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  • CowLog 
    Hänninen, Laura; Pastell, Matti (2009)
    We have developed CowLog, which is open-source software for recording behaviors from digital video and is easy to use and modify. CowLog tracks the time code from digital video files. The program is suitable for coding any digital video, but the authors have used it in animal research. The program has two main windows: a coding window, which is a graphical user interface used for choosing video files and defining output files that also has buttons for scoring behaviors, and a video window, which displays the video used for coding. The windows can be used in separate displays. The user types the key codes for the predefined behavioral categories, and CowLog transcribes their timing from the video time code to a data file. CowLog comes with an additional feature, an R package called Animal, for elementary analyses of the data files. With the analysis package, the user can calculate the frequencies, bout durations, and total durations of the coded behaviors and produce summary plots from the data.
  • Stok, Marijn; König, Laura; Nurmi, Johanna; Müller, Andre Matthias (European Health Psychology Society, 2015)
  • Schmidt, F.; Vaittinen, O.; Metsälä, M.; Kraus, P.; Halonen, L. (SPRINGER, 2010)
  • Raekallio, Marja; Saario-Paunio, Elise; Rajamäki, Minna Marjaana; Sankari, Satu Marja; Siven, Mia Susanna; Palviainen, Mari; Peltoniemi, Marikki; Leinonen, Mari-Erika; Honkavaara, Matti Juhana; Vainio, Outi (2010)
  • Koivunoro, Hanna; Hyvönen, Heini; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Jokelainen, Ilkka; Kosunen, Antti; Kortesniemi, Mika; Seppälä, Tiina; Auterinen, Iiro; Savolainen, Sauli (2010)
  • Havu, Katri (The University of Edinburgh School of Law, 2010)
  • Olsson, Sanna; Buchbender, Volker; Enroth, Johannes; Huttunen, Sanna; Hedenäs, Lars; Quandt, Dietmar (CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2009)
    Earlier phylogenetic studies, including species belonging to the Neckeraceae, have indicated that this pleurocarpous moss family shares a strongly supported sister group relationship with the Lembophyllaceae, but the family delimitation of the former needs adjustment. To test the monophyly of the Neckeraceae, as well as to redefine the family circumscription and to pinpoint its phylogenetic position in a larger context, a phylogenetic study based on molecular data was carried out. Sequence data were compiled, combining data from all three genomes: nuclear ITS1 and 2, plastid trnS-rps4-trnT-trnL-trnF and rpl16, and mitochondrial nad5 intron. The Neckeraceae have sometimes been divided into the two families, Neckeraceae and Thamnobryaceae, a division rejected here. Both parsimony and Bayesian analyses of molecular data revealed that the family concept of the Neckeraceae needs several further adjustments, such as the exclusion of some individual species and smaller genera as well as the inclusion of the Leptodontaceae. Within the family three well-supported clades (A, B and C) can be distinguished. Members of clade A are mainly non-Asiatic and nontropical. Most species have a weak costa and immersed capsules with reduced peristomes (mainly Neckera spp.) and the teeth at the leaf margins are usually unicellular. Clade B members are also mainly non-Asiatic. They are typically fairly robust, distinctly stipilate, having a single, at least relatively strong costa, long setae (capsules exserted), and the peristomes are well developed or only somewhat reduced. Members of clade C are essentially Asiatic and tropical. The species of this clade usually have a strong costa and a long seta, the seta often being mammillose in its upper part. The peristome types in this clade are mixed, since both reduced and unreduced types are found. Several neckeraceous genera that were recognised on a morphological basis are polyphyletic (e.g. Neckera, Homalia, Thamnobryum, Porotrichum). Ancestral state reconstructions revealed that currently used diagnostic traits, such as the leaf asymmetry and costa strength are highly homoplastic. Similarly, the reconstructions revealed that the 'reduced' sporophyte features have evolved independently in each of the three clades.
  • Mäenpää, T.; Haeggström, E.; Anttila, E.; Onnela, A.; Lampen, T.; Luukka, P.; Karimäki, V.; Tuominiemi, J. (ELSEVIER BV, 2007)
  • Aaltonen, Timo; Mehtälä, Petteri; Orava, Risto; Mäki, Tuula; Saarikko, Heimo; Österberg, Kenneth (American Physical Society, 2008)
    This article presents the first measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B(Λb0→Λc+μ-ν̅ μ)/B(Λb0→Λc+π-). Measurements in two control samples using the same technique B(B̅ 0→D+μ-ν̅ μ)/B(B̅ 0→D+π-) and B(B̅ 0→D*(2010)+μ-ν̅ μ)/B(B̅ 0→D*(2010)+π-) are also reported. The analysis uses data from an integrated luminosity of approximately 172  pb-1 of pp̅ collisions at √s=1.96  TeV, collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The relative branching fractions are measured to be B(Λb0→Λc+μ-ν̅ μ)/B(Λb0→Λc+π-)=16.6±3.0(stat)±1.0(syst)+2.6/-3.4(PDG)±0.3(EBR), B(B̅ 0→D+μ-ν̅ μ)/B(B̅ 0→D+π-)= 9.9±1.0(stat)±0.6(syst)±0.4(PDG)±0.5(EBR), and B(B̅ 0→D*(2010)+μ-ν̅ μ)/B(B̅ 0→D*(2010)+π-)=16.5±2.3(stat)± 0.6(syst)±0.5(PDG)±0.8(EBR). The uncertainties are from statistics (stat), internal systematics (syst), world averages of measurements published by the Particle Data Group or subsidiary measurements in this analysis (PDG), and unmeasured branching fractions estimated from theory (EBR), respectively. This article also presents measurements of the branching fractions of four new Λb0 semileptonic decays: Λb0→Λc(2595)+μ-ν̅ μ, Λb0→Λc(2625)+μ-ν̅ μ, Λb0→Σc(2455)0π+μ-ν̅ μ, and Λb0→Σc(2455)++π-μ-ν̅ μ, relative to the branching fraction of the Λb0→Λc+μ-ν̅ μ decay. Finally, the transverse-momentum distribution of Λb0 baryons produced in pp̅ collisions is measured and found to be significantly different from that of B̅ 0 mesons, which results in a modification in the production cross-section ratio σΛb0/σB̅ 0 with respect to the CDF I measurement.
  • Lopes, Susy; Domanskaya, Alexandra V.; Fausto, Rui; Räsänen, Markku; Khriachtchev, Leonid (2010)
  • Sumelius, John; Bäckman, Stefan; Kahiluoto, Helena; Rötter, Reimund; Nyairo, Newton; Valkila, Joni; Parviainen, Tuulikki; Islam, K. M. Zahidul; Hossain, Md. Motaher; Tenaw, Shimelles; Ingutia, Rose (2010)
    A theoretical framework of the link between climate change, rural development, sustainable agriculture, poverty, and food security is presented. Some options to respond to climate change are described. Current knowledge and potential effects on agricultural productivity is discussed. Necessary conditions for successful adaptation includes secured property rights to land, institutions that make market access possible and credit possibilities. The options of mitigation and enhanced adaptive capacity and the requirements for their implementation are discussed.
  • Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Kaitaniemi, Pekka; Karimäki, Veikko; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampen, Pekka Tapio; Lehti, Sami Tapio; Linden, Tomas; Wendland, Lauri Andreas (2010)
  • Chatrchyan, Serguei; Anttila, Erkki; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti; Lampen, Pekka Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Katri Marjaana; Lehti, Sami Tapio; Linden, Tomas; Luukka, Panja; Mäenpää, Teppo H; Nysten, Jukka Sakari; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri Andreas; CMS Collaboration (INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING, 2010)
  • Oza, Nilay; Münch, Jürgen; Garbajosa, Juan; Yague, Agustin; Gonzalez Ortega, Eloy (2013)
    Cloud-based infrastructure has been increasingly adopted by the industry in distributed software development (DSD) environments. Its proponents claim that its several benefits include reduced cost, increased speed and greater productivity in software development. Empirical evaluations, however, are in the nascent stage of examining both the benefits and the risks of cloud-based in-frastructure. The objective of this paper is to identify potential benefits and risks of using cloud in a DSD project conducted by teams based in Helsinki and Ma-drid. A cross-case qualitative analysis is performed based on focus groups con-ducted at the Helsinki and Madrid sites. Participants’ observations are used to supplement the analysis. The results of the analysis indicated that the main ben-efits of using cloud are rapid development, continuous integration, cost savings, code sharing, and faster ramp-up. The key risks determined by the project are dependencies, unavailability of access to the cloud, code commitment and inte-gration, technical debt, and additional support costs. The results revealed that if such environments are not planned and set up carefully, the benefits of using cloud in DSD projects might be overshadowed by the risks associated with it.
  • Louhiala, Pekka; Puustinen, Raimo; Hemilä, Harri (Public Library of Science, 2013)
    Howick et al. have reported the findings of a survey that addressed the use of placebos among primary care practitioners in the United Kingdom. They adopted methodology similar to that used in previous studies performed in other countries; however, the use of this approach also means that they repeated the conceptual confusion of the previous surveys. Therefore the findings are not useful. ... The paper’s main finding “placebos are commonly used in UK primary care” is not correct. Only 0.9% of the responding general practitioners reported using pure placebos frequently. The frequency with which impure placebos are used is irrelevant because the concept is useless, as described above. Misleading a patient by administering inert substances without the explicit consent of the patient is unethical. The authors' proposal to “develop ethical and cost-effective placebos” is not possible because saving money by misleading patients is unethical. There is substantial conceptual confusion in the area of placebo and placebo-effect research, and the paper by Howick et al. does not help to reduce this confusion.
  • Lehtinen, Ossi; Nikitin, Timur; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.; Sun, Litao; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Banhart, Florian; Terao, Takeshi; Goldberg, Dmitri; Keinonen, Juhani (WILEY - V C H VERLAG GMBH & CO. KGAA, 2010)
  • O Connor, James (HELSINGIN SANOMAT OY, 2009)
  • Rissanen, Matti P.; Eskola, Arkke J.; Timonen, Raimo S. (American Chemical Society, 2010)