverse-training" condition to promote self-regulation. Follow-up (ongoing) will consist of self-report and executive function tests. Setting: Intake and outtake measurements were conducted at University of Helsinki. Treatment was administered at partner clinic Mental Capital Care, Helsinki. Randomization: We randomly allocated half the sample then adaptively allocated the remainder to minimize baseline differences in prognostic variables. Blinding: Waiting-list control design meant trial was not blinded. Participants: Fifty-four adult Finnish participants (mean age 36 years; 29 females) were recruited after screening by psychiatric review. Forty-four had ADHD diagnoses, 10 had ADD. Measurements: Symptoms were assessed by computerized attention test (T.O.V.A.) and self-report scales, at intake and outtake. Performance during neurofeedback trials was recorded. Results: Participants were recruited and completed intake measurements during summer 2012, before assignment to treatment and control, September 2012. Outtake measurements ran April August 2013. After dropouts, 23 treatment and 21 waiting-list participants remained for analysis. Initial analysis showed that, compared to waiting-list control, neurofeedback promoted improvement of self-reported ADHD symptoms, but did not show transfer of learning to T.O.V.A. Comprehensive analysis will be reported elsewhere.
  • Kisdi, Eva (Elsevier Scientific Publ. Co, 2016)
    In fragmented but temporally stable landscapes, kin competition selects for dispersal when habitat patches are small, whereas the loss of dispersal is favoured when dispersal is costly and local populations are large enough for kin interactions to be negligible. In heterogeneous landscapes with both small and large patches, contrasting levels of kin competition facilitate the coexistence of low-dispersal and high dispersal strategies. In this paper, I use both adaptive dynamics and inclusive fitness to analyse the evolution of dispersal in a simple model assuming that each patch supports either a single individual or a large population. With this assumption, many results can be obtained analytically. If the fraction of individuals living in small patches is below a threshold, then evolutionary branching yields two coexisting dispersal strategies. An attracting and evolutionarily stable dimorphism always exists (also when the monomorphic population does not have a branching point), and contains a strategy with zero dispersal and a strategy with dispersal probability between one half and the ESS of the classic Hamilton May model. The present model features surprisingly rich population dynamics with multiple equilibria and unprotected dimorphisms, but the evolutionarily stable dimorphism is always protected. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kisdi, Eva; Geritz, Stefan A.H. (Springer, 2016)
    We study the joint adaptive dynamics of n scalar-valued strategies in ecosystems where n is the maximum number of coexisting strategies permitted by the (generalized) competitive exclusion principle. The adaptive dynamics of such saturated systems exhibits special characteristics, which we first demonstrate in a simple example of a host-pathogen-predator model. The main part of the paper characterizes the adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms in general. In order to investigate convergence stability, we give a new sufficient condition for absolute stability of an arbitrary (not necessarily saturated) polymorphic singularity and show that saturated evolutionarily stable polymorphisms satisfy it. For the case , we also introduce a method to construct different pairwise invasibility plots of the monomorphic population without changing the selection gradients of the saturated dimorphism.
  • Chia, Eugene L.; Fobissie Blese, Kalame; Kanninen, Markku (MDPI AG, 2016)
    There is growing interest in designing and implementing climate change mitigation and adaptation (M + A) in synergy in the forest and land use sectors. However, there is limited knowledge on how the planning and promotion of synergies between M + A can be operationalized in the current efforts to mitigate climate change through forest carbon. This paper contributes to fill this knowledge gap by exploring ways of planning and promoting M + A synergy outcomes in forest carbon initiatives. It examines eight guidelines that are widely used in designing and implementing forest carbon initiatives. Four guiding principles with a number of criteria that are relevant for planning synergy outcomes in forest carbon activities are proposed. The guidelines for developing forest carbon initiatives need to demonstrate that (1) the health of forest ecosystems is maintained or enhanced; (2) the adaptive capacity of forest-dependent communities is ensured; (3) carbon and adaptation benefits are monitored and verified; and (4) adaptation outcomes are anticipated and planned in forest carbon initiatives. The forest carbon project development guidelines can encourage the integration of adaptation in forest carbon initiatives. However, their current efforts guiding projects and programs to deliver biodiversity and environmental benefits, ecosystem services, and socioeconomic benefits are not considered explicitly as efforts towards enhancing adaptation. An approach for incentivizing and motivating project developers, guideline setters, and offset buyers is imperative in order to enable existing guidelines to make clear contributions to adaptation goals. We highlight and discuss potential ways of incentivizing and motivating the explicit planning and promotion of adaptation outcomes in forest carbon initiatives.
  • Lalander, Rickard; Kröger, Antti Markus (Centro Latino Americano Ecología Social, 2016)
    Un número creciente de poblaciones étnicamente definidas de diferentes partes de Latinoamérica han alcanzado reconocimiento de sus derechos étnico-territoriales rurales, y en algunos casos bajo constituciones progresistas. El nuevo constitucionalismo latinoamericano fue el resultado de ciclos extendidos de política contenciosa y de la lucha de movimientos sociales a nivel local, nacional y transna-cional. Estos ciclos de protesta incluyen procesos de creación de redes y coopera-ción Sur-Sur. Simultáneamente el continente ha experimentado un boom en las actividades extractivistas, que con frecuencia tiene lugar en áreas protegidas y/o territorios indígenas. Por ende, fuertes intereses económicos colisionan con el reco-nocimiento y la protección de los derechos constitucionales de los pueblos afecta-dos. En este ensayo se analizan varios casos ilustrativos en diferentes sitios en Lati-noamérica y se contrastan los derechos étnico-territoriales formales/legales (de jure) con el desarrollo de los mismos derechos (de facto) en la práctica.
  • Overton, Philip; Danilovtseva, Elena; Karjalainen, Erno; Karesoja, Mikko; Annenkov, Vadim; Tenhu, Heikki; Aseyev, Vladimir (MDPI PUBLISHING, 2016)
    The present work describes the acid-triggered condensation of silicic acid, Si(OH)(4), as directed by selected polycations in aqueous solution in the pH range of 6.5-8.0 at room temperature, without the use of additional solvents or surfactants. This process results in the formation of silica-polyelectrolyte (S-PE) nanocomposites in the form of precipitate or water-dispersible particles. The mean hydrodynamic diameter (d(h)) of size distributions of the prepared water-dispersible S-PE composites is presented as a function of the solution pH at which the composite formation was achieved. Poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and block copolymers of DMAEMA and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) were used as weak polyelectrolytes in S-PE composite formation. The activity of the strong polyelectrolytes poly(methacryloxyethyl trimethylammonium iodide) (PMOTAI) and PMOTAI-b-POEGMA in S-PE formation is also examined. The effect of polyelectrolyte strength and the OEGMA block on the formation of the S-PE composites is assessed with respect to the S-PE composites prepared using the PDMAEMA homopolymer. In the presence of the PDMAEMA(60) homopolymer (M-w = 9400 g/mol), the size of the dispersible S-PE composites increases with solution pH in the range pH 6.6-8.1, from d(h) = 30 nm to d(h) = 800 nm. S-PDMAEMA(60) prepared at pH 7.8 contained 66% silica by mass (TGA). The increase in dispersible S-PE particle size is diminished when directed by PDMAEMA(300) (M-w = 47,000 g/mol), reaching a maximum of d(h) = 75 nm. S-PE composites formed using PDMAEMA-b-POEGMA remain in the range d(h) = 20-30 nm across this same pH regime. Precipitated S-PE composites were obtained as spheres of up to 200 nm in diameter (SEM) and up to 65% mass content of silica (TGA). The conditions of pH for the preparation of dispersible and precipitate S-PE nanocomposites, as directed by the five selected polyelectrolytes PDMAEMA(60), PDMAEMA(300), PMOTAI(60), PDMAEMA(60)-b-POEGMA(38) and PMOTAI(60)-b-POEGMA(38) is summarized.
  • Nieminen, Kati (Routledge, 2015)
    In this article, I analyse how the law participates in the (re)production process of the subject, the state and religion, and how the law's indefiniteness allows various constructions of them all. In the first part of the article I discuss the Islamic headscarf cases of the European Court of Human Rights as examples of how the discursive constructions of the state and the subject can be challenged by means of disobedience. Here the focus is particularly on Turkey and on France, where the principle of secularism is largely regarded as the basis of the republic and of the national identity. The law provides an arena where the disobedient subject and the state can challenge and re-establish the prevailing conceptualizations of the subject. In the second part of the article I address the Court's alleged Islamophobia. I explore how the constructions of the state and the subject contribute to the way religion is framed in the Court's argumentation in relation to the freedom of religion guaranteed under Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The analysis shows that religion can be framed as a personal belief system, a cultural tradition, or politics which, in turn, affects the course of legal argumentation. I conclude that the Court can plausibly be accused of Christian bias, but that this conclusion is often based on insufficient analysis of the Court's case law. This article contributes to the interdisciplinary discussion on the headscarf bans from the socio-legal perspective. The aim is to explore what, besides providing legal solutions, the law does.
  • Cowley, Benjamin; Lukander, Kristian (Frontiers Media, 2016)
    Background: Recognition of objects and their context relies heavily on the integrated functioning of global and local visual processing. In a realistic setting such as work, this processing becomes a sustained activity, implying a consequent interaction with executive functions. Motivation: There have been many studies of either global-local attention or executive functions; however it is relatively novel to combine these processes to study a more ecological form of attention. We aim to explore the phenomenon of global-local processing during a task requiring sustained attention and working memory. Methods: We develop and test a novel protocol for global-local dissociation, with task structure including phases of divided ("rule search") and selective ("rule found") attention, based on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST). We test it in a laboratory study with 25 participants, and report on behavior measures (physiological data was also gathered, but not reported here). We develop novel stimuli with more naturalistic levels of information and noise, based primarily on face photographs, with consequently more ecological validity. Results: We report behavioral results indicating that sustained difficulty when participants test their hypotheses impacts matching-task performance, and diminishes the global precedence effect. Results also show a dissociation between subjectively experienced difficulty and objective dimension of performance, and establish the internal validity of the protocol. Contribution: We contribute an advance in the state of the art for testing global local attention processes in concert with complex cognition. With three results we establish a connection between global local dissociation and aspects of complex cognition. Our protocol also improves ecological validity and opens options for testing additional interactions in future work.
  • Nurmi, Elisa; Peltoniemi, Outi; Suominen, Pertti (SUOMEN ANESTESIOLOGIYHDISTYS, 2016)